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Podzial administracyjny 18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah) and 1 region*; Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Kurdistan Regional Government*, majsan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit 18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', majsan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 39.4% (male 5,509,736/female 5,338,722)


15-64 years: 57.6% (male 8,018,841/female 7,812,611)


65 years and over: 3% (male 386,321/female 433,407) (2007 est.)
0-14 years: 40.7% (male 5,103,669; female 4,946,443)


15-64 years: 56.3% (male 7,033,268; female 6,855,644)


65 years and over: 3% (male 348,790; female 395,499) (2003 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep, poultry wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep
Lotniska 110 (2007) 150 (2002); note - unknown number were damaged during the marzec-kwiecien 2003 war
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 76


over 3,047 m: 19


2,438 to 3,047 m: 37


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 6


under 914 m: 9 (2007)
total: 77


over 3,047 m: 21


2,438 to 3,047 m: 36


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 6


under 914 m: 9 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 34


over 3,047 m: 3


2,438 to 3,047 m: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 4


914 to 1,523 m: 13


under 914 m: 10 (2007)
total: 73


over 3,047 m: 5


2,438 to 3,047 m: 5


1,524 to 2,437 m: 24


914 to 1,523 m: 28


under 914 m: 11 (2002)
Terytorium total: 437,072 sq km


land: 432,162 sq km


water: 4,910 sq km
total: 437,072 sq km


land: 432,162 sq km


water: 4,910 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than twice the size of Idaho slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Tlo historyczne Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Irak was occupied by Britain during the course of Swiat War I; w 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration. In stages over the next dozen years, Irak attained its independence as a kingdom w 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed w 1958, but w actuality a series of military strongmen ruled the country until 2003, the last was SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes z Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In sierpien 1990, Irak seized Kuwejt, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of styczen-luty 1991. Following Kuwejt's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Irak to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraki noncompliance z UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years led to the US-led invasion of Irak w marzec 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime. Coalition forces remain w Irak under a UNSC mandate, helping to provide security and to support the freely elected government. The Coalition Provisional Authority, which temporarily administered Irak after the invasion, transferred full governmental authority on 28 czerwiec 2004 to the Iraki Interim Government, which governed under the Transitional Administrative Law dla Irak (TAL). Under the TAL, elections dla a 275-member Transitional National Assembly (TNA) were held w Irak on 30 styczen 2005. Following these elections, the Iraki Transitional Government (ITG) assumed office. The TNA was charged z drafting Irak's permanent constitution, which was approved w a 15 pazdziernik 2005 constitutional referendum. An election under the constitution dla a 275-member Council of Representatives (CoR) was held on 15 grudzien 2005. The CoR approval w the selection of most of the cabinet ministers on 20 maj 2006 marked the transition from the ITG to Irak's first constitutional government w nearly a half-century. Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Irak was occupied by Britain during the course of Swiat War I; w 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration. In stages over the next dozen years, Irak attained its independence as a kingdom w 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed w 1958, but w actuality a series of military strongmen have ruled the country since then, the latest being SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes z Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In sierpien 1990, Irak seized Kuwejt, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of styczen-luty 1991. Following Kuwejt's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Irak to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraki noncompliance z UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years resulted w the US-led invasion of Irak w marzec 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime. Coalition forces remain w Irak, helping to restore degraded infrastructure and facilitating the establishment of a freely elected government.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 31.44 births/1,000 population (2007 est.) 33.66 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budzet revenues: $42.3 billion


expenditures: $48.4 billion (FY08 est.)
revenues: $NA


expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Stolica name: Baghdad


geographic coordinates: 33 20 N, 44 23 E


time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins 1 kwiecien; ends 1 pazdziernik
Baghdad
Klimat mostly desert; mild to cool winters z dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters z occasionally heavy snows that melt w early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding w central and southern Irak mostly desert; mild to cool winters z dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters z occasionally heavy snows that melt w early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding w central and southern Irak
Linia brzegowa 58 km 58 km
Konstytucja ratified on 15 pazdziernik 2005 (subject to review by the Konstytucjaal Review Committee and a possible public referendum ) in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Irak


conventional short form: Irak


local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al-Irakiyah


local short form: Al Irak
conventional long form: Republic of Irak


conventional short form: Irak


local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Irakiyah


local short form: Al Irak
Waluta - Iraki dinar (IQD)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.26 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.) 5.84 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $56.31 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.) $120 billion (2002 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ryan C. CROCKER


embassy: Baghdad


mailing address: APO AE 09316


telephone: 1-240-553-0589 ext. 5340 or 5635; note - Consular Section


FAX: NA
in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Samir Shakir al-SUMAYDI


chancery: 3421 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20007


telephone: [1] (202) 483-7500 (Consular section)


