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Porownanie Chiny (2008) - Chiny (2003)

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 Chiny (2008)Chiny (2003)
 ChinyChiny
Podzial administracyjny 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)


provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Tajwan)


autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)


municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin


note: Chiny considers Tajwan its 23rd province; see separate entries dla the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Makau
23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - Chiny considers Tajwan its 23rd province; see separate entries dla the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Makau
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 20.4% (male 143,527,634/female 126,607,344)


15-64 years: 71.7% (male 487,079,770/female 460,596,384)


65 years and over: 7.9% (male 49,683,856/female 54,356,900) (2007 est.)
0-14 years: 23.1% (male 155,473,656; female 141,737,406)


15-64 years: 69.5% (male 461,223,219; female 433,154,970)


65 years and over: 7.4% (male 44,954,643; female 50,431,574) (2003 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
Lotniska 467 (2007) 500 (2002)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 403


over 3,047 m: 58


2,438 to 3,047 m: 128


1,524 to 2,437 m: 130


914 to 1,523 m: 20


under 914 m: 67 (2007)
total: 351


over 3,047 m: 32


2,438 to 3,047 m: 108


1,524 to 2,437 m: 143


914 to 1,523 m: 29


under 914 m: 39 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 64


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 13


914 to 1,523 m: 17


under 914 m: 26 (2007)
total: 149


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 25


914 to 1,523 m: 48


under 914 m: 71 (2002)
Terytorium total: 9,596,960 sq km


land: 9,326,410 sq km


water: 270,550 sq km
total: 9,596,960 sq km


land: 9,326,410 sq km


water: 270,550 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the US slightly smaller than the US
Tlo historyczne For centuries Chiny stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world w the arts and sciences, but w the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After Swiat War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring Chiny's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room dla personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. For centuries Chiny stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world w the arts and sciences. But w the 19th and early 20th centuries, Chiny was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After Swiat War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring Chiny's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision-making. Output quadrupled by 2000. Political controls remain tight while economic controls continue to be relaxed.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 13.45 births/1,000 population (2007 est.) 12.96 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budzet revenues: $640.6 billion


expenditures: $634.6 billion (2007 est.)
revenues: $224.8 billion


expenditures: $267.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
Stolica name: Beijing


geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E


time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


note: despite its size, all of Chiny falls within one time zone
Beijing
Klimat extremely diverse; tropical w south to subarctic w north extremely diverse; tropical w south to subarctic w north
Linia brzegowa 14,500 km 14,500 km
Konstytucja most recent promulgation 4 grudzien 1982 most recent promulgation 4 grudzien 1982
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: People's Republic of Chiny


conventional short form: Chiny


local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo


local short form: Zhongguo


abbreviation: PRC
conventional long form: People's Republic of Chiny


conventional short form: Chiny


local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo


local short form: Zhong Guo


abbreviation: PRC
Waluta - yuan (CNY)


note:: also referred to as the Renminbi (RMB)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.) 6.74 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $363 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.) $149.4 billion (2002 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr.


embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing


mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002


telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831


FAX: [86] (10) 6532-3178


consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Makau, Shanghai, Shenyang
chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr.


embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing


mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002


telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831


FAX: [86] (10) 6532-6929


consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Shenyang
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador ZHOU Wenzhong


chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500


FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador YANG Jiechi


chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500


FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje based on principles drafted w 2005, Chiny and Indie continue discussions to resolve all aspects of their extensive boundary and territorial disputes together z a security and foreign policy dialogue to consolidate discussions related to the boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; recent talks and confidence-building measures have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and Chiny continue negotiations to establish a boundary alignment to resolve substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lies w Bhutan's northwest; Chiny asserts sovereignty over the Wyspy Spratly together z Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" eased tensions w the Spratly's but is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Wietnam and Chiny continue to expand construction of facilities w the Spratly's and w marzec 2005, the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly; Chiny occupies some of the Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; Chiny and Tajwan continue to reject both Japonia's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japonia's unilaterally declared equidistance line w the East Chiny Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting; certain islands w the Yalu and Tumen rivers are w dispute z North Korea; Chiny seeks to stem illegal migration of North Koreans; Chiny and Rosja have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and w the Argun River w accordance z their 2004 Agreement; w 2006, Chiny and Tadzykistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to w the delimitation of 2002; demarcation of the Chiny-Wietnam land boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified w czerwiec 2004, implementation remains stalled; w 2004, international environmentalist and political pressure from Birma and Tajlandia prompted Chiny to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River involved w complex dispute over the Wyspy Spratly z Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; claimants w listopad 2002 signed the "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea", a mechanism to ease tension but which fell short of a legally binding "code of conduct"; much of the rugged, militarized boundary z Indie is w dispute, but the two sides have participated w more than 13 rounds of joint working group sessions on this issue; Indie objects to Pakistan ceding lands to Chiny w 1965 boundary agreement that Indie believes are part of disputed Kashmir; Chiny, as well as Tajwan, claims Japoniaese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) islands; negotiations z Tadzykistan resolved the longstanding boundary dispute; Chiny and Kazachstan have resolved their border dispute and are working to delimit their large open borders to control population migration, illegal activities, and trade; Kirgistan's constitutional court rules that 1,270 sq km ceded to Chiny w 2000 delimitation agreement were legally transferred; certain islands w Yalu and Tumen rivers are w uncontested dispute z North Korea and a section of boundary around Mount Paektu is indefinite - Chiny objects to illegal migration of North Koreans into northern Chiny; Chiny continues to seek a mutually acceptable solution to the disputed alluvial islands z Rosja at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri rivers and a small island on the Argun river as part of the 2001 Treaty of Good Neighborliness, Friendship, and Cooperation; boundary agreements signed w 2002 z Tadzykistan cedes 1,000 sq km of Pamir Mountain range to Chiny w return dla Chiny's relinquishing claims to 28,000 sq km; demarcation of land boundary z Wietnam continues but maritime boundary and joint fishing zone agreement remains unratified; Chiny occupies Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $1.641 billion (FY07) $NA
Ekonomia Chiny's economy during the last quarter century has changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player w the global economy. Reforms started w the late 1970s z the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy dla state enterprises, the foundation of a diversified banking system, the development of stock markets, the rapid growth of the non-state sector, and the opening to foreign trade and investment. Chiny has generally implemented reforms w a gradualist or piecemeal fashion, including the sale of minority shares w four of Chiny's largest state banks to foreign investors and refinements w foreign exchange and bond markets w 2005. After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar dla years, Chiny w lipiec 2005 revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. Cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar since the end of the dollar peg reached 15% w styczen 2008. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase w Produkt krajowy brutto since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, Chiny w 2007 stood as the second-largest economy w the world after the US, although w per capita terms the country is still lower middle-income. Annual inflows of foreign direct investment w 2007 rose to $75 billion. By the end of 2007, more than 5,000 domestic Chinese enterprises had established direct investments w 172 countries and regions around the world. The Chinese government faces several economic development challenges: (a) to sustain adequate job growth dla tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and new entrants to the work force; (b) to reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) to contain environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. Economic development has been more rapid w coastal provinces than w the interior, and approximately 200 million rural laborers have relocated to urban areas to find work. One demographic consequence of the "one child" policy is that Chiny is now one of the most rapidly aging countries w the world. Deterioration w the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially w the north - is another long-term problem. Chiny continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. In 2007 Chiny intensified government efforts to improve environmental conditions, tying the evaluation of local officials to environmental targets, publishing a national climate change policy, and establishing a high level leading group on climate change, headed by Premier WEN Jiabao. The Chinese government seeks to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil as its double-digit economic growth increases demand. Chinese energy officials w 2007 agreed to purchase five third generation nuclear reactors from Western companies. More power generating capacity came on line w 2006 as large scale investments - including the Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River - were completed. In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the economy from a sluggish, Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a political framework of strict Communist control, the economic influence of non-state organizations and individual citizens has been steadily increasing. The authorities switched to a system of household and village responsibility w agriculture w place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers w industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprises w services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of Produkt krajowy brutto since 1978. In 2003, z its 1.3 billion people but a Produkt krajowy brutto of just $5,000 per capita, Chiny stood as the second-largest economy w the world after the US (measured on a purchasing power parity basis). Agriculture and industry have posted major gains, especially w coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite Tajwan, where foreign investment has helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. The leadership, however, often has experienced - as a result of its hybrid system - the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (windfall gains and growing income disparities). Chiny thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals. The government has struggled to (a) collect revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises, many of which had been shielded from competition by subsidies and had been losing the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 80 to 120 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes w central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened Chiny's population control program, which is essential to maintaining long-term growth w living standards. Another long-term threat to growth is the deterioration w the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially w the north. Chiny continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. Beijing says it will intensify efforts to stimulate growth through spending on infrastructure - such as water control and power grids - and poverty relief and through rural tax reform aimed at eliminating arbitrary local levies on farmers. Accession to the Swiat Trade Organization helps strengthen Chiny's ability to maintain strong growth rates but at the same time puts additional pressure on the hybrid system of strong political controls and growing market influences. Chiny has benefited from a huge expansion w computer internet use. Foreign investment remains a strong element w Chiny's remarkable economic growth.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.859 trillion kWh (2006) 1.312 trillion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 11.27 billion kWh (2006) 10.3 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 5.39 billion kWh (2006) 1.55 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 3.256 trillion kWh (2007) 1.42 trillion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii - fossil fuel: 80.2%


