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Porownanie Chiny (2008) - Chiny (2001)

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 Chiny (2008)Chiny (2001)
 ChinyChiny
Podzial administracyjny 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)


provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Tajwan)


autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)


municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin


note: Chiny considers Tajwan its 23rd province; see separate entries dla the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Makau
23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - Chiny considers Tajwan its 23rd province; see separate entries dla the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Makau
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 20.4% (male 143,527,634/female 126,607,344)


15-64 years: 71.7% (male 487,079,770/female 460,596,384)


65 years and over: 7.9% (male 49,683,856/female 54,356,900) (2007 est.)
0-14 years:
25.01% (male 166,754,893; female 151,598,117)

15-64 years:
67.88% (male 445,222,858; female 418,959,646)

65 years and over:
7.11% (male 42,547,296; female 48,028,480) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
Lotniska 467 (2007) 489 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 403


over 3,047 m: 58


2,438 to 3,047 m: 128


1,524 to 2,437 m: 130


914 to 1,523 m: 20


under 914 m: 67 (2007)
total:
324

over 3,047 m:
27

2,438 to 3,047 m:
88

1,524 to 2,437 m:
147

914 to 1,523 m:
30

under 914 m:
32 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 64


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 13


914 to 1,523 m: 17


under 914 m: 26 (2007)
total:
165

over 3,047 m:
1

2,438 to 3,047 m:
1

1,524 to 2,437 m:
29

914 to 1,523 m:
56

under 914 m:
78 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total: 9,596,960 sq km


land: 9,326,410 sq km


water: 270,550 sq km
total:
9,596,960 sq km

land:
9,326,410 sq km

water:
270,550 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the US slightly smaller than the US
Tlo historyczne For centuries Chiny stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world w the arts and sciences, but w the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After Swiat War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring Chiny's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room dla personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. For centuries Chiny has stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world w the arts and sciences. But w the first half of the 20th century, Chiny was beset by major famines, civil unrest, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After Swiat War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring Chiny's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision making. Output quadrupled w the next 20 years and Chiny now has the world's second largest Produkt krajowy brutto. Political controls remain tight even while economic controls continue to weaken.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 13.45 births/1,000 population (2007 est.) 15.95 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues: $640.6 billion


expenditures: $634.6 billion (2007 est.)
revenues:
$NA

expenditures:
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Stolica name: Beijing


geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E


time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


note: despite its size, all of Chiny falls within one time zone
Beijing
Klimat extremely diverse; tropical w south to subarctic w north extremely diverse; tropical w south to subarctic w north
Linia brzegowa 14,500 km 14,500 km
Konstytucja most recent promulgation 4 grudzien 1982 most recent promulgation 4 grudzien 1982
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: People's Republic of Chiny


conventional short form: Chiny


local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo


local short form: Zhongguo


abbreviation: PRC
conventional long form:
People's Republic of Chiny

conventional short form:
Chiny

local long form:
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo

local short form:
Zhong Guo

abbreviation:
PRC
Waluta - yuan (CNY)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.) 6.74 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $363 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.) $162 billion (2000 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr.


embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing


mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002


telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831


FAX: [86] (10) 6532-3178


consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Makau, Shanghai, Shenyang
chief of mission:
Ambassador Joseph W. PRUEHER

embassy:
Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing

mailing address:
PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002

telephone:
[86] (10) 6532-3431

FAX:
[86] (10) 6532-6422

consulate(s) general:
Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador ZHOU Wenzhong


chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500


FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate YANG Jiechi

chancery:
2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:
[1] (202) 328-2500

consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje based on principles drafted w 2005, Chiny and Indie continue discussions to resolve all aspects of their extensive boundary and territorial disputes together z a security and foreign policy dialogue to consolidate discussions related to the boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; recent talks and confidence-building measures have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and Chiny continue negotiations to establish a boundary alignment to resolve substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lies w Bhutan's northwest; Chiny asserts sovereignty over the Wyspy Spratly together z Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" eased tensions w the Spratly's but is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Wietnam and Chiny continue to expand construction of facilities w the Spratly's and w marzec 2005, the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly; Chiny occupies some of the Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; Chiny and Tajwan continue to reject both Japonia's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japonia's unilaterally declared equidistance line w the East Chiny Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting; certain islands w the Yalu and Tumen rivers are w dispute z North Korea; Chiny seeks to stem illegal migration of North Koreans; Chiny and Rosja have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and w the Argun River w accordance z their 2004 Agreement; w 2006, Chiny and Tadzykistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to w the delimitation of 2002; demarcation of the Chiny-Wietnam land boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified w czerwiec 2004, implementation remains stalled; w 2004, international environmentalist and political pressure from Birma and Tajlandia prompted Chiny to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River most of boundary z Indie w dispute; dispute over at least two small sections of the boundary z Rosja remains to be settled, despite 1997 boundary agreement; portions of the boundary z Tadzykistan are indefinite; 33-km section of boundary z North Korea w the Paektu-san (mountain) area is indefinite; involved w a complex dispute over the Wyspy Spratly z Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary agreement z Wietnam w the Gulf of Tonkin awaits ratification; Wyspy Paracelskie occupied by Chiny, but claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; claims Japoniaese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does Tajwan
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $1.641 billion (FY07) $NA
Ekonomia Chiny's economy during the last quarter century has changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player w the global economy. Reforms started w the late 1970s z the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy dla state enterprises, the foundation of a diversified banking system, the development of stock markets, the rapid growth of the non-state sector, and the opening to foreign trade and investment. Chiny has generally implemented reforms w a gradualist or piecemeal fashion, including the sale of minority shares w four of Chiny's largest state banks to foreign investors and refinements w foreign exchange and bond markets w 2005. After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar dla years, Chiny w lipiec 2005 revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. Cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar since the end of the dollar peg reached 15% w styczen 2008. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase w Produkt krajowy brutto since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, Chiny w 2007 stood as the second-largest economy w the world after the US, although w per capita terms the country is still lower middle-income. Annual inflows of foreign direct investment w 2007 rose to $75 billion. By the end of 2007, more than 5,000 domestic Chinese enterprises had established direct investments w 172 countries and regions around the world. The Chinese government faces several economic development challenges: (a) to sustain adequate job growth dla tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and new entrants to the work force; (b) to reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) to contain environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. Economic development has been more rapid w coastal provinces than w the interior, and approximately 200 million rural laborers have relocated to urban areas to find work. One demographic consequence of the "one child" policy is that Chiny is now one of the most rapidly aging countries w the world. Deterioration w the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially w the north - is another long-term problem. Chiny continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. In 2007 Chiny intensified government efforts to improve environmental conditions, tying the evaluation of local officials to environmental targets, publishing a national climate change policy, and establishing a high level leading group on climate change, headed by Premier WEN Jiabao. The Chinese government seeks to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil as its double-digit economic growth increases demand. Chinese energy officials w 2007 agreed to purchase five third generation nuclear reactors from Western companies. More power generating capacity came on line w 2006 as large scale investments - including the Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River - were completed. In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a political framework of strict Communist control, the economic influence of non-state managers and enterprises has been steadily increasing. The authorities have switched to a system of household responsibility w agriculture w place of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers w industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise w services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of Produkt krajowy brutto since 1978. In 2000, z its 1.26 billion people but a Produkt krajowy brutto of just $3,600 per capita, Chiny stood as the second largest economy w the world after the US (measured on a purchasing power parity basis). Agricultural output doubled w the 1980s, and industry also posted major gains, especially w coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite Tajwan, where foreign investment helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. On the darker side, the leadership has often experienced w its hybrid system the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals. The government has struggled to (a) collect revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises many of which had been shielded from competition by subsides and had been losing the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 80 to 120 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes w central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened Chiny's population control program, which is essential to maintaining growth w living standards. Another long-term threat to continued rapid economic growth is the deterioration w the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially w the north. Chiny continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. Weakness w the global economy w 2001 could hamper growth w exports. Beijing will intensify efforts to stimulate growth through spending on infrastructure--such as water control and power grids--and poverty relief and through rural tax reform aimed at eliminating arbitrary local levies on farmers.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.859 trillion kWh (2006) 1.084 trillion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 11.27 billion kWh (2006) 7.2 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - import 5.39 billion kWh (2006) 90 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 3.256 trillion kWh (2007) 1.173 trillion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii - fossil fuel:
79.82%