FAX: [1] (202) 333-1129
in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje coalition forces assist Irakis w monitoring internal and cross-border security; approximately two million Irakis have fled the conflict w Irak, z the majority taking refuge w Syria and Jordania, and lesser numbers to Egipt, Liban, Iran, and Turcja; Irak's lack of a maritime boundary z Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab w the Persian Gulf; Turcja has expressed concern over the autonomous status of Kurds w Irak despite restored diplomatic relations w 1990, disputes z Iran over maritime and land boundaries, navigation channel, and other issues from eight-year war persist; land and Shatt al Arab boundary demarcation put an end to claims to Kuwejt and to Bubiyan and Warbah islands, but no maritime boundary exists z Kuwejt w the Persian Gulf; Irak protests Turcja's hydrological projects to regulate the Tigris and Euphrates rivers upstream
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $21.65 billion $13.5 billion pledged w foreign aid dla 2004-07 from outside of the US, over $33 billion pledged total (2005) $327.5 million (1995)
Ekonomia Irak's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. Although looting, insurgent attacks, and sabotage have undermined economy rebuilding efforts, economic activity is beginning to pick up w areas recently secured by the US military surge. Oil exports are around levels seen before Operation Iraki Freedom, and total government revenues have benefited from high oil prices. Despite political uncertainty, Irak is making some progress w building the institutions needed to implement economic policy and has negotiated a debt reduction agreement z the Paris Club and a new Stand-By Arrangement z the IMF. The International Compact z Irak was established w maj 2007 to integrate Irak into the regional and global economy, and the Iraki government is seeking to pass laws to strengthen its economy. This legislation includes a hydrocarbon law to establish a modern legal framework to allow Irak to develop its resources and a revenue sharing law to equitably divide oil revenues within the nation, although both are still bogged down w discussions. The Central Bank has been successful w controlling inflation through appreciation of the dinar against the US dollar. Reducing corruption and implementing structural reforms, such as bank restructuring and developing the private sector, will be key to Irak's economic success. Irak's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s financial problems caused by massive expenditures w the eight-year war z Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran led the government to implement austerity measures, borrow heavily, and later reschedule foreign debt payments; Irak suffered economic losses from the war of at least $100 billion. After hostilities ended w 1988, oil exports gradually increased z the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. Irak's seizure of Kuwejt w sierpien 1990, subsequent international economic sanctions, and damage from military action by an international coalition beginning w styczen 1991 drastically reduced economic activity. Although government policies supporting large military and internal security forces and allocating resources to key supporters of the regime have hurt the economy, implementation of the UN's oil-for-food program beginning w grudzien 1996 helped improve conditions dla the average Iraki citizen. Irak was allowed to export limited amounts of oil w exchange dla food, medicine, and some infrastructure spare parts. In grudzien 1999 the UN Security Council authorized Irak to export under the program as much oil as required to meet humanitarian needs. Oil exports have recently been more than three-quarters prewar level. However, 28% of Irak's export revenues under the program have been deducted to meet UN Compensation Fund and UN administrative expenses. The drop w Produkt krajowy brutto w 2001-02 was largely the result of the global economic slowdown and lower oil prices. Per capita food imports increased significantly, while medical supplies and health care services steadily improved. Per capita output and living standards were still well below the prewar level, but any estimates have a wide range of error. The military victory of the US-led coalition w marzec-kwiecien 2003 resulted w the shutdown of much of the central economic administrative structure and the loss of a comparatively small amount of capital plant.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 35.84 billion kWh (2007 est.) 33.49 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2007) 0 kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 2.315 billion kWh (2007 est.) 0 kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 33.53 billion kWh (2007 est.) 36.01 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii - fossil fuel: 98.4%


hydro: 1.6%


nuclear: 0%


other: 0% (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m


highest point: unnamed peak; 3,611 m; note - this peak is not Gundah Zhur 3,607 m or Kuh-e Hajji-Ebrahim 3,595 m
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m


highest point: unamed peak 3,611 m; note - this peak is not Gundah Zhur 3,607 m or Kuh-e Hajji-Ebrahim 3,595 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas dla thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements z upstream riparian Turcja; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas dla thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements z upstream riparian Turcja; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Law of the Sea