hydro: 18.5%


nuclear: 1.2%


other: 0.1% (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m


highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m


highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly w the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade w endangered species air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly w the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade w endangered species
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1% Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
Kurs waluty yuan per US dollar - 7.61 (2007), 7.97 (2006), 8.1943 (2005), 8.2768 (2004), 8.277 (2003) yuan per US dollar - 8.28 (2002), 8.28 (2001), 8.28 (2000), 8.28 (1999), 8.28 (1998)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003); Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 marzec 2003)


head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 marzec 2003); Vice Premier WU Yi (17 marzec 2003), Vice Premier ZENG Peiyan (since 17 marzec 2003), and Vice Premier HUI Liangyu (since 17 marzec 2003)


cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)


elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); elections last held 15-17 marzec 2003 (next to be held w mid-marzec 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress


election results: HU Jintao elected president by the 10th National People's Congress z a total of 2,937 votes (4 delegates voted against him, 4 abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong elected vice president by the 10th National People's Congress z a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote); 2 seats were vacant
chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003) and Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 marzec 2003)


head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 marzec 2003); Vice Premiers HUANG Ju (since 17 marzec 2003), WU Yi (17 marzec 2003), ZENG Peiyan (since 17 marzec 2003), and HUI Liangyu (since 17 marzec 2003)


cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)


elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress dla five-year terms; elections last held 15-17 marzec 2003 (next to be held mid-marzec 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress


election results: HU Jintao elected president by the Tenth National People's Congress z a total of 2,937 votes (4 delegates voted against him, 4 abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong elected vice president by the Tenth National People's Congress z a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote); 2 seats were vacant
Eksport 79,060 bbl/day (2007) NA (2001)
Eksport - towary machinery, electrical products, data processing equipment, apparel, textile, steel, mobile phones machinery and equipment; textiles and clothing, footwear, toys and sporting goods; mineral fuels
Eksport - partnerzy US 21%, Hong Kong 16%, Japonia 9.5%, South Korea 4.6%, Niemcy 4.2% (2006) US 21.5%, Hong Kong 18%, Japonia 14.9%, South Korea 4.8% (2002)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged w a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) w the upper hoist-side corner red z a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged w a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) w the upper hoist-side corner
Produkt krajowy brutto - purchasing power parity - $5.989 trillion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 11.7%


industry: 49.2%


services: 39.1%


note: industry includes construction (2007 est.)
agriculture: 15.2%


industry and construction: 51.2%


services: 33.6% (2001)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita - purchasing power parity - $4,700 (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 11.4% (official data) (2007 est.) 8% (official data) (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 35 00 N, 105 00 E 35 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne world's fourth largest country (after Rosja, Kanada, and US); Mount Everest on the border z Nepal is the world's tallest peak world's fourth-largest country (after Rosja, Kanada, and US); Mount Everest on the border z Nepal is the world's tallest peak;
Ladowiska helikopterow 35 (2007) -
Autostrady - total: 1,402,698 km


paved: 314,204 km (with at least 16,314 km of expressways)


unpaved: 1,088,494 km (2000)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.6%


