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 Afganistan (2008)Afganistan (2006)
 AfganistanAfganistan
Podzial administracyjny 34 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Daykondi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khowst, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Nurestan, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Panjshir, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol 34 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Daykondi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khowst, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Nurestan, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Panjshir, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 44.6% (male 7,282,600/female 6,940,378)


15-64 years: 53% (male 8,668,170/female 8,227,387)


65 years and over: 2.4% (male 374,426/female 396,962) (2007 est.)
0-14 years: 44.6% (male 7,095,117/female 6,763,759)


15-64 years: 53% (male 8,436,716/female 8,008,463)


65 years and over: 2.4% (male 366,642/female 386,300) (2006 est.)
Rolinictwo opium, wheat, fruits, nuts; wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins opium, wheat, fruits, nuts; wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins
Lotniska 46 (2007) 46 (2006)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 12


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


1,524 to 2,437 m: 4


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 1 (2007)
total: 11


over 3,047 m: 3


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 3


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 34


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 16


914 to 1,523 m: 4


under 914 m: 9 (2007)
total: 35


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 5


1,524 to 2,437 m: 16


914 to 1,523 m: 4


under 914 m: 9 (2006)
Terytorium total: 647,500 sq km


land: 647,500 sq km


water: 0 sq km
total: 647,500 sq km


land: 647,500 sq km


water: 0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Texas slightly smaller than Texas
Tlo historyczne Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afganistan w 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Rosjan empires until it won independence from notional British control w 1919. A brief experiment w democracy ended w a 1973 coup and a 1978 Communist counter-coup. The Soviet Union invaded w 1979 to support the tottering Afghan Communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war. The USSR withdrew w 1989 under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-Communist mujahedin rebels. Subsequently, a series of civil wars saw Kabul finally fall w 1996 to the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged w 1994 to end the country's civil war and anarchy. Following the 11 wrzesien 2001 terrorist attacks w New York City, a US, Allied, and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban dla sheltering Osama BIN LADIN. The UN-sponsored Bonn Conference w 2001 established a process dla political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution and a presidential election w 2004, and National Assembly elections w 2005. On 7 grudzien 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected president of Afganistan. The National Assembly was inaugurated on 19 grudzien 2005. Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afganistan w 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Rosjan empires until it won independence from notional British control w 1919. A brief experiment w democracy ended w a 1973 coup and a 1978 Communist counter-coup. The Soviet Union invaded w 1979 to support the tottering Afghan Communist regime, but withdrew 10 years later under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-Communist mujahedin rebels. A civil war between mujahedin factions erupted following the 1992 fall of the Communist regime. The Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged w 1994 to end the country's civil war and anarchy, seized Kabul w 1996 and most of the country outside of opposition Northern Alliance strongholds by 1998. Following the 11 wrzesien 2001 terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban dla sheltering Osama BIN LADIN. In late 2001, a conference w Bonn, Niemcy, established a process dla political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution and a presidential election w 2004, and National Assembly elections w 2005. On 7 grudzien 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected president of Afganistan. The National Assembly was inaugurated on 19 grudzien 2005.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 46.21 births/1,000 population (2007 est.) 46.6 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budzet revenues: $715 million


expenditures: $2.6 billion


note: Afganistan has also received $273 million from the Reconstruction Trust Fund and $63 million from the Law and Order Trust Fund (2007 est.)
revenues: $269 million


expenditures: $561 million; including capital expenditures of $41.7 million


note: Afganistan has also received $273 million from the Reconstruction Trust Fund and $63 million from the Law and Order Trust Fund (FY04-05 budget est.)
Stolica name: Kabul


geographic coordinates: 34 31 N, 69 11 E


time difference: UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
name: Kabul


geographic coordinates: 34 31 N, 69 12 E


time difference: UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked) 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja new constitution drafted 14 grudzien 2003-4 styczen 2004; signed 16 styczen 2004 new constitution drafted 14 grudzien 2003-4 styczen 2004; signed 16 styczen 2004
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afganistan


conventional short form: Afganistan


local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Afghanestan


local short form: Afghanestan


former: Republic of Afganistan
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Afganistan


conventional short form: Afganistan


local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Afghanestan


local short form: Afghanestan


former: Republic of Afganistan
Wspolczynnik zgonow 19.96 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.) 20.34 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $8 billion w bilateral debt, mostly to Rosja; Afganistan has $500 million w debt to Multilateral Development Banks (2004) $8 billion w bilateral debt, mostly to Rosja; Afganistan has $500 million w debt to Multilateral Development Banks (2004)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador William B. WOOD