hydro:
18.98%

nuclear:
1.2%

other:
0.01% (1999)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m


highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
lowest point:
Turpan Pendi -154 m

highest point:
Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly w the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade w endangered species air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal, produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly w the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade w endangered species
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1% Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
Kurs waluty yuan per US dollar - 7.61 (2007), 7.97 (2006), 8.1943 (2005), 8.2768 (2004), 8.277 (2003) yuan per US dollar - 8.2776 (styczen 2001), 8.2785 (2000), 8.2783 (1999), 8.2790 (1998), 8.2898 (1997), 8.3142 (1996)

note:
beginning 1 styczen 1994, the People's Bank of Chiny quotes the midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's prevailing rate w the interbank foreign exchange market
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003); Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 marzec 2003)


head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 marzec 2003); Vice Premier WU Yi (17 marzec 2003), Vice Premier ZENG Peiyan (since 17 marzec 2003), and Vice Premier HUI Liangyu (since 17 marzec 2003)


cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)


elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); elections last held 15-17 marzec 2003 (next to be held w mid-marzec 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress


election results: HU Jintao elected president by the 10th National People's Congress z a total of 2,937 votes (4 delegates voted against him, 4 abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong elected vice president by the 10th National People's Congress z a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote); 2 seats were vacant
chief of state:
President JIANG Zemin (since 27 marzec 1993) and Vice President HU Jintao (since 16 marzec 1998)

head of government:
Premier ZHU Rongji (since 18 marzec 1998); Vice Premiers QIAN Qichen (since 29 marzec 1993), LI Lanqing (29 marzec 1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 marzec 1995), and WEN Jiabao (since 18 marzec 1998)

cabinet:
State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)

elections:
president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress dla five-year terms; elections last held 16-18 marzec 1998 (next to be held NA marzec 2003); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress

election results:
JIANG Zemin reelected president by the Ninth National People's Congress z a total of 2,882 votes (36 delegates voted against him, 29 abstained, and 32 did not vote); HU Jintao elected vice president by the Ninth National People's Congress z a total of 2,841 votes (67 delegates voted against him, 39 abstained, and 32 did not vote)
Eksport 79,060 bbl/day (2007) $232 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Eksport - towary machinery, electrical products, data processing equipment, apparel, textile, steel, mobile phones machinery and equipment; textiles and clothing, footwear, toys and sporting goods; mineral fuels
Eksport - partnerzy US 21%, Hong Kong 16%, Japonia 9.5%, South Korea 4.6%, Niemcy 4.2% (2006) US 21%, Hong Kong 18%, Japonia 17%, South Korea, Niemcy, Holandia, UK, Singapur, Tajwan (2000)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged w a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) w the upper hoist-side corner red z a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged w a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) w the upper hoist-side corner
Produkt krajowy brutto - purchasing power parity - $4.5 trillion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 11.7%


industry: 49.2%


services: 39.1%


note: industry includes construction (2007 est.)
agriculture:
15%

industry:
50%

services:
35% (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita - purchasing power parity - $3,600 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 11.4% (official data) (2007 est.) 8% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 35 00 N, 105 00 E 35 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne world's fourth largest country (after Rosja, Kanada, and US); Mount Everest on the border z Nepal is the world's tallest peak world's fourth-largest country (after Rosja, Kanada, and US)
Ladowiska helikopterow 35 (2007) -
Autostrady - total:
1.4 million km

paved:
271,300 km (with at least 16,000 km of expressways)

unpaved:
1,128,700 km (1999)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.6%


