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Lotniska 26 (2007) 30


note: 30 stations, operated by 16 national governments party to the Antarctic Treaty, have aircraft landing facilities dla either helicopters and/or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial enterprises operate two additional aircraft landing facilities; helicopter pads are available at 27 stations; runways at 15 locations are gravel, sea-ice, blue-ice, or compacted snow suitable dla landing wheeled, fixed-wing aircraft; of these, 1 is greater than 3 km w length, 6 are between 2 km and 3 km w length, 3 are between 1 km and 2 km w length, 3 are less than 1 km w length, and 2 are of unknown length; snow surface skiways, limited to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing aircraft, are available at another 15 locations; of these, 4 are greater than 3 km w length, 3 are between 2 km and 3 km w length, 2 are between 1 km and 2 km w length, 2 are less than 1 km w length, and 4 are of unknown length; aircraft landing facilities generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; aircraft landing facilities do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective governmental or nongovernmental operating organization required dla landing; landed aircraft are subject to inspection w accordance z Article 7, Antarctic Treaty (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 26


over 3,047 m: 5


2,438 to 3,047 m: 5


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 9


under 914 m: 6 (2007)
total: 19


over 3,047 m: 6


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 4


under 914 m: 5 (2002)
Terytorium total: 14 million sq km


land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km ice-covered) (est.)


note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North America, and South America, but larger than Australia and the subcontinent of Europe
total: 14 million sq km


land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km ice-covered) (est.)


note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North America, and South America, but larger than Australia and the subcontinent of Europe
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
Tlo historyczne Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial operators and British and Rosjan national expeditions began exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that Antarktyda was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands. Several exploration "firsts" were achieved w the early 20th century. Following Swiat War II, there was an upsurge w scientific research on the continent. A number of countries have set up year-round research stations on Antarktyda. Seven have made territorial claims, but not all countries recognize these claims. In order to form a legal framework dla the activities of nations on the continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed w 1959, it entered into force w 1961. Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial operators and British and Rosjan national expeditions began exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region and other areas south of the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that Antarktyda was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands. Several exploration "firsts" were achieved w the early 20th century. Following Swiat War II, there was an upsurge w scientific research on the continent. A number of countries have set up year-round research stations on Antarktyda. Seven have made territorial claims, but no other country recognizes these claims. In order to form a legal framework dla the activities of nations on the continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed w 1959, it entered into force w 1961.
Klimat severe low temperatures vary z latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarktyda is colder than West Antarktyda because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur w styczen along the coast and average slightly below freezing severe low temperatures vary z latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarktyda is colder than West Antarktyda because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur w styczen along the coast and average slightly below freezing
Linia brzegowa 17,968 km 17,968 km
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Antarktyda
conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Antarktyda
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary w Government type entry); Argentyna, Australia, Chile, Francja, NZ, Norwegia, and UK claim land and maritime sectors (some overlapping) dla a large portion of the continent; the US and many other states do not recognize these territorial claims and have made no claims themselves (the US and Rosja reserve the right to do so); no claims have been made w the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west Antarctic Treaty freezes claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary w Government type entry); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentyna, Australia, Chile, Francja, NZ, Norwegia, and UK; the US and most other states do not recognize the territorial claims of other states and have made no claims themselves (the US and Rosja reserve the right to do so); no claims have been made w the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west; several states z land claims w Antarktyda have expressed their intention to submit data to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend their continental shelf claims to adjoining undersea ridges
Ekonomia Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based abroad, account dla Antarktyda's limited economic activity. Antarctic fisheries w 2004-05 (1 lipiec-30 czerwiec) reported landing 147,000 metric tons (estimated fishing from the area covered by the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which extends slightly beyond the Antarctic Treaty area). Unregulated fishing, particularly of Patagonian toothfish, is a serious problem. The CCAMLR determines the recommended catch limits dla marine species. A total of 26,245 tourists visited w the 2005-06 Antarctic summer, up from the 22,712 visitors the previous year. Nearly all of them were passengers on commercial (nongovernmental) ships and several yachts that make trips during the summer. Most tourist trips last approximately two weeks. Fishing off the coast and tourism, both based abroad, account dla the limited economic activity. Antarctic fisheries w 2000-01 (1 lipiec-30 czerwiec) reported landing 112,934 metric tons. Unregulated fishing, particularly of tooth fish, is a serious problem. Allegedly illegal fishing w antarctic waters w 1998 resulted w the seizure (by Francja and Australia) of at least eight fishing ships. The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources determines the recommended catch limits dla marine species. A total of 12,248 tourists visited w the 2000-01 antarctic summer, down from the 14,762 who visited the previous year. Nearly all of them were passengers on 21 commercial (nongovernmental) ships and several yachts that made trips during the summer. Most tourist trips lasted approximately two weeks.
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m


highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m


note: the lowest known land point w Antarktyda is hidden w the Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater
lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m


highest point: Vinson Massif 4,897 m


note: the lowest known land point w Antarktyda is hidden w the Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater
Srodowisko - obecne problemy in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the Antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers; researchers w 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light passing through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an Antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm one-celled Antarctic marine plants; w 2002, significant areas of ice shelves disintegrated w response to regional warming in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers; researchers w 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light coming through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm one-celled antarctic marine plants; w 2002, significant areas of ice shelves disintegrated w response to regional warming
Koordynaty geograficzne 90 00 S, 0 00 E 90 00 S, 0 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator w an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator w an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable
Ladowiska helikopterow 53


note: all 37 year-round and 16 seasonal stations operated by National Antarctic Programs stations have restricted helicopter landing facilities (helipads) (2007)
27 stations have helicopter landing facilities (helipads) (2002)
Dostawcy internetu - NA
Nawadniane tereny - 0 sq km (1998 est.)
Granica 0 km


note: see entry on Miedzynarodowe dyskusje
0 km


note: see entry on International disputes
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 0%


permanent crops: 0%


other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) (2005)
arable land: 0%


permanent crops: 0%


other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) (1998 est.)
System prawny Antarktyda is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (with respect to their own nationals and operations) w accordance z their own national laws; US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such as murder, may apply extraterritorially; some US laws directly apply to Antarktyda; dla example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties dla the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from Antarktyda; violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 w fines and one year w prison; the National Science Foundation and Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities; Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended w 1996, requires expeditions from the US to Antarktyda to notify, w advance, the Office of Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty; dla more information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 292-8030, or visit their website at www.nsf.gov; more generally, access to the Antarctic Treaty area, that is to all areas between 60 and 90 degrees south latitude, is subject to a number of relevant legal instruments and authorization procedures adopted by the states party to the Antarctic Treaty Antarktyda is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations. Decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (within their areas) w accordance z their own national laws. US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such as murder, may apply extra-territorially. Some US laws directly apply to Antarktyda. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties dla the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: the taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from Antarktyda. Violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 w fines and one year w prison. The National Science Foundation and Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended w 1996, requires expeditions from the US to Antarktyda to notify, w advance, the Office of Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 292-8030, or visit their website at www.nsf.gov.
Lokalizacja continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle
Lokalizacja na mapie Antarctic Region Antarctic Region
Morskie obszary Australia, Chile, and Argentyna claim Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) rights or similar over 200 nm extensions seaward from their continental claims, but like the claims themselves, these zones are not accepted by other countries; 21 of 28 Antarctic consultative nations have made no claims to Antarctic territory (although Rosja and the US have reserved the right to do so) and do not recognize the claims of the other nations; also see the Miedzynarodowe dyskusje entry none; 20 of 27 Antarctic consultative nations have made no claims to Antarctic territory (although Rosja and the US have reserved the right to do so) and do not recognize the claims of the other nations; also see the Miedzynarodowe dyskusje entry
Wojsko - uwagi the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment dla scientific research or dla any other peaceful purposes the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment dla scientific research or dla any other peaceful purposes
Naturalne zagrozenia katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarktyda; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may calve from ice shelf katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarktyda; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may calve from ice shelf
Surowce naturalne iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found w small uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish, and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found w small uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish, and crab have been taken by commercial fisheries
Ludnosc no indigenous inhabitants, but there are both permanent and summer-only staffed research stations