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian, or other 5% Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
Kurs waluty New Iraki dinars per US dollar - 1,255 (2007), 1,466 (2006), 1,475 (2005), 1,890 (second half, 2003) Iraki dinars per US dollar - 0.31 (2002), 0.31 (2001), 0.31 (2000), 0.31 (1999), 0.31 (1998), note: fixed official rate since 1982; market rate subject to wide fluctuations
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Jalal TALABANI (since 6 kwiecien 2005); Vice Presidents Adil ABD AL-MAHDI and Tariq al-HASHIMI (since 22 kwiecien 2006); note - the president and vice presidents comprise the Presidency Council)


head of government: Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI (since 20 maj 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Barham SALIH (since 20 maj 2006); second deputy prime minister positon vacant


cabinet: 34 ministers appointed by the Presidency Council, plus Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI, and Deputy Prime Minister Barham SALIH; second deputy prime minister position vacant


elections: held 15 grudzien 2005 to elect a 275-member Council of Representatives
chief of state: w transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Eksport 1.67 million bbl/day (2007 est.) NA (2001)
Eksport - towary crude oil 84%, crude materials excluding fuels 8%, food and live animals 5% crude oil
Eksport - partnerzy US 46.7%, Wlochy 10.7%, Hiszpania 6.2%, Kanada 6.2% (2006) US 40.9%, Kanada 8.2%, Francja 8.2%, Jordania 7.5%, Holandia 6.4%, Wlochy 5.4%, Maroko 4.7%, Hiszpania 4.4% (2002)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) w green Arabic script is centered w the white band; similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script, Jemen, which has a plain white band, and that of Egipt, which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered w the white band; design is based upon the Arab Liberation colors; Council of Representatives approved this flag as a compromise temporary replacement dla Ba'athist Saddam-era flag three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black z three green five-pointed stars w a horizontal line centered w the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) w green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added w styczen 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria which has two stars but no script and the flag of Jemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Egipt which has a symbolic eagle centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto - purchasing power parity - $58 billion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 5%


industry: 68%


services: 27% (2006 est.)
agriculture: 6%


industry: 13%


services: 81% (1993 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita - purchasing power parity - $2,400 (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5% (2007 est.) -3% (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 33 00 N, 44 00 E 33 00 N, 44 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf
Ladowiska helikopterow 17 (2007) 5 (2002)
Autostrady - total: 45,550 km


paved: 38,399 km


unpaved: 7,151 km (2000 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
Import NA NA (2001)
Import - towary food, medicine, manufactures food, medicine, manufactures
Import - partnerzy Syria 26.5%, Turcja 20.5%, US 11.8%, Jordania 7.2% (2006) Jordania 11%, Francja 8.8%, Chiny 8.4%, Niemcy 7.6%, Rosja 7.3%, Australia 7.2%, Wietnam 6.6%, Wlochy 6.4%, Japonia 5.6% (2002)
Niepodleglosc 3 pazdziernik 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 czerwiec 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraki-controlled Government 3 pazdziernik 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 4% (2007 est.) NA%
Przemysl petroleum, chemicals, textiles, leather, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 47.04 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 52.73 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 41.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
total: 55.16 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 61.09 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 48.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflacja 4.7% (2007 est.) 70% (2002 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer) ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, EAPC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO
Dostawcy internetu - 1 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 35,250 sq km (2003) 35,250 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo the Irak Konstytucja calls dla the federal judicial power to be comprised of the Higher Juridical Council, Federal Supreme Court, Federal Court of Cassation, Public Prosecution Department, Judiciary Oversight Commission and other federal courts that are regulated w accordance z the law in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Sila robocza 7.4 million (2004 est.) 6.5 million (2002 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: NA%


industry: NA%


services: NA%
agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Granica total: 3,650 km


