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Porownanie Indie (2008) - Indie (2001)

Porownanie Indie (2008) z Indie (2001)

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 Indie (2008)Indie (2001)
 IndieIndie
Podzial administracyjny 28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal 28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 31.8% (male 188,208,196/female 171,356,024)


15-64 years: 63.1% (male 366,977,821/female 346,034,565)


65 years and over: 5.1% (male 27,258,259/female 30,031,289) (2007 est.)
0-14 years:
33.12% (male 175,630,537; female 165,540,672)

15-64 years:
62.2% (male 331,790,850; female 308,902,864)

65 years and over:
4.68% (male 24,439,022; female 23,687,200) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Lotniska 346 (2007) 337 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 250


over 3,047 m: 18


2,438 to 3,047 m: 52


1,524 to 2,437 m: 75


914 to 1,523 m: 84


under 914 m: 21 (2007)
total:
235

over 3,047 m:
13

2,438 to 3,047 m:
48

1,524 to 2,437 m:
81

914 to 1,523 m:
77

under 914 m:
16 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 96


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 7


914 to 1,523 m: 40


under 914 m: 47 (2007)
total:
102

2,438 to 3,047 m:
1

1,524 to 2,437 m:
6

914 to 1,523 m:
40

under 914 m:
55 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total: 3,287,590 sq km


land: 2,973,190 sq km


water: 314,400 sq km
total:
3,287,590 sq km

land:
2,973,190 sq km

water:
314,400 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than one-third the size of the US slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Tlo historyczne Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto the Indien subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger z the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indien culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered w by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indien science, art, and culture. Arab incursions starting w the 8th century and Turkic w the 12th were followed by those of European traders, beginning w the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indien lands. Indien armed forces w the British army played a vital role w both Swiat Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence w 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of Indie and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries w 1971 resulted w East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesz. Indie's nuclear weapons testing w 1998 caused Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. The dispute between the countries over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002. Despite impressive gains w economic investment and output, Indie faces pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife. The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest w the world, goes back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded about 1500 B.C.; their merger z the earlier inhabitants created classical Indien culture. Arab incursions starting w the 8th century and Turkish w 12th were followed by European traders beginning w the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indien lands. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU led to independence w 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of Indie and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries w 1971 resulted w East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesz. Fundamental concerns w Indie include the ongoing dispute z Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic strife, all this despite impressive gains w economic investment and output.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 22.69 births/1,000 population (2007 est.) 24.28 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues: $145.2 billion


expenditures: $182.4 billion (2007 est.)
revenues:
$44.3 billion

expenditures:
$73.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)
Stolica name: New Delhi


geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E


time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
New Delhi
Klimat varies from tropical monsoon w south to temperate w north varies from tropical monsoon w south to temperate w north
Linia brzegowa 7,000 km 7,000 km
Konstytucja 26 styczen 1950; amended many times 26 styczen 1950
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Indie


conventional short form: Indie


local long form: Republic of Indie/Bharatiya Ganarajya


local short form: Indie/Bharat
conventional long form:
Republic of Indie

conventional short form:
Indie
Waluta - Indien rupee (INR)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.58 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.) 8.74 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $165.4 billion (30 czerwiec 2007) $99.6 billion (2000)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador David C. MULFORD


embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021


mailing address: use embassy street address


telephone: [91] (011) 2419-8000


FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017


consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard F. CELESTE

embassy:
Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021

mailing address:
use embassy street address

telephone:
[91] (11) 688-9033, 611-3033

FAX:
[91] (11) 419-0025

consulate(s) general:
Chennai (Madras), Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ranendra SEN


chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000


FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission:
Ambassador Naresh CHANDRA

chancery:
2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Embassy located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:
[1] (202) 939-7000