note: 28 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty, operate through their National Antarctic Program a number of seasonal-only (summer) and year-round research stations on the continent and its nearby islands south of 60 degrees south latitude (the region covered by the Antarctic Treaty); these stations' population of persons doing and supporting science or engaged w the management and protection of the Antarctic region varies from approximately 4,000 w summer to 1,000 w winter; w addition, approximately 1,000 personnel, including ship's crew and scientists doing onboard research, are present w the waters of the treaty region; peak summer (December-February) population - 3,944 total; Argentyna 417, Australia 200, Brazylia 40, Bulgaria 15, Chile 224, Chiny 70, Czechy 20, Ekwador 26, Finlandia 20, Francja 122, Niemcy 78, Indie 65, Wlochy 113, Japonia 125, South Korea 60, NZ 85, Norwegia 44, Peru 28, Polska 40, Rumunia 13, Rosja 429, Republika Poludniowej Afryki 80, Hiszpania 28, Szwecja 20, Ukraina 24, UK 205, US 1,293, Urugwaj 60 (2006-2007); winter (June-August) station population - 1,077 total; Argentyna 176, Australia 62, Brazylia 12, Chile 88, Chiny 29, Francja 37, Niemcy 9, Indie 25, Wlochy 2, Japonia 40, South Korea 15, NZ 10, Norwegia 7, Polska 12, Rosja 148, Republika Poludniowej Afryki 10, Ukraina 12, UK 37, US 337, Urugwaj 9 (2006); research stations operated within the Antarctic Treaty area (south of 60 degrees south latitude) by National Antarctic Programs: year-round stations - 37 total; Argentyna 6, Australia 3, Brazylia 1, Chile 3, Chiny 2, Francja 1, Niemcy 1, Indie 1, Japonia 1, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Norwegia 1, Polska 1, Rosja 5, Republika Poludniowej Afryki 1, Ukraina 1, UK 2, US 3, Urugwaj 1, Wlochy and Francja jointly 1 (2005); seasonal-only (summer) stations - 16 total; Bulgaria 1, Chile 1, Czechy 1, Ekwador 1, Finlandia 1, Niemcy 1, Wlochy 1, Japonia 1, Norwegia 1, Peru 1, Rumunia 1, Rosja 1, Hiszpania 2, Szwecja 1, UK 1 (2006-2007); w addition, during the austral summer some nations have numerous occupied locations such as tent camps, summer-long temporary facilities, and mobile traverses w support of research (lipiec 2007 est.)
no indigenous inhabitants, but there are seasonally staffed research stations


note: approximately 27 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty, send personnel to perform seasonal (summer) and year-round research on the continent and w its surrounding oceans; the population of persons doing and supporting science on the continent and its nearby islands south of 60 degrees south latitude (the region covered by the Antarctic Treaty) varies from approximately 4,000 w summer to 1,000 w winter; w addition, approximately 1,000 personnel including ship's crew and scientists doing onboard research are present w the waters of the treaty region; summer (January) population - 3,687 total; Argentyna 302, Australia 201, Belgia 13, Brazylia 80, Bulgaria 16, Chile 352, Chiny 70, Finlandia 11, Francja 100, Niemcy 51, Indie 60, Wlochy 106, Japonia 136, South Korea 14, Holandia 10, NZ 60, Norwegia 40, Peru 28, Polska 70, Rosja 254, Republika Poludniowej Afryki 80, Hiszpania 43, Szwecja 20, UK 192, US 1,378 (1998-99); winter (July) population - 964 total; Argentyna 165, Australia 75, Brazylia 12, Chile 129, Chiny 33, Francja 33, Niemcy 9, Indie 25, Japonia 40, South Korea 14, NZ 10, Polska 20, Rosja 102, Republika Poludniowej Afryki 10, UK 39, US 248 (1998-99); year-round stations - 42 total; Argentyna 6, Australia 4, Brazylia 1, Chile 4, Chiny 2, Finlandia 1, Francja 1, Niemcy 1, Indie 1, Wlochy 1, Japonia 1, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Norwegia 1, Polska 1, Rosja 6, Republika Poludniowej Afryki 1, Hiszpania 1, Ukraina 1, UK 2, US 3, Urugwaj 1 (1998-99); summer-only stations - 32 total; Argentyna 3, Australia 4, Bulgaria 1, Chile 7, Niemcy 1, Indie 1, Japonia 3, NZ 1, Peru 1, Rosja 3, Szwecja 2, UK 5 (1998-99); w addition, during the austral summer some nations have numerous occupied locations such as tent camps, summer-long temporary facilities, and mobile traverses w support of research (lipiec 2003 est.)
Porty i stocznie - there are no developed ports and harbors w Antarktyda; most coastal stations have offshore anchorages, and supplies are transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, and helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03 W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection w accordance z Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage is sparse and intermittent
Stacje radiowe AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1 (information dla US bases only) (2002) AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1


note: information dla US bases only (2002)
System telefoniczny general assessment: local systems at some research stations


domestic: commercial cellular networks operating w a small number of locations


international: country code - 672; via satellite (including mobile Inmarsat and Iridium systems) from all research stations, ships, aircraft, and most field parties (2001)
general assessment: local systems at some research stations


domestic: NA


international: via satellite from some research stations
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 0; note - information dla US bases only (2001) 0


note: information dla US bases only (2001)
Telefony komorkowe - NA; Iridium system w use
Stacje telewizyjne 1 (cable system z 6 channels; American Forces Antarctic Network-McMurdo - information dla US bases only) (2002) 1 (cable system z six channels; American Forces Antarctic Network-McMurdo)


note: information dla US bases only (2002)
Uksztaltowanie terenu about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, z average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, z average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent
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