highest 10%: 34.9% (2004)
lowest 10%:
2.4%

highest 10%:
30.4% (1998)
Narkotyki major transshipment point dla heroin produced w the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country dla chemical precursors, despite new regulations on its large chemical industry major transshipment point dla heroin produced w the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country dla chemical precursors and methamphetamine
Import 3.19 million bbl/day (2007) $197 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, oil and mineral fuels, plastics, LED screens, data processing equipment, optical and medical equipment, organic chemicals, steel, copper machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, plastics, iron and steel, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Japonia 14.6%, South Korea 11.3%, Tajwan 10.9%, US 7.5%, Niemcy 4.8% (2006) Japonia 18%, Tajwan 11%, US 10%, South Korea 10%, Niemcy, Hong Kong, Rosja, Malezja (2000)
Niepodleglosc 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty); 1 styczen 1912 (Manchu Dynasty replaced by a Republic); 1 pazdziernik 1949 (People's Republic established) 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 luty 1912; People's Republic established 1 pazdziernik 1949)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 12.9% (2007 est.) 10% (2000 est.)
Przemysl mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 22.12 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 20.01 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 24.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
28.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 4.7% (2007 est.) 0.4% (2000 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, AfDB, APEC, APT, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB, EAS, FAO, G-24 (observer), G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC AfDB, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer), ZC
Dostawcy internetu - 3 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 545,960 sq km (2003) 498,720 sq km (1993 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local People's Courts (comprise higher, intermediate, and basic courts); Special People's Courts (primarily military, maritime, railway transportation, and forestry courts) Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime, and railway transport courts)
Sila robocza 803.3 million (2007 est.) 700 million (1998 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 43%


industry: 25%


services: 32% (2006 est.)
agriculture 50%, industry 24%, services 26% (1998)
Granica total: 22,117 km


border countries: Afganistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Birma 2,185 km, Indie 3,380 km, Kazachstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kirgistan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Rosja (northeast) 3,605 km, Rosja (northwest) 40 km, Tadzykistan 414 km, Wietnam 1,281 km


regional borders: Hong Kong 30 km, Makau 0.34 km
total:
22,147.24 km

border countries:
Afganistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Birma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30 km, Indie 3,380 km, Kazachstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kirgistan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Makau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,676.9 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Rosja (northeast) 3,605 km, Rosja (northwest) 40 km, Tadzykistan 414 km, Wietnam 1,281 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 14.86%


permanent crops: 1.27%


other: 83.87% (2005)
arable land:
10%

permanent crops:
0%

permanent pastures:
43%

forests and woodland:
14%

other:
33% (1993 est.)
Jezyki Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Tajwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Grupy etniczne entry) Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Tajwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Grupy etniczne entry)
System prawny based on civil law system; derived from Soviet and continental civil code legal principles; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code w effect since 1 styczen 1987; new legal codes w effect since 1 styczen 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and People's Liberation Army to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held grudzien 2007-luty 2008; date of next election - NA


election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2,987
unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,979 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)

elections:
last held NA grudzien 1997-NA luty 1998 (next to be held late 2002-NA marzec 2003)

election results:
percent of vote - NA%; seats - NA
Zywotnosc total population: 72.88 years


male: 71.13 years


female: 74.82 years (2007 est.)
total population:
71.62 years

male:
69.81 years

female:
73.59 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 90.9%


male: 95.1%


female: 86.5% (2000 census)
definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:
81.5%

male:
89.9%

female:
72.7% (1995 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern Asia, bordering the East Chiny Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South Chiny Sea, between North Korea and Wietnam Eastern Asia, bordering the East Chiny Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South Chiny Sea, between North Korea and Wietnam
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
contiguous zone:
24 NM

continental shelf:
200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

territorial sea:
12 NM
Flota handlowa total: 1,775 ships (1000 GRT or over) 22,219,786 GRT/33,819,636 DWT


by type: barge carrier 3, bulk carrier 415, cargo 689, carrier 3, chemical tanker 62, combination ore/oil 2, container 157, liquefied gas 35, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 84, petroleum tanker 250, refrigerated cargo 33, roll on/roll off 9, specialized tanker 8, vehicle carrier 17


foreign-owned: 12 (Ekwador 1, Grecja 1, Hong Kong 6, Japonia 2, South Korea 1, Norwegia 1)


registered w other countries: 1,366 (Bahamas 9, Bangladesz 1, Belize 107, Bermudy 10, Boliwia 1, Kambodza 166, Cypr 10, Francja 5, Georgia 4, Niemcy 2, Honduras 3, Hong Kong 309, Indie 1, Indonezja 2, Liberia 32, Malezja 1, Malta 13, Wyspy Marshalla 3, Mongolia 3, Norwegia 47, Panama 473, Filipiny 2, Sierra Leone 8, Singapur 19, St Vincent and The Grenadines 106, Tajlandia 1, Turcja 1, Tuvalu 25, unknown 33) (2007)
total:
1,745 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,533,521 GRT/24,746,859 DWT