FAX:
[1] (202) 483-3972

consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje since Chiny and Indie launched a security and foreign policy dialogue w 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indien claims that Chiny transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; various talks and confidence-building measures have cautiously begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the pazdziernik 2005 earthquake w the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); Indie and Pakistan have maintained the 2004 cease fire w Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off w the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests Indie's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River w Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; UN Military Observer Group w Indie and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare dla discussions on a maritime boundary, Indie and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary w Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch w the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim w Indien Gujarat State; discussions z Bangladesz remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, to exchange territory dla 51 Bangladeszi exclaves w Indie and 111 Indien exclaves w Bangladesz, to allocate divided villages, and to stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesz protests Indie's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the border; dispute z Bangladesz over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island w the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; Indie seeks cooperation from Bhutan and Birma to keep Indien Nagaland and Assam separatists from hiding w remote areas along the borders; Joint Border Committee z Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 square kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; Indie maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal boundary z Chiny w dispute; status of Kashmir z Pakistan; water-sharing problems z Pakistan over the Indus River (Wular Barrage); a portion of the boundary z Bangladesz is indefinite; exchange of 151 enclaves along border z Bangladesz subject to ratification by Indien parliament; dispute z Bangladesz over New Moore/South Talpatty Island
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $1.724 billion (2005) $2.9 billion (FY98/99)
Ekonomia Indie's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Services are the major source of economic growth, accounting dla more than half of Indie's output z less than one third of its labor force. About three-fifths of the work force is w agriculture, leading the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government to articulate an economic reform program that includes developing basic infrastructure to improve the lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. The government has reduced controls on foreign trade and investment. Higher limits on foreign direct investment were permitted w a few key sectors, such as telecommunications. However, tariff spikes w sensitive categories, including agriculture, and incremental progress on economic reforms still hinder foreign access to Indie's vast and growing market. Privatization of government-owned industries remains stalled and continues to generate political debate; populist pressure from within the UPA government and from its Left Front allies continues to restrain needed initiatives. The economy has posted an average growth rate of more than 7% w the decade since 1997, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. Indie achieved 8.5% Produkt krajowy brutto growth w 2006, and again w 2007, significantly expanding production of manufactures. Indie is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled w the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers. Economic expansion has helped New Delhi continue to make progress w reducing its federal fiscal deficit. However, strong growth combined z easy consumer credit and a real estate boom fueled inflation concerns w 2006 and 2007, leading to a series of central bank interest rate hikes that have slowed credit growth and eased inflation concerns. The huge and growing population is the fundamental social, economic, and environmental problem. Indie's economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of support services. More than a third of the population is too poor to be able to afford an adequate diet. Indie's international payments position remained strong w 2000 z adequate foreign exchange reserves, moderately depreciating nominal exchange rates, and booming exports of software services. Growth w manufacturing output slowed, and electricity shortages continue w many regions.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 488.5 billion kWh (2005) 424.032 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 67 million kWh (2005) 200 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - import 1.764 billion kWh (2005) 1.49 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 661.6 billion kWh (2005) 454.561 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii - fossil fuel:
79.41%

hydro:
17.77%

nuclear:
2.52%

other:
0.3% (1999)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Indyjski 0 m


highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
lowest point:
Ocean Indyjski 0 m

highest point:
Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000) Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Kurs waluty Indien rupees per US dollar - 41.487 (2007), 45.3 (2006), 44.101 (2005), 45.317 (2004), 46.583 (2003) Indien rupees per US dollar - 46.540 (styczen 2001), 44.942 (2000), 43.055 (1999), 41.259 (1998), 36.313 (1997), 35.433 (1996)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Pratibha PATIL (since 25 lipiec 2007); Vice President Hamid ANSARI (since 11 sierpien 2007)


head of government: Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since 22 maj 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states dla a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 21 lipiec 2007 (next to be held w lipiec 2012); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament dla a five-year term; election last held 12 sierpien 2002 (next to be held sierpien 2007); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held kwiecien - maj 2004 (next to be held maj 2009)


election results: Pratibha PATIL elected president; percent of vote - 65.8%; Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT - 34.2%
chief of state:
President Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN (since 25 lipiec 1997); Vice President Krishnan KANT (since 21 sierpien 1997)

head of government:
Prime Minister Atal Behari VAJPAYEE (since 19 marzec 1998)

cabinet:
Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections:
president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states dla a five-year term; election last held 14 lipiec 1997 (next to be held NA lipiec 2002); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament dla a five-year term; election last held 16 sierpien 1997 (next to be held NA sierpien 2002); prime minister elected by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held NA pazdziernik 1999 (next to be held NA pazdziernik 2004)