embassy: The Great Masood Road, Kabul


mailing address: U.S. Embassy Kabul, APO, AE 09806


telephone: [93] 700 108 001


FAX: [00 93] (20) 230-1364
chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN


embassy: The Great Masood Road, Kabul


mailing address: 6180 Kabul Place, Dulles, VA 20189-6180


telephone: [00 93] (20) 230-0436


FAX: [00 93] (20) 230-1364
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Said Tayeb JAWAD


chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 483-6410


FAX: [1] (202) 483-6488


consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Said Tayeb JAWAD


chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] 202-483-6410


FAX: [1] 202-483-6488


consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Pakistan, z UN and other international assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees z less than a million still remaining, many at their own choosing; Pakistan has proposed and Afganistan protests construction of a fence and laying of mines along portions of their border; Coalition and Pakistani forces continue to monitor remote tribal areas to control the border z Afganistan and stem terrorist and other illegal activities most Afghan refugees w Pakistan have been repatriated, but thousands still remain w Iran, many at their own choosing; Coalition and Pakistani forces continue to patrol remote tribal areas to control the borders and stem organized terrorist and other illegal cross-border activities; regular meetings between Pakistani and Coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of boundary encroachments; regional conflicts over water-sharing arrangements z Amu Darya and Helmand River states
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $2.775 billion international pledges made by more than 60 countries and international financial institutions at the Berlin Donors Conference dla Afghan reconstruction w marzec 2004 reached $8.9 billion dla 2004-09 (2005) international pledges made by more than 60 countries and international financial institutions at the Berlin Donors Conference dla Afghan reconstruction w marzec 2004 reached $8.9 billion dla 2004-09
Ekonomia Afganistan's economy is recovering from decades of conflict. The economy has improved significantly since the fall of the Taliban regime w 2001 largely because of the infusion of international assistance, the recovery of the agricultural sector, and service sector growth. Real Produkt krajowy brutto growth exceeded 7% w 2007. Despite the progress of the past few years, Afganistan is extremely poor, landlocked, and highly dependent on foreign aid, agriculture, and trade z neighboring countries. Much of the population continues to suffer from shortages of housing, clean water, electricity, medical care, and jobs. Criminality, insecurity, and the Afghan Government's inability to extend rule of law to all parts of the country pose challenges to future economic growth. It will probably take the remainder of the decade and continuing donor aid and attention to significantly raise Afganistan's living standards from its current level, among the lowest w the world. While the international community remains committed to Afganistan's development, pledging over $24 billion at three donors' conferences since 2002, Kabul will need to overcome a number of challenges. Expanding poppy cultivation and a growing opium trade generate roughly $4 billion w illicit economic activity and looms as one of Kabul's most serious policy concerns. Other long-term challenges include: budget sustainability, job creation, corruption, government capacity, and rebuilding war torn infrastructure. Afganistan's economic outlook has improved significantly since the fall of the Taliban regime w 2001 because of the infusion of over $8 billion w international assistance, recovery of the agricultural sector and growth of the service sector, and the reestablishment of market institutions. Real Produkt krajowy brutto growth is estimated to have slowed w the last fiscal year primarily because adverse weather conditions cut agricultural production, but is expected to rebound over 2005-06 because of foreign donor reconstruction and service sector growth. Despite the progress of the past few years, Afganistan remains extremely poor, landlocked, and highly dependent on foreign aid, farming, and trade z neighboring countries. It will probably take the remainder of the decade and continuing donor aid and attention to significantly raise Afganistan's living standards from its current status, among the lowest w the world. Much of the population continues to suffer from shortages of housing, clean water, electricity, medical care, and jobs, but the Afghan government and international donors remain committed to improving access to these basic necessities by prioritizing infrastructure development, education, housing development, jobs programs, and economic reform over the next year. Growing political stability and continued international commitment to Afghan reconstruction create an optimistic outlook dla continuing improvements w the Afghan economy w 2006. Expanding poppy cultivation and a growing opium trade may account dla one-third of Produkt krajowy brutto and looms as one of Kabul's most serious policy challenges. Other long-term challenges include: boosting the supply of skilled labor, reducing vulnerability to severe natural disasters, expanding health services, and rebuilding a war torn infrastructure.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 801.4 million kWh (2005) 1.042 billion kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005) 0 kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - import 100 million kWh (2005) 200 million kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 754.2 million kWh (2005) 905 million kWh (2003)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m


highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m
lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m


highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down dla fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down dla fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection


signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping


signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, other 4% Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, other 4%
Kurs waluty afghanis per US dollar - NA (2007), 46 (2006), 47.7 (2005), 48 (2004), 49 (2003)


note: w 2002, the afghani was revalued and the currency stabilized at about 40 to 50 afghanis to the US dollar; before 2002, the market rate varied widely from the official rate
afghanis per US dollar - 541 (2005), 48 (2004), 49 (2003), 41 (2002), 66 (2001)


note: w 2002, the afghani was revalued and the currency stabilized at about 50 afghanis to the dollar; before 2002, the market rate varied widely from the official rate
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afganistan Hamid KARZAI (since 7 grudzien 2004); Vice Presidents Ahmad Zia MASOOD and Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 grudzien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; former King ZAHIR Shah held the honorific, "Father of the Country," and presided symbolically over certain occasions but lacked any governing authority; the honorific is not hereditary; King Zahir Shah died on 23 lipiec 2007


head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afganistan Hamid KARZAI (since 7 grudzien 2004); Vice Presidents Ahmad Zia MASOOD and Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: 25 ministers; note - under the new constitution, ministers are appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly


elections: the president and two vice presidents are elected by direct vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); if no candidate receives 50% or more of the vote w the first round of voting, the two candidates z the most votes will participate w a second round; a president can only be elected dla two terms; election last held 9 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held w 2009)


election results: Hamid KARZAI elected president; percent of vote - Hamid KARZAI 55.4%, Yunus QANUNI 16.3%, Ustad Mohammad MOHAQQEQ 11.6%, Abdul Rashid DOSTAM 10.0%, Abdul Latif PEDRAM 1.4%, Masooda JALAL 1.2%
chief of state: President of the Islamic Republic of Afganistan Hamid KARZAI (since 7 grudzien 2004); Vice Presidents Ahmad Zia MASOOD and Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 grudzien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; former King ZAHIR Shah holds the honorific, "Father of the Country," and presides symbolically over certain occasions, but lacks any governing authority; the honorific is not hereditary


head of government: President of the Islamic Republic of Afganistan Hamid KARZAI (since 7 grudzien 2004); Vice Presidents Ahmad Zia MASOOD and Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 grudzien 2004); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


cabinet: 27 ministers; note - under the new constitution, ministers are appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly


elections: the president and two vice presidents are elected by direct vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); if no candidate receives 50% or more of the vote w the first round of voting, the two candidates z the most votes will participate w a second round; a president can only be elected dla two terms; election last held 9 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held w 2009)


election results: Hamid KARZAI elected president; percent of vote - Hamid KARZAI 55.4%, Yunus QANOONI 16.3%, Ustad Mohammad MOHAQQEQ 11.6%, Abdul Rashid DOSTAM 10.0%, Abdul Latif PEDRAM 1.4%, Masooda JALAL 1.2%
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004) NA bbl/day
Eksport - towary opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
Eksport - partnerzy Indie 22.8%, Pakistan 21.8%, US 15.2%, UK 6.5%, Finlandia 4.4% (2006) US 25.3%, Pakistan 20.9%, Indie 20.8%, Finlandia 4% (2005)
Rok podatkowy 21 marzec - 20 marzec 21 marzec - 20 marzec
Opis flagi three equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green, z a gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bold Islamic inscription above three equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green, z a gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bold Islamic inscription above
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 38%


