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Denmark (2005)

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Denmark 2005 year

Administrative divisions metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter, singular - amt) and 2 boroughs* (amtskommuner, singular - amtskommune); Arhus, Bornholm, Frederiksberg*, Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kobenhavn, Kobenhavn (Copenhagen)*, Nordjylland, Ribe, Ringkobing, Roskilde, Sonderjylland, Storstrom, Vejle, Vestsjalland, Viborg

note: since 2005 Bornholm may have become a borough; in the future the counties may be replaced by regions; see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which are part of the Kingdom of Denmark and are self-governing overseas administrative divisions
Age structure 0-14 years: 18.8% (male 524,250/female 497,683)

15-64 years: 66.1% (male 1,811,787/female 1,780,907)

65 years and over: 15.1% (male 349,458/female 468,250) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products barley, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets; pork, dairy products; fish
Airports 97 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 28

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 69

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 63 (2004 est.)
Area total: 43,094 sq km

land: 42,394 sq km

water: 700 sq km

note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark (the Jutland Peninsula, and the major islands of Sjaelland and Fyn), but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts
Background Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation that is participating in the general political and economic integration of Europe. It joined NATO in 1949 and the EEC (now the EU) in 1973. However, the country has opted out of certain elements of the European Union's Maastricht Treaty, including the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), European defense cooperation, and issues concerning certain justice and home affairs.
Birth rate 11.36 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $136.1 billion

expenditures: $133.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $500 million (2004 est.)
Capital Copenhagen
Climate temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers
Coastline 7,314 km
Constitution 5 June 1849 adoption of original constitution; a major overhaul of 5 June 1953 allowed for a unicameral legislature and a female chief of state
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark

conventional short form: Denmark

local long form: Kongeriget Danmark

local short form: Danmark
Death rate 10.43 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $21.7 billion (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Sally M. LIGHT

embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen

mailing address: PSC 73, APO AE 09716

telephone: [45] 35 55 31 44

FAX: [45] 35 43 02 23
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Friis PETERSEN

chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300

FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470

consulate(s) general: Chicago and New York
Disputes - international Iceland disputes the Faroe Islands' fisheries median line; Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; Faroese continue to study proposals for full independence; uncontested sovereignty dispute with Canada over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland
Economic aid - donor ODA, $1.63 billion (1999)
Economy - overview This thoroughly modern market economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, a stable currency, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and enjoys a comfortable balance of payments surplus. Government objectives include streamlining the bureaucracy and further privatization of state assets. The government has been successful in meeting, and even exceeding, the economic convergence criteria for participating in the third phase (a common European currency) of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), but Denmark has decided not to join 12 other EU members in the euro; even so, the Danish krone remains pegged to the euro. Growth in 2004 was sluggish, yet above the scanty 0.3% of 2003. Because of high GDP per capita, welfare benefits, a low Gini index, and political stability, the Danish people enjoy living standards topped by no other nation. A major long-term issue will be the sharp decline in the ratio of workers to retirees.
Electricity - consumption 31.63 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 11.1 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 8.9 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 36.38 billion kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m

highest point: Yding Skovhoej 173 m
Environment - current issues air pollution, principally from vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes and pesticides
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian, Somali
Exchange rates Danish kroner per US dollar - 5.9911 (2004), 6.5877 (2003), 7.8947 (2002), 8.3228 (2001), 8.0831 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born 26 May 1968)

head of government: Prime Minister Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN (since 27 November 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister and approved by parliament

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch
Exports 11.1 billion kWh (2002)
Exports $73.06 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports 3.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 332,100 bbl/day (2001)
Exports - commodities machinery and instruments, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, chemicals, furniture, ships, windmills
Exports - partners Germany 18%, Sweden 13.2%, UK 8.7%, US 5.8%, Netherlands 5.5%, Norway 5.4%, France 5% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2.2%

industry: 25.5%

services: 72.3% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $32,200 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.1% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 56 00 N, 10 00 E
Geography - note controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in greater Copenhagen
Highways total: 71,847 km