election results:
Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN elected president; percent of electoral college vote - NA%; Krishnan KANT elected vice president; percent of Parliament vote - NA%; Atal Behari VAJPAYEE elected prime minister; percent of vote - NA%
Eksport 350,000 bbl/day (2005 est.) $43.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Eksport - towary petroleum products, textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures
Eksport - partnerzy US 17%, UAE 8.3%, Chiny 7.7%, UK 4.3% (2006) US 22%, UK 6%, Niemcy 5%, Japonia 5%, Hong Kong 5%, UAE 4% (1999)
Rok podatkowy 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green z a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered w the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered w the white band three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green z a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered w the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto - purchasing power parity - $2.2 trillion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 16.6%


industry: 28.4%


services: 55% (2007 est.)
agriculture:
25%

industry:
24%

services:
51% (2000)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita - purchasing power parity - $2,200 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8.5% (2007 est.) 6% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 20 00 N, 77 00 E 20 00 N, 77 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Ocean Indyjski trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain w the world, lies on the border z Nepal dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Ocean Indyjski trade routes
Ladowiska helikopterow 30 (2007) 16 (2000 est.)
Autostrady - total:
3,319,644 km

paved:
1,517,077 km

unpaved:
1,802,567 km (1996)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.6%


highest 10%: 31.1% (2004)
lowest 10%:
3.5%

highest 10%:
33.5% (1997)
Narkotyki world's largest producer of licit opium dla the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point dla illicit narcotics produced w neighboring countries; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production world's largest producer of licit opium dla the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit country dla illicit narcotics produced w neighboring countries; illicit producer of hashish and methaqualone
Import 2.098 million bbl/day (2004 est.) $60.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Import - towary crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Chiny 8.7%, US 6%, Niemcy 4.7%, Singapur 4.6% (2006) US 9%, Benelux 8%, UK 6%, Arabia Saudyjska 6%, Japonia 6%, Niemcy 5% (1999)
Niepodleglosc 15 sierpien 1947 (from UK) 15 sierpien 1947 (from UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 10% (2007 est.) 7.5% (2000 est.)
Przemysl textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 34.61 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 39.42 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 29.23 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
63.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 5.9% (2007 est.) 5.4% (2000 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, AfDB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, C, CERN (observer), CP, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAS (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO AfDB, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G- 6, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA (observer), IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu - 43 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 558,080 sq km (2003) 535,100 sq km (1995/96 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (one chief justice and 25 associate justices are appointed by the president and remain w office until they reach the age of 65 or are removed dla "proved misbehavior") Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president and remain w office until they reach the age of 65)
Sila robocza 516.4 million (2007 est.) NA
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 60%


industry: 12%


services: 28% (2003)
agriculture 67%, services 18%, industry 15% (1995 est.)
Granica total: 14,103 km


border countries: Bangladesz 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Birma 1,463 km, Chiny 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
total:
14,103 km

border countries:
Bangladesz 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Birma 1,463 km, Chiny 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 48.83%


permanent crops: 2.8%


other: 48.37% (2005)
arable land:
56%

permanent crops:
1%

permanent pastures:
4%

forests and woodland:
23%

other:
16% (1993 est.)
Jezyki English enjoys associate status but is the most important language dla national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 21 other official languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanscrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern Indie but is not an official language English enjoys associate status but is the most important language dla national, political, and commercial communication, Hindi the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people, Bengali (official), Telugu (official), Marathi (official), Tamil (official), Urdu (official), Gujarati (official), Malayalam (official), Kannada (official), Oriya (official), Punjabi (official), Assamese (official), Kashmiri (official), Sindhi (official), Sanskrit (official), Hindustani (a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern Indie)

note:
24 languages each spoken by a million or more persons; numerous other languages and dialects, dla the most part mutually unintelligible
System prawny based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members up to 12 of whom are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)


elections: People's Assembly - last held 20 kwiecien through 10 maj 2004 (next must be held before maj 2009)


election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - INC 147, BJP 129, CPI (M) 43, SP 38, RJD 23, DMK 16, BSP 15, SS 12, BJD 11, CPI 10, NCP 10, JD (U) 8, SAD 8, PMK 6, JMM 5, LJSP 4, MDMK 4, TDP 4, TRS 4, independent 6, other 29, vacant 13; note - seats by party as of grudzien 2006
bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members, up to 12 of which are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)