highest 10%: 34.9% (2004)
lowest 10%: 2.4%


highest 10%: 30.4% (1998)
Narkotyki major transshipment point dla heroin produced w the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country dla chemical precursors, despite new regulations on its large chemical industry major transshipment point dla heroin produced w the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country dla chemical precursors and methamphetamine
Import 3.19 million bbl/day (2007) NA (2001)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, oil and mineral fuels, plastics, LED screens, data processing equipment, optical and medical equipment, organic chemicals, steel, copper machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, plastics, iron and steel, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Japonia 14.6%, South Korea 11.3%, Tajwan 10.9%, US 7.5%, Niemcy 4.8% (2006) Japonia 18.1%, Tajwan 10.5%, South Korea 9.7%, US 9.2%, Niemcy 5.6% (2002)
Niepodleglosc 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty); 1 styczen 1912 (Manchu Dynasty replaced by a Republic); 1 pazdziernik 1949 (People's Republic established) 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 luty 1912; People's Republic established 1 pazdziernik 1949)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 12.9% (2007 est.) 12.6% (2002 est.)
Przemysl mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 22.12 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 20.01 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 24.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
total: 25.26 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 24.91 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 25.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflacja 4.7% (2007 est.) -0.8% (2002 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, AfDB, APEC, APT, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB, EAS, FAO, G-24 (observer), G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (observer), OPCW, PCA, SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, IFC, UNHCR, UNIDO, AfDB, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMOVIC, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu - 3 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 545,960 sq km (2003) 525,800 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local People's Courts (comprise higher, intermediate, and basic courts); Special People's Courts (primarily military, maritime, railway transportation, and forestry courts) Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime, and railway transport courts)
Sila robocza 803.3 million (2007 est.) 744 million (2001 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 43%


industry: 25%


services: 32% (2006 est.)
agriculture 50%, industry 22%, services 28% (2001 est.)
Granica total: 22,117 km


border countries: Afganistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Birma 2,185 km, Indie 3,380 km, Kazachstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kirgistan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Rosja (northeast) 3,605 km, Rosja (northwest) 40 km, Tadzykistan 414 km, Wietnam 1,281 km


regional borders: Hong Kong 30 km, Makau 0.34 km
total: 22,147.34 km


border countries: Afganistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Birma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, Indie 3,380 km, Kazachstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kirgistan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Makau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Rosja (northeast) 3,605 km, Rosja (northwest) 40 km, Tadzykistan 414 km, Wietnam 1,281 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 14.86%


permanent crops: 1.27%


other: 83.87% (2005)
arable land: 13.31%


permanent crops: 1.2%


other: 85.49% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Tajwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Grupy etniczne entry) Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Tajwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Grupy etniczne entry)
System prawny based on civil law system; derived from Soviet and continental civil code legal principles; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code w effect since 1 styczen 1987; new legal codes w effect since 1 styczen 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and People's Liberation Army to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held grudzien 2007-luty 2008; date of next election - NA


election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2,987
unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,985 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held NA grudzien 2002-NA luty 2003 (next to be held late 2007-NA luty 2008)


election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA
Zywotnosc total population: 72.88 years


male: 71.13 years


female: 74.82 years (2007 est.)
total population: 72.22 years


male: 70.33 years


female: 74.28 years (2003 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 90.9%


male: 95.1%


female: 86.5% (2000 census)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 86%


male: 92.9%


female: 78.8% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern Asia, bordering the East Chiny Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South Chiny Sea, between North Korea and Wietnam Eastern Asia, bordering the East Chiny Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South Chiny Sea, between North Korea and Wietnam
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
contiguous zone: 24 NM


continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin


territorial sea: 12 NM


exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Flota handlowa total: 1,775 ships (1000 GRT or over) 22,219,786 GRT/33,819,636 DWT


by type: barge carrier 3, bulk carrier 415, cargo 689, carrier 3, chemical tanker 62, combination ore/oil 2, container 157, liquefied gas 35, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 84, petroleum tanker 250, refrigerated cargo 33, roll on/roll off 9, specialized tanker 8, vehicle carrier 17


foreign-owned: 12 (Ekwador 1, Grecja 1, Hong Kong 6, Japonia 2, South Korea 1, Norwegia 1)


registered w other countries: 1,366 (Bahamas 9, Bangladesz 1, Belize 107, Bermudy 10, Boliwia 1, Kambodza 166, Cypr 10, Francja 5, Georgia 4, Niemcy 2, Honduras 3, Hong Kong 309, Indie 1, Indonezja 2, Liberia 32, Malezja 1, Malta 13, Wyspy Marshalla 3, Mongolia 3, Norwegia 47, Panama 473, Filipiny 2, Sierra Leone 8, Singapur 19, St Vincent and The Grenadines 106, Tajlandia 1, Turcja 1, Tuvalu 25, unknown 33) (2007)
total: 1,817 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 18,047,962 GRT/27,035,740 DWT


ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 348, cargo 824, chemical tanker 28, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 2, container 150, liquefied gas 28, multi-functional large-load carrier 6, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 47, petroleum tanker 267, refrigerated cargo 26, roll on/roll off 21, short-sea passenger 42, specialized tanker 8, vehicle carrier 2


note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Chorwacja 1, Niemcy 1, Hong Kong 16, Japonia 2, Panama 2, South Korea 1, Hiszpania 1, Tajwan 9, Tanzania 1, Turcja 1 (2002 est.)
Wojsko People's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (includes airborne forces), and Second Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed Police (PAP); Reserve and Militia Forces (2006) People's Liberation Army (PLA): comprises ground forces, Navy (including naval infantry and naval aviation), Air Force, and II Artillery Corps (strategic missile force), People's Armed Police Force (internal security troops, nominally a state security body but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA), militia
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) - $55.91 billion (FY02)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 4.3% (2006) 4.3% (FY02)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) - males age 15-49: 375,520,255 (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) - males age 15-49: 206 million (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) - 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) - males: 10,973,761 (2003 est.)
Swieto narodowe Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of Chiny, 1 pazdziernik (1949) Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of Chiny, 1 pazdziernik (1949)
Narodowosc noun: Chinese (singular and plural)


adjective: Chinese
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)


adjective: Chinese
Naturalne zagrozenia frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
Surowce naturalne coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest) coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.) -0.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Rurociagi gas 26,344 km; oil 17,240 km; refined products 6,106 km (2007) gas 13,845 km; oil 15,143 km; refined products 3,280 km (2003)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong spiritual movement and the Chiny Democracy Party as subversive groups no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong sect and the Chiny Democracy Party as potential rivals
Ludnosc 1,321,851,888 (lipiec 2007 est.) 1,286,975,468 (lipiec 2003 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 8%


note: 21.5 million rural population live below the official "absolute poverty" line (approximately $90 per year); and an additional 35.5 million rural population above that but below the official "low income" line (approximately $125 per year) (2006 est.)
10% (2001 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.606% (2007 est.) 0.6% (2003 est.)
Porty i stocznie - Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu, Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Wenzhou, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang (2001)
Stacje radiowe AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998) AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 75,438 km


standard gauge: 75,438 km 1.435-m gauge (20,151 km electrified) (2005)
total: 71,600 km


standard gauge: 68,000 km 1.435-m gauge (14,600 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 3,600 km 1.000-m and 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines (2002)
Religie Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%


note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4%


note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.134 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.057 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.914 male(s)/female


total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female


total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available dla private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; Chiny continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure, and is partnering z foreign providers to expand its global reach; 3 of Chiny's 6 major telecommunications operators are part of an international consortium which, w grudzien 2006, signed an agreement z Verizon Business to build the first next-generation fiber optic submarine cable system directly linking the US mainland and Chiny


domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of internet users reached 162 million w 2007; a domestic satellite system z 55 earth stations is w place


international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions) (2007)
general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available dla private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns


domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system z 55 earth stations is w place


international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japonia, South Korea, Hong Kong, Rosja, and Niemcy (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 368 million (2006) 135 million (2000)
Telefony komorkowe 461.1 million (2006) 65 million (styczen 2001)
Stacje telewizyjne 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by Chiny Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations, and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997) 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by Chiny Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts w west; plains, deltas, and hills w east mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts w west; plains, deltas, and hills w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.75 children born/woman (2007 est.) 1.7 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 4% unemployment w urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment w rural areas (2007 est.) urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial unemployment and underemployment w rural areas (2002 est.)
Drogi wodne 124,000 km navigable (2006) 110,000 km (1999)
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