border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordania 181 km, Kuwejt 240 km, Arabia Saudyjska 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turcja 352 km
total: 3,650 km


border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordania 181 km, Kuwejt 240 km, Arabia Saudyjska 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turcja 352 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 13.12%


permanent crops: 0.61%


other: 86.27% (2005)
arable land: 11.89%


permanent crops: 0.78%


other: 87.33% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Arabic, Kurdish (official w Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian Arabic, Kurdish (official w Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
System prawny based on European civil and Islamic law under the framework outlined w the Iraki Konstytucja; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Wladza ustawodawcza Council of Representatives (consisting of 275 members elected by a closed-list, proportional representation system)


elections: held 15 grudzien 2005 to elect a 275-member Council of Representatives; the Council of Representatives elected the Presidency Council and approved the prime minister and two deputy prime ministers


election results: Council of Representatives - percent of vote by party - Unified Iraki Alliance 41%, Kurdistan Alliance 22%, Tawafuq Coalition 15%, Iraki National List 8%, Iraki Front dla National Dialogue 4%, other 10%; number of seats by party (as of listopad 2007) - Unified Iraki Alliance (including the Sadrist bloc z 30 and Fadilah z 15) 130, Kurdistan Alliance 53, Tawafuq Front 44, Iraki National List 25, Fadilah 15, Iraki Front dla National Dialogue 11, other 12
in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Zywotnosc total population: 69.31 years


male: 68.04 years


female: 70.65 years (2007 est.)
total population: 67.81 years


male: 66.7 years


female: 68.99 years (2003 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 74.1%


male: 84.1%


female: 64.2% (2000 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 40.4%


male: 55.9%


female: 24.4% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwejt Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwejt
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East Middle East
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


continental shelf: not specified
continental shelf: not specified


territorial sea: 12 NM
Flota handlowa total: 13 ships (1000 GRT or over) 67,796 GRT/101,317 DWT


by type: cargo 11, petroleum tanker 2 (2007)
total: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 119,433 GRT/170,221 DWT


ships by type: cargo 9, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 1 (2002 est.)
Wojsko Iraki Armed Forces: Iraki Army (includes Iraki Special Operations Force, Iraki Intervention Force), Iraki Navy (former Iraki Coastal Defense Force), Iraki Air Force (former Iraki Army Air Corps) (2005) Army, Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Border Guard Force, Fedayeen Saddam; note - z the defeat of Saddam Hussein's regime w 2003, the data listed w the following entries dla Irak is invalid, but is retained here dla historical purposes and until replaced by valid information related to the future Iraki Government (kwiecien 2003)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) - $1.3 billion (FY00)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 8.6% (2006) NA%
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) - males age 15-49: 6,339,458 (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) - males age 15-49: 3,541,467 (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) - 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) - males: 292,930 (2003 est.)
Swieto narodowe Revolution Day, 17 lipiec (1968); note - this holiday was celebrated under the SADDAM Husayn regime; the Government of Irak has yet to declare a new national holiday Revolution Day, 17 lipiec (1968)
Narodowosc noun: Iraki(s)


adjective: Iraki
noun: Iraki(s)


adjective: Iraki
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, sandstorms, floods dust storms, sandstorms, floods
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.) 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Rurociagi gas 2,250 km; liquid petroleum gas 918 km; oil 5,509 km; refined products 1,637 km (2007) gas 1,739 km; oil 5,418 km; refined products 1,343 km (2003)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Assyrian Democratic Movement [Yunadim KANNA]; Badr Organization [Hadi al-AMIRI]; Konstytucjaal Monarchy Movement or CMM [Sharif Ali Bin al-HUSAYN]; Da'wa al-Islamiya Party [Ibrahim al-JA'FARI]; General Conference of Iraki People [Adnan al-DULAYMI]; Independent Iraki Alliance or IIA [Falah al-NAQIB]; Iraki Communist Party [Hamid MAJEED]; Iraki Front dla National Dialogue [Salih al-MUTLAQ]; Iraki Hizballah [Karim Mahmud al-MUHAMMADAWI]; Iraki Independent Democrats or IID [Adnan PACHACHI, Mahdi al-HAFIZ]; Iraki Islamic Party or IIP [Tariq al-HASHIMI]; Iraki National Accord or INA [Ayad ALLAWI]; Iraki National Congress or INC [Ahmad CHALABI]; Iraki National Council dla Dialogue or INCD [Khalaf Ulayan al-Khalifawi al-DULAYMI]; Iraki National Unity Movement or INUM [Ahmad al-KUBAYSI]; Islamic Action Organization or IAO [Ayatollah Muhammad al-MUDARRISI]; Islamic Supreme Council of Irak or ISCI [Abd al-Aziz al-HAKIM]; Jama'at al Fadilah or JAF [Muhammad Ali al-YAQUBI]; Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masud BARZANI]; Kurdistan Islamic Union [Salah ad-Din Muhammad BAHA al-DIN]; National Reconciliation and Liberation Party [Mishan al-JABBURI]; Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [Jalal TALABANI]; Sadrist Trend [Muqtada al-SADR] (not an organized political party, but it fields independent candidates affiliated z Muqtada al-SADR); Sahawa al-Irak [Ahmed al-RISAWHI]