elections:
People's Assembly - last held 5 wrzesien through 3 pazdziernik 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results:
People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - BJP alliance 40.8%, Congress alliance 33.8%, other 25.4%; seats by party - BJP alliance 304, Congress alliance 134, other 107
Zywotnosc total population: 68.59 years


male: 66.28 years


female: 71.17 years (2007 est.)
total population:
62.86 years

male:
62.22 years

female:
63.53 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 61%


male: 73.4%


female: 47.8% (2001 census)
definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:
52%

male:
65.5%

female:
37.7% (1995 est.)
Lokalizacja Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Birma and Pakistan Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Birma and Pakistan
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
contiguous zone:
24 NM

continental shelf:
200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Flota handlowa total: 477 ships (1000 GRT or over) 8,350,093 GRT/14,339,440 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 101, cargo 220, chemical tanker 18, combination ore/oil 1, container 9, liquefied gas 19, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 95, roll on/roll off 1


foreign-owned: 5 (Chiny 1, Hong Kong 1, UAE 2, UK 1)


registered w other countries: 54 (Barbados 1, Komory 2, Cypr 1, Dominika 2, North Korea 1, Liberia 2, Malta 3, Mauritius 2, Panama 25, Singapur 9, St Kitts and Nevis 1, St Vincent and The Grenadines 5, unknown 2) (2007)
total:
315 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,433,831 GRT/10,691,973 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 117, cargo 70, chemical tanker 15, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 3, container 15, liquefied gas 9, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 76, short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker 2 (2000 est.)
Wojsko Army, Navy (includes naval air arm), Air Force, Coast Guard, various security or paramilitary forces (includes Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, National Security Guards, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Special Frontier Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Railway Protection Force, and Defense Security Corps) Army, Navy (including naval air arm), Air Force, various security or paramilitary forces (includes Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, Rashtriya Rifles, and National Security Guards)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) - $13.02 billion (FY01)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.5% (2006) 2.5% (FY00)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) - males age 15-49:
280,204,502 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) - males age 15-49:
164,410,461 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) - 17 years of age
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) - males:
10,879,384 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Republic Day, 26 styczen (1950) Republic Day, 26 styczen (1950)
Narodowosc noun: Indien(s)


adjective: Indien
noun:
Indien(s)

adjective:
Indien
Naturalne zagrozenia droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common; earthquakes
Surowce naturalne coal (fourth-largest reserves w the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land coal (fourth-largest reserves w the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.) -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Rurociagi condensate/gas 9 km; gas 7,488 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,861 km; oil 7,883 km; refined products 6,422 km (2007) crude oil 3,005 km; petroleum products 2,687 km; natural gas 1,700 km (1995)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Rajnath SINGH]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of Indie or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of Indie-Marxist or CPI-M [Prakash KARAT]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indien National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]; Janata Dal (United) or JD(U) [Sharad YADEV]; Jharkhand Mukti Morcha or JMM [Shibu SOREN]; Lok Jan Shakti Party or LJSP [Ram Vilas PASWAN]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKU]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Pattali Makkal Katchi or PMK [S. RAMADOSS]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Prakash Singh BADAL]; Shiv Sena or SS [Bal THACKERAY]; Telangana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrasekhar RAO]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]; note - Indie has dozens of national and regional political parties; only parties z four or more seats w the People's Assembly are listed All Indie Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [C. Jayalalitha JAYARAM]; All Indie Forward Bloc or AIFB [Prem Dutta PALIWAL (chairman), Chitta BASU (general secretary)]; Asom Gana Parishad [Prafulla Kumar MAHANTA]; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [Kanshi RAM]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Bangaru LAXMAN, president]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of Indie or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of Indie/Marxist-Leninist or CPI/ML [Vinod MISHRA]; Congress (I) Party [Sonia GANDHI, president]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK (a regional party w Tamil Nadu) [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indien National League [Suliaman SAIT]; Janata Dal (Secular) [H. D. Deve GOWDA]; Janata Dal (United) or JDU [Sharad YADAV, president, I. K. GUJRAL]; Kerala Congress (Mani faction) [K. M. MANI]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKO]; Muslim League [G. M. BANATWALA]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; National Democratic Alliance, a 16-party alliance including BJP, DMK, Janata Dal (U), SHS, Shiromani Akali Dal, Telugu Desam, BJD, Rinamool Congress]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Revolutionary Socialist Party or RSP [Tridip CHOWDHURY]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV, president]; Shiromani Akali Dal [Prakash Singh BADAL]; Shiv Sena [Bal THACKERAY]; Tamil Maanila Congress [G. K. MOOPANAR]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP (a regional party w Andhra Pradesh) [Chandrababu NAIDU]; Trinamool Congress [Mamata BANERJEE]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference w the Kashmir Valley and the National Socialist Council of Nagaland w the Northeast numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference
Ludnosc 1,129,866,154 (lipiec 2007 est.) 1,029,991,145 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 25% (2007 est.) 35% (1994 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.606% (2007 est.) 1.55% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie - Chennai (Madras), Cochin, Jawaharal Nehru, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Vishakhapatnam
Stacje radiowe AM 153, FM 91, shortwave 68 (1998) AM 153, FM 91, shortwave 68 (1998)
Radia - 116 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total: 63,221 km