ships by type:
barge carrier 2, bulk 324, cargo 825, chemical tanker 21, combination bulk 11, combination ore/oil 1, container 132, liquefied gas 24, multi-functional large-load carrier 5, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 45, petroleum tanker 258, refrigerated cargo 22, roll on/roll off 23, short-sea passenger 41, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 1 (2000 est.)
Wojsko People's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (includes airborne forces), and Second Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed Police (PAP); Reserve and Militia Forces (2006) People's Liberation Army (PLA) - which includes Ground Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air Force, Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force), People's Armed Police (internal security troops, nominally subordinate to Ministry of Public Security, but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA w wartime)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) - $12.608 billion (FY99); note - Chiny's real defense spending may be several times higher than the official figure because a number of significant items are funded elsewhere
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 4.3% (2006) 1.2% (FY99)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) - males age 15-49:
366,306,353 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) - males age 15-49:
200,886,946 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) - 18 years of age
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) - males:
10,089,458 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of Chiny, 1 pazdziernik (1949) Founding of the People's Republic of Chiny, 1 pazdziernik (1949)
Narodowosc noun: Chinese (singular and plural)


adjective: Chinese
noun:
Chinese (singular and plural)

adjective:
Chinese
Naturalne zagrozenia frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts
Surowce naturalne coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest) coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.) -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Rurociagi gas 26,344 km; oil 17,240 km; refined products 6,106 km (2007) crude oil 9,070 km; petroleum products 560 km; natural gas 9,383 km (1998)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP Chinese Communist Party or CCP [JIANG Zemin, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong spiritual movement and the Chiny Democracy Party as subversive groups no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong sect and the Chiny Democracy Party as potential rivals
Ludnosc 1,321,851,888 (lipiec 2007 est.) 1,273,111,290 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 8%


note: 21.5 million rural population live below the official "absolute poverty" line (approximately $90 per year); and an additional 35.5 million rural population above that but below the official "low income" line (approximately $125 per year) (2006 est.)
10% (1999 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.606% (2007 est.) 0.88% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie - Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu, Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou, Tianjin, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang
Stacje radiowe AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998) AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)
Radia - 417 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total: 75,438 km


standard gauge: 75,438 km 1.435-m gauge (20,151 km electrified) (2005)
total:
67,524 km (including 5,400 km of provincial "local" rails)

standard gauge:
63,924 km 1.435-m gauge (13,362 km electrified; 20,250 km double track)

narrow gauge:
3,600 km 0.750-m and 1.000-m gauge local industrial lines (1998 est.)

note:
a new total of 68,000 km was estimated dla early 1999 to take new construction programs into account (1999)
Religie Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%


note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1% (est.)

note:
officially atheist
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.134 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.057 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.914 male(s)/female


total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
at birth:
1.09 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.1 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.89 male(s)/female

total population:
1.06 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available dla private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; Chiny continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure, and is partnering z foreign providers to expand its global reach; 3 of Chiny's 6 major telecommunications operators are part of an international consortium which, w grudzien 2006, signed an agreement z Verizon Business to build the first next-generation fiber optic submarine cable system directly linking the US mainland and Chiny


domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of internet users reached 162 million w 2007; a domestic satellite system z 55 earth stations is w place


international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions) (2007)
general assessment:
domestic and international services are increasingly available dla private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns

domestic:
interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system z 55 earth stations is w place

international:
satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions); several international fiber-optic links to Japonia, South Korea, Hong Kong, Rosja, and Niemcy (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 368 million (2006) 135 million (2000)
Telefony komorkowe 461.1 million (2006) 65 million (styczen 2001)
Stacje telewizyjne 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by Chiny Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations, and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997) 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by Chiny Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts w west; plains, deltas, and hills w east mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts w west; plains, deltas, and hills w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.75 children born/woman (2007 est.) 1.82 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 4% unemployment w urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment w rural areas (2007 est.) urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial unemployment and underemployment w rural areas (2000 est.)
Drogi wodne 124,000 km navigable (2006) 110,000 km (1999)
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