note: the Kurdistan Alliance, Iraki National List, Tawafuq Front, Iraki Front dla National Dialogue, and Unified Iraki Alliance were only electoral slates consisting of the representatives from the various Iraki political parties
in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow an insurgency against the Government of Irak and Coalition forces is primarily concentrated w Baghdad and w areas north, northeast, and west of the capital; the diverse, multigroup insurgency consists principally of Sunni Arabs z a shared desire to oust the Coalition, end US influence w Irak, and reassert Sunni Arab dominance; a number of predominantly Shia militias, some associated z political parties, challenge governmental authority w Baghdad and southern Irak in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
Ludnosc 27,499,638 (lipiec 2007 est.) 24,683,313 (lipiec 2003 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA% NA
Przyrost naturalny 2.618% (2007 est.) 2.78% (2003 est.)
Porty i stocznie - Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, and Al Basrah have limited functionality
Stacje radiowe after 17 months of unregulated media growth, there are approximately 80 radio stations (types NA) on the air inside Irak (2004) AM 19 (5 are inactive), FM 51, shortwave 4 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,272 km


standard gauge: 2,272 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
total: 1,963 km


standard gauge: 1,963 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)
Religie Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3% Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.032 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.026 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.891 male(s)/female


total population: 1.024 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female


total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal formerly 18 years of age; universal; note - w transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
System telefoniczny general assessment: the 2003 liberation of Irak severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Irak including international connections; widespread government efforts to rebuild domestic and international communications through fiber optic links are w progress; the mobile cellular market has expanded rapidly z an estimated 10.9 million current users


domestic: repairs to switches and lines destroyed during 2003 continue; additional switching capacity is improving access; cellular service is available and centered on 3 GSM networks which are being expanded beyond their regional roots, improving country-wide connectivity; wireless local loop licences have been issued z the hope of overcoming the lack of fixed-line infrastructure


international: country code - 964; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); local microwave radio relay connects border regions to Jordania, Kuwejt, Syria, and Turcja; planned international fiber-optic connections to Iran (terrestrial) z a link to the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine fiber-optic cable (2007)
general assessment: an unknown number of telecommunication facilities were damaged during the marzec-kwiecien 2003 war


domestic: the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio relay links


international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordania, Kuwejt, Syria, and Turcja; Kuwejt line is probably nonoperational
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1.547 million (2005) 675,000 (1997); note - an unknown number of telephone lines were damaged or destroyed during the marzec-kwiecien war
Telefony komorkowe 10.9 million (2007) NA; service available w northern Irak (2001)
Stacje telewizyjne 21 (2004) 13 (1997); note - unknown number were destroyed during the marzec-kwiecien 2003 war
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border w south z large flooded areas; mountains along borders z Iran and Turcja mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border w south z large flooded areas; mountains along borders z Iran and Turcja
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.07 children born/woman (2007 est.) 4.52 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 18% to 30% (2006 est.) NA%
Drogi wodne 5,279 km


note: Euphrates River (2,815 km), Tigris River (1,899 km), and Third River (565 km) are principal waterways (2006)
1,015 km


note: Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic dla about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and is w use; Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections dla shallow-draft boats; Shatt al Basrah canal was navigable by shallow-draft craft before closing w 1991 because of the Gulf war
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