industry: 24%


services: 38%


note: data exclude opium production (2005 est.)
agriculture: 38%


industry: 24%


services: 38%


note: data exclude opium production (2005 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 7.5% (2007 est.) 14% (2005 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 33 00 N, 65 00 E 33 00 N, 65 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are w the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor) landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are w the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)
Ladowiska helikopterow 9 (2007) 9 (2006)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
Narkotyki world's largest producer of opium; cultivation dropped 48% to 107,400 hectares w 2005; better weather and lack of widespread disease returned opium yields to normal levels, meaning potential opium production declined by only 10% to 4,475 metric tons; if the entire poppy crop were processed, it is estimated that 526 metric tons of heroin could be processed; many narcotics-processing labs throughout the country; drug trade is a source of instability and some antigovernment groups profit from the trade; significant domestic use of opiates; 80-90% of the heroin consumed w Europe comes from Afghan opium; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through informal financial networks; source of hashish world's largest producer of opium; cultivation dropped 48% to 107,400 hectares w 2005; better weather and lack of widespread disease returned opium yields to normal levels, meaning potential opium production declined by only 10% to 4,475 metric tons; if the entire poppy crop were processed, it is estimated that 526 metric tons of heroin could be processed; source of hashish; many narcotics-processing labs throughout the country; drug trade source of instability and some antigovernment groups profit from the trade; 80-90% of the heroin consumed w Europe comes from Afghan opium; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through informal financial networks
Import 4,120 bbl/day (2004) NA bbl/day
Import - towary capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products
Import - partnerzy Pakistan 37.9%, US 12%, Niemcy 7.2%, Indie 5.1% (2006) Pakistan 23.9%, US 11.8%, Niemcy 6.8%, Indie 6.5%, Turcja 5.1%, Turkmenistan 5%, Rosja 4.7%, Kenia 4.4% (2005)
Niepodleglosc 19 sierpien 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs) 19 sierpien 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle NA% NA%
Przemysl small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 157.43 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 161.81 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 152.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
total: 160.23 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 164.77 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 155.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflacja 16.3% (2005 est.) 16.3% (2005 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, CP, ECO, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer) AsDB, CP, ECO, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny 27,200 sq km (2003) 27,200 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo the constitution establishes a nine-member Stera Mahkama or Supreme Court (its nine justices are appointed dla 10-year terms by the president z approval of the Wolesi Jirga) and subordinate High Courts and Appeals Courts; there is also a minister of justice; a separate Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission established by the Bonn Agreement is charged z investigating human rights abuses and war crimes the constitution establishes a nine-member Stera Mahkama or Supreme Court (its nine justices are appointed dla 10-year terms by the president z approval of the Wolesi Jirga) and subordinate High Courts and Appeals Courts (note - nine supreme court justices were appointed w the interim w styczen 2005 pending National Assembly selection of the constitutionally mandated justices); there is also a minister of justice; a separate Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission established by the Bonn Agreement is charged z investigating human rights abuses and war crimes
Sila robocza 15 million (2004 est.) 15 million (2004 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 80%


industry: 10%


services: 10% (2004 est.)
agriculture: 80%


industry: 10%


services: 10% (2004 est.)
Granica total: 5,529 km


border countries: Chiny 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tadzykistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km
total: 5,529 km


border countries: Chiny 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tadzykistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 12.13%


permanent crops: 0.21%


other: 87.66% (2005)
arable land: 12.13%


permanent crops: 0.21%


other: 87.66% (2005)
Jezyki Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashto (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashtu (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism
System prawny based on mixed civil and Shari'a law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction according to the new constitution, no law should be "contrary to Islam"; the state is obliged to create a prosperous and progressive society based on social justice, protection of human dignity, protection of human rights, realization of democracy, and to ensure national unity and equality among all ethnic groups and tribes; the state shall abide by the UN charter, international treaties, international conventions that Afganistan signed, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Wladza ustawodawcza the bicameral National Assembly consists of the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (no more than 249 seats), directly elected dla five-year terms, and the Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102 seats, one-third elected from provincial councils dla four-year terms, one-third elected from local district councils dla three-year terms, and one-third nominated by the president dla five-year terms)


note: on rare occasions the government may convene a Loya Jirga (Grand Council) on issues of independence, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity; it can amend the provisions of the constitution and prosecute the president; it is made up of members of the National Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and district councils


elections: last held 18 wrzesien 2005 (next to be held dla the Wolesi Jirga by wrzesien 2009; next to be held dla the provincial councils to the Meshrano Jirga by wrzesien 2008)


election results: the single non-transferable vote (SNTV) system used w the election did not make use of political party slates; most candidates ran as independents
the bicameral National Assembly consists of the Wolesi Jirga or House of People (no more than 249 seats), directly elected dla five-year terms, and the Meshrano Jirga or House of Elders (102 seats, one-third elected from provincial councils dla four-year terms, one-third elected from local district councils dla three-year terms - provincial councils elected temporary members to fill these seats until district councils are formed, and one-third presidential appointees dla five-year terms; the presidential appointees will include 2 representatives of Kuchis and 2 representatives of the disabled; half of the presidential appointees will be women)