paved: 71,847 km (including 918 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 24% (2000 est.)
Imports 8.9 billion kWh (2002)
Imports $63.45 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports 195,000 bbl/day (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, raw materials and semimanufactures for industry, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partners Germany 22.3%, Sweden 13.5%, Netherlands 6.8%, UK 6.1%, France 4.5%, Norway 4.5%, Italy 4.1%, China 4% (2004)
Independence first organized as a unified state in 10th century; in 1849 became a constitutional monarchy
Industrial production growth rate 1.7% (2004 est.)
Industries iron, steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, construction, furniture and other wood products, shipbuilding and refurbishment, windmills
Infant mortality rate total: 4.56 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.59 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.4% (2004 est.)
International organization participation AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMISET, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 4,760 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch for life)
Labor force 2.87 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 4%, industry 17%, services 79% (2002 est.)
Land boundaries total: 68 km

border countries: Germany 68 km
Land use arable land: 54.02%

permanent crops: 0.19%

other: 45.79% (2001)
Languages Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)

note: English is the predominant second language
Legal system civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral People's Assembly or Folketinget (179 seats, including 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe Islands; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 8 February 2005 (next to be held February 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - Liberal Party 29%, Social Democrats 25.9%, Danish People's Party 13.2%, Conservative Party 10.3%, Social Liberal Party 9.2%, Socialist People's Party 6%, Unity List 3.4%; seats by party - Liberal Party 52, Social Democrats 47, Danish People's Party 24, Conservative Party 18, Social Liberal Party 17, Socialist People's Party 11, Unity List 6; note - does not include the 2 seats from Greenland and the 2 seats from the Faroe Islands
Life expectancy at birth total population: 77.62 years

male: 75.34 years

female: 80.03 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: 100%

female: 100%
Location Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes two major islands (Sjaelland and Fyn)
Map references Europe
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 287 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 6,952,473 GRT/9,030,444 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 67, chemical tanker 40, container 79, liquefied gas 10, livestock carrier 2, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 42, petroleum tanker 25, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 8, specialized tanker 4

foreign-owned: 23 (Bahamas 14, France 1, Greece 1, Greenland 1, Norway 2, Sweden 2, UAE 1, Vietnam 1)

registered in other countries: 487 (2005)
Military branches Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air Force, Home Guard (Hjemmevaernet)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $3,271.6 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.5% (2004)
National holiday none designated; Constitution Day, 5 June (1849) is generally viewed as the National Day
Nationality noun: Dane(s)

adjective: Danish
Natural hazards flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone, chalk, stone, gravel and sand
Net migration rate 2.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Pipelines condensate 12 km; gas 3,892 km; oil 455 km; oil/gas/water 2 km; unknown (oil/water) 64 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Center Democratic Party [Mimi JAKOBSEN]; Christian Democrats (was Christian People's Party) [Marianne KARLSMOSE]; Conservative Party (sometimes known as Conservative People's Party) [Bendt BENDTSEN]; Danish People's Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]; Liberal Party [Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN]; Social Democratic Party [Helle THORNING-SCHMIDT]; Social Liberal Party (sometimes called the Radical Left) [Marianne JELVED, leader; Soren BALD, chairman]; Socialist People's Party [Villy SOEVNDAL]; Red-Green Unity List (bloc includes Left Socialist Party, Communist Party of Denmark, Socialist Workers' Party) [collective leadership]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 5,432,335 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 0.34% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Aalborg, Aarhus, Asnaesvaerkets, Copenhagen, Elsinore, Ensted, Esbjerg, Fredericia, Frederikshavn, Graasten, Kalundborg, Odense, Roenne
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 355, shortwave 0 (1998)
Railways total: 2,628 km

standard gauge: 2,628 km 1.435-m gauge (595 km electrified) (2004)
Religions Evangelical Lutheran 95%, other Protestant and Roman Catholic 3%, Muslim 2%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: excellent telephone and telegraph services

domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network, 4 cellular mobile communications systems

international: country code - 45; 18 submarine fiber-optic cables linking Denmark with Canada, Faroe Islands, Germany, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and UK; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (1997)
Telephones - main lines in use 3,610,100 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 4,785,300 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 26 (plus 51 repeaters) (1998)
Terrain low and flat to gently rolling plains
Total fertility rate 1.74 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 6.2% (2004 est.)
Waterways 417 km (2001)
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