broad gauge: 46,807 km 1.676-m gauge (17,343 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 13,290 km 1.000-m gauge (165 km electrified); 3,124 km 0.762-m gauge and 0.610-m gauge (2006)
total:
62,915 km (12,307 km electrified; 12,617 km double track)

broad gauge:
40,620 km 1.676-m gauge

narrow gauge:
18,501 km 1.000-m gauge; 3,794 km 0.762-m and 0.610-m gauge (1998 est.)
Religie Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census) Hindu 81.3%, Muslim 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5% (2000)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.098 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.061 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.908 male(s)/female


total population: 1.064 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.07 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
1.03 male(s)/female

total population:
1.07 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies have prompted rapid growth; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, z services primarily concentrated w the urban areas; steady improvement is taking place z the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but combined fixed and mobile telephone density remains low at about 20 dla each 100 persons nationwide and much lower dla persons w rural areas; fastest growth is w cellular service z modest growth w fixed lines


domestic: mobile cellular service (both CDMA and GSM) introduced w 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles each z about three private service providers and one state-owned service provider; w recent years significant trunk capacity added w the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indien National Satellite system (INSAT), z 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)


international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including Sea-Me-We-3 z landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), Sea-Me-We-4 z a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) z a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), Republika Poludniowej Afryki - Far East (SAFE) z a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapur z landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapur and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase w the bandwidth available dla both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Indyjski region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam
general assessment:
mediocre service; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, z services primarily concentrated w the urban areas; major objective is to continue to expand and modernize long-distance network w order to keep pace z rapidly growing number of local subscriber lines; steady improvement is taking place z the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but, z telephone density at about two dla each 100 persons and a waiting list of over 2 million, demand dla main line telephone service will not be satisfied dla a very long time

domestic:
local service is provided by microwave radio relay and coaxial cable, z open wire and obsolete electromechanical and manual switchboard systems still w use w rural areas; starting w the 1980s, a substantial amount of digital switch gear has been introduced dla local and long-distance service; long-distance traffic is carried mostly by coaxial cable and low-capacity microwave radio relay; since 1985 significant trunk capacity has been added w the form of fiber-optic cable and a domestic satellite system z 254 earth stations; mobile cellular service is provided w four metropolitan cities

international:
satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Indyjski region); nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gaidhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam; 4 submarine cables - LOCOM linking Chennai (Madras) to Penang; Indo-UAE-Gulf cable linking Mumbai (Bombay) to Al Fujayrah, UAE; Indie-SEA-ME-WE-3, SEA-ME-WE-2 z landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay); Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) z landing site at Mumbai (Bombay) (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 49.75 million (2005) 27.7 million (pazdziernik 2000)
Telefony komorkowe 166.1 million (2006) 2.93 million (listopad 2000)
Stacje telewizyjne 562 (1997) 562 (of which 82 stations have 1 kW or greater power and 480 stations have less than 1 kW of power) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu upland plain (Deccan Plateau) w south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts w west, Himalayas w north upland plain (Deccan Plateau) w south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts w west, Himalayas w north
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.81 children born/woman (2007 est.) 3.04 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 7.2% (2007 est.) NA%
Drogi wodne 14,500 km


note: 5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable dla mechanized vessels (2006)
16,180 km

note:
3,631 km navigable by large vessels
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