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Antigua and Barbuda (2007)

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Antigua and Barbuda 2007 year

 Antigua and Barbuda
Administrative divisions 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Age structure 0-14 years: 27.3% (male 9,647/female 9,306)

15-64 years: 69% (male 24,137/female 23,801)

65 years and over: 3.7% (male 965/female 1,625) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
Airports 3 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Area total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)

land: 442.6 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
Area - comparative 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Background The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.
Birth rate 16.62 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $123.7 million

expenditures: $145.9 million (2000 est.)
Capital name: Saint John's

geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
Coastline 153 km
Constitution 1 November 1981
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
Death rate 5.31 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $427.3 million; note - data are for public external debt, not total external debt (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL

chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016

telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122

FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225

consulate(s) general: Miami
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $7.23 million (2005)
Economy - overview Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have slowed the economy and pressed the government into a tight fiscal corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for slightly more than one-third of tourist arrivals.
Electricity - consumption 97.65 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 105 million kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m
Environment - current issues water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups black 91%, mixed 4.4%, white 1.7%, other 2.9% (2001 census)
Exchange rates East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2006), 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003), 2.7 (2002)

note: fixed rate since 1976
Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007)

head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March 2004)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $46.81 million (2004 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%
Exports - partners Spain 34%, Germany 20.7%, Italy 7.7%, Singapore 5.8%, UK 4.9% (2006)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3.8%

industry: 22%

services: 74.3% (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.8% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 17 03 N, 61 48 W
Geography - note Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $378 million (2004 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
Imports - partners US 21.1%, China 16.4%, Germany 13.3%, Singapore 12.7%, Spain 6.5% (2006)
Independence 1 November 1981 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Infant mortality rate total: 18.26 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 21.99 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 14.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0.9% (2005 est.)
International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land NA
Judicial branch Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction); member Caribbean Court of Justice
Labor force 30,000 (1991)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 7%

industry: 11%

services: 82% (1983)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 18.18%

permanent crops: 4.55%

other: 77.27% (2005)
Languages English (official), local dialects
Legal system based on English common law
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Representatives - last held 23 March 2004 (next to be held in 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ALP 4, UPP 13
Life expectancy at birth total population: 72.42 years

male: 70.03 years

female: 74.94 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling

total population: 85.8%

male: NA%

female: NA% (2003 est.)
Location Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 1,059 ships (1000 GRT or over) 8,158,597 GRT/10,757,767 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 46, cargo 612, carrier 4, chemical tanker 6, container 350, liquefied gas 11, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 20

foreign-owned: 1,021 (Australia 1, Colombia 1, Cyprus 2, Denmark 15, Estonia 15, France 1, Germany 891, Greece 3, Iceland 9, Latvia 9, Lebanon 1, Lithuania 6, Netherlands 19, Norway 7, NZ 2, Poland 2, Russia 5, Slovenia 6, Sweden 1, Switzerland 5, Turkey 7, UK 4, US 8, Vietnam 1) (2007)
Military branches Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (2006)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA (2006)
National holiday Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
Nationality noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)

adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
Natural hazards hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
Natural resources NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Net migration rate -6.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
Political pressure groups and leaders Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
Population 69,481 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.527% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Religions Anglican 25.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Roman Catholic 10.4%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%, none or unspecified 5.8% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.037 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.014 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.594 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: good automatic telephone system

international: country code - 1-268; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) optic submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth station - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe (2007)
Telephones - main lines in use 40,000 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 102,000 (2006)
Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Terrain mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
Total fertility rate 2.23 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 11% (2001 est.)
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