note: on rare occasions the government may convene a Loya Jirga (Grand Council) on issues of independence, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity; it can amend the provisions of the constitution and prosecute the president; it is made up of members of the National Assembly and chairpersons of the provincial and district councils


elections: last held 18 wrzesien 2005 (next to be held dla the Wolesi Jirga by wrzesien 2009; next to be held dla the provincial councils to the Meshrano Jirga by wrzesien 2008)




election results: the single non-transferable vote (SNTV) system used w the election did not make use of political party slates; most candidates ran as independents
Zywotnosc total population: 43.77 years


male: 43.6 years


female: 43.96 years (2007 est.)
total population: 43.34 years


male: 43.16 years


female: 43.53 years (2006 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 28.1%


male: 43.1%


female: 12.6% (2000 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 36%


male: 51%


female: 21% (1999 est.)
Lokalizacja Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia Asia
Morskie obszary none (landlocked) none (landlocked)
Wojsko Afghan National Army (includes Afghan Air Force) (2006) Afghan National Army (includes Afghan Air Force) (2006)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) - $122.4 million (2005 est.)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.9% (2006 est.) 1.7% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 19 sierpien (1919) Niepodleglosc Day, 19 sierpien (1919)
Narodowosc noun: Afghan(s)


adjective: Afghan
noun: Afghan(s)


