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Greenland (2001)

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Greenland 2001 year

Administrative divisions 3 districts (landsdele); Avannaa (Nordgronland), Tunu (Ostgronland), Kitaa (Vestgronland)

there are 18 municipalities in Greenland
Age structure 0-14 years:
26.69% (male 7,649; female 7,392)

15-64 years:
67.87% (male 20,868; female 17,376)

65 years and over:
5.44% (male 1,385; female 1,682) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products forage crops, garden and greenhouse vegetables; sheep, reindeer; fish
Airports 13 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
4 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Area total:
2,175,600 sq km

2,175,600 sq km (341,700 sq km ice-free, 1,833,900 sq km ice-covered) (est.)
Area - comparative slightly more than three times the size of Texas
Background The world's largest island, about 84% ice-capped, Greenland was granted self-government in 1978 by the Danish parliament. The law went into effect the following year. Denmark continues to exercise control of Greenland's foreign affairs.
Birth rate 16.52 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$646 million

$629 million, including capital expenditures of $85 million (1999)
Capital Nuuk (Godthab)
Climate arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
Coastline 44,087 km
Constitution 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)
Country name conventional long form:

conventional short form:

local long form:

local short form:
Kalaallit Nunaat
Currency Danish krone (DKK)
Death rate 7.58 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $25 million (1999)
Dependency status part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1979
Diplomatic representation from the US none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Diplomatic representation in the US none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $380 million subsidy from Denmark (1999)
Economy - overview The economy remains critically dependent on exports of fish and substantial support from the Danish Government, which supplies about half of government revenues. The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays the dominant role in the economy. Despite several interesting hydrocarbon and minerals exploration activities, it will take several years before production can materialize. Tourism is the only sector offering any near-term potential, and even this is limited due to a short season and high costs.
Electricity - consumption 232.5 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 250 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:




Greenland is shifting its electricity production from fossil fuel to hydroelectric power production (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Gunnbjorn 3,700 m
Environment - current issues protection of the arctic environment; preservation of the Inuit traditional way of life, including whaling and seal hunting
Ethnic groups Greenlander 88% (Inuit and Greenland-born whites), Danish and others 12% (January 2000)
Exchange rates Danish kroner per US dollar - 7.951 (January 2001), 8.083 (2000), 6.976 (1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997), 5.799 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Gunnar MARTENS (since NA 1995)

head of government:
Prime Minister Jonathan MOTZFELDT (since 19 September 1997)

Home Rule Government is elected by the Parliament (Landstinget) on the basis of the strength of parties

the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; prime minister is elected by Parliament (usually the leader of the majority party); election last held 16 February 1999 (next to be held NA February 2003)

election results:
Jonathan MOTZFELDT reelected prime minister following the 16 February 1999 elections; percent of parliamentary vote - 57.3%

government coalition - Siumut and Inuit Ataqatigiit (IA)
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $276 million (f.o.b., 1999)
Exports - commodities fish and fish products 94%
Exports - partners EU (mainly Denmark) 85%, Japan 8%, US 2% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large disk slightly to the hoist side of center - the top half of the disk is red, the bottom half is white
GDP purchasing power parity - $1.1 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $20,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate NA%
Geographic coordinates 72 00 N, 40 00 W
Geography - note dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast, but close to one-quarter of the population lives in the capital, Nuuk; world's second largest ice cap
Highways total:
150 km

60 km

90 km
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $400 million (c.i.f., 1999)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, petroleum products
Imports - partners EU (mostly Denmark), Norway, US, Canada
Independence none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1979)

foreign affairs is the responsibility of Denmark, but Greenland actively participates in international agreements relating to Greenland
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries fish processing (mainly shrimp and Greenland halibut), handicrafts, furs, small shipyards
Infant mortality rate 17.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.6% (1999 est.)
International organization participation ICC, NC, NIB
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch High Court or Landsret (appeals can be made to the Ostre Landsret or Eastern Division of the High Court or Supreme Court in Copenhagen)
Labor force 24,500 (1999 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

99% (1998 est.)
Languages Greenlandic (East Inuit), Danish, English
Legal system Danish
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Landstinget (31 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

last held on 16 February 1999 (next to be held by NA February 2003)

election results:
percent of vote by party - Siumut 35.2%, Inuit Ataqatigiit 22.1%, Atassut Party 25.2%, Candidate's League 12.3%, independent 5.2%; seats by party - Siumut 11, Atassut 8, Inuit Ataqatigiit 7, Candidate List 4, independent 1

two representatives were elected to the Danish Parliament or Folketing on 11 March 1998 (next to be held by not later than March 2002); percent of vote by party - Siumut 35.6%, Atassut 35.2%; seats by party - Siumut 1, Atassut 1; Greenlandic representatives are affiliated with Danish political parties (Siamut with Social Democratic Party and Atassut with Liberal Party)
Life expectancy at birth total population:
68.37 years

64.82 years

72.01 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:

total population:



similar to Denmark proper
Location Northern North America, island between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada
Map references Arctic Region
Maritime claims continental shelf:
200 NM or agreed boundaries or median line

exclusive fishing zone:
200 NM or agreed boundaries or median line

territorial sea:
3 NM
Merchant marine total:
2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,289 GRT/1,500 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 1, passenger 1 (2000 est.)
Military - note defense is the responsibility of Denmark
National holiday June 21 (longest day)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island
Natural resources zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum, gold, platinum, uranium, fish, seals, whales, hydropower, possible oil and gas
Net migration rate -8.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders Akulliit Party [Bjarne KREUTZMANN]; Atassut Party (Solidarity, a conservative party favoring continuing close relations with Denmark) [Daniel SKIFTE]; Inuit Ataqatigiit or IA (Eskimo Brotherhood, a leftist party favoring complete independence from Denmark rather than home rule) [Josef MOTZFELDT]; Issituup (Polar Party) [Nicolai HEINRICH]; Kattusseqatigiit (Candidate List, an independent right-of-center party with no official platform [leader NA]; Siumut (Forward Party, a social democratic party advocating more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from Denmark) [Jonathan MOTZFELDT]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 56,352 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.06% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Aasiaat (Egedesminde), Ilulissat (Jakobshavn), Kangerlussuaq, Nanortalik, Narsarsuaq, Nuuk (Godthab), Qaqortoq (Julianehab), Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg), Tasiilaq (March 2001)
Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 30,000 (1998 est.)
Railways 0 km
Religions Evangelical Lutheran
Sex ratio at birth:
1.02 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.2 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.82 male(s)/female

total population:
1.13 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables and microwave radio relay; totally digitalized in 1995

microwave radio relay and satellite

satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 2 Americom GE-2 (all Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 25,617 (end 1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 12,676 (end 1999)
Television broadcast stations 1 publicly-owned station, some local low-power stations, and three AFRTS (US Air Force) stations (1997)
Terrain flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous, barren, rocky coast
Total fertility rate 2.44 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 7% (1999 est.)
Waterways none
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