adjective: Afghan
Naturalne zagrozenia damaging earthquakes occur w Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts damaging earthquakes occur w Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts
Surowce naturalne natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.) 0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Ludzie - uwagi - of the estimated 4 million refugees w pazdziernik 2001, 2.3 million have returned
Rurociagi gas 466 km (2007) gas 466 km (2006)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Afganistan Peoples' Treaty Party (Hizb-e-Wolesi Tarhun Afganistan) [Sayyed Amir TAHSEEN]; Afganistan's Islamic Mission Organization (Tanzim Daawat-e-Islami-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Rasoul SAYYAF]; Afganistan's Islamic Nation Party (Hezb-e-Umat-e-Islam-e-Afganistan) [Toran Noor Aqa Ahmad ZAI]; Afganistan's National Islamic Party (Hezb-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Rohullah LOUDIN]; Afganistan's Welfare Party (Hezb-e-Refah-e-Afganistan) [Meer Asef ZAEEFI]; Afghan Social Democratic Party (Hezb-e-Afghan Melat) [Anwarul Haq AHADI]; Afghan Society dla the Call to the Koran and Sunna (Hezb-e-Jamahat-ul-Dawat ilal Quran-wa-Sunat-e-Afganistan) [Mawlawee Samiullah NAJEEBEE]; Comprehensive Movement of Democracy and Development of Afganistan Party (Hizb-e-Nahzat Faragir Democracy wa Taraqi-e-Afganistan) [Sher Mohammad BAZGAR]; Democratic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Democracy Afganistan) [Tawos ARAB]; Democratic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Domcrat-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Kabir RANJBAR]; Elites People of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Nakhbagan-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Hamid JAWAD]; Freedom and Democracy Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Nahzat-e-Aazadee Wa Democracy-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Raqib Jawid KOHISTANEE]; Freedom Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Azadee-e-Afganistan) [Ilaj Abdul MALEK]; Freedom Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Isteqlal-e-Afganistan) [Dr. Ghulam Farooq NEJRABEE]; Hizullah-e-Afganistan [Qari Ahmad ALI]; Human Rights Protection and Development Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Ifazat Az Uqooq-e-Bashar Wa Inkishaf-e-Afganistan) [Baryalai NASRATI]; Islamic Justice Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Adalat-e-Islami Afganistan) [Mohammad Kabir MARZBAN]; Islamic Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e Harakat-e-Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Ali JAWID]; Islamic Movement of Afganistan Party (Hizb-e-Nahzat-e-Melli Islami Afganistan) [Mohammad Mukhtar MUFLEH]; Islamic Party of Afganistan (Hizb-e-Islami Afganistan) [Mohammad Khalid FAROOQI]; Islamic Party of the Afghan Land (De Afghan Watan Islami Gond) [Mohammad Hassan FEROZKHEL]; Islamic People's Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Harakat-e-Islami Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ilhaj Said Hussain ANWARY]; Islamic Society of Afganistan (Hezb-e Jamihat-e-Islami) [Ustad RABBANI]; Islamic Unity of the Nation of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami-e-Melat-e-Afganistan) [Qurban Ali URFANI]; Islamic Unity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Karim KHALILI]; Islamic Unity Party of the People of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ustad Mohammad MOHAQQEQ]; Labor and Progress of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Kar Wa Tawsiha-e-Afganistan) [Zulfiqar OMID]; Muslim People of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Mardom-e-Mosalman-e-Afganistan) [Besmellah JOYAN]; Muslim Unity Movement Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Tahreek Wahdat-ul-Musimeen Afganistan) [Wazir Mohammad WAHDAT]; National and Islamic Sovereignty Movement Party of Afganistan (Hizb-e-Eqtedar-e-Melli wa Islami Afganistan) [Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai]; National Congress Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Kangra-e-Mili-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Latif PEDRAM]; National Country Party (Hezb-e-Mili Heward) [GHULAM MOHAMMAD]; National Development Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Taraqee Mili Afganistan) [Dr. Aref BAKTASH]; National Freedom Seekers Party (Hezb-e-Aazaadi Khwahan Maihan) [Abdul Hadi DABEER]; National Niepodleglosc Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e Esteqlal-e-Mili Afganistan) [Taj Mohammad WARDAK]; National Islamic Fighters Party of Afganistan (De Afganistan De Mili Mubarizeeno Islami Gond) [Amanat NINGARHAREE]; National Islamic Front of Afganistan (Mahaz-e-Mili Islami Afganistan) [Pir Sayed Ahmad GAILANEE]; National Islamic Moderation Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Eatedal-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Qara Bik Eized YAAR]; National Islamic Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Junbish Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Sayed NOORULLAH]; National Islamic Unity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad AKBAREE]; National Movement of Afganistan (Nahzat-e-Mili Afganistan) [Ahmad Wali MASOOUD]; National Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Mili Afganistan) [Abdul Rashid ARYAN]; National Patch of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e Paiwand Mihahani Afganistan) [Sayed Kamal SADAT]; National Peace Islamic Party of Afganistan (De Afganistan De Solay Mili Islami Gond) [Shah Mohammood Popal ZAI]; National Peace & Islamic Party of the Tribes of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Sulh-e-Mili Islami Aqwam-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Qaher SHARIATEE]; National Peace & Unity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Sulh Wa Wahdat-e-Mili-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Qader IMAMI]; National Prosperity and Islamic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Osman SALEKZADA]; National Prosperity Party (Hezb-e-Refah-e-Mili Afganistan) [Mohammad Hassan JAHFAREE]; National Solidarity Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Nahzat-e-Hambastagee Mili-e-Afganistan) [Pir Sayed Eshaq GAILANEE]; National Solidarity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Paiwand Mili Afganistan) [Sayed Mansoor NADREEI]; National Sovereignty Party (Hezb-e-Eqtedar-e-Mili) [Sayed Mustafa KAZEMI]; National Stability Party (Hezb-e-Subat-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Same KHAROTI]; National Stance Party (Hizb-e-Melli Dareez) [Habibullah JANEBDAR]; National Tribal Unity Islamic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Aqwam-e-Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Shah KHOGYANI]; National United Front (Jumbah-e Mutahed-e Milli) [Burhanuddin RABBANI] (a coalition); National Unity Movement (Hezb-e-Tahreek Wahdat-e-Mili-e-Afganistan) [Sultan Mohammad GHAZI]; National Unity Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Harakat-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Nadir AATASH]; National Unity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Mili Afganistan) [Abdul Rashid JALILI]; New Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Afganistan-e-Naween) [Mohammad Yunis QANUNI]; Peace and National Welfare Activists Society (Hezb-e-Majmeh Mili Faleen-Sulh-e-Afganistan) [Shamsul Haq Noor SHAMS]; Peace Movement (De Afganistan De Solay Ghorzang Gond) [Shahnawaz TANAI]; People's Aspirations Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Aarman-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ilhaj Saraj-u-din ZAFAREE]; People's Freedom Seekers Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Aazadee Khwahan Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Feda Mohammad EHSAS]; People's Liberal Freedom Seekers Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Lebral-e-Aazadee Khwa-e-Afganistan) [Ajmal SUHAIL]; People's Message Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Resalat-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Noor Aqa WAINEE]; People's Movement of the National Unity of Afganistan (De Afganistan De Mili Wahdat Wolesi Tahreek) [Abdul Hakim NOORZAI]; People's Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ahmad Shah ASAR]; People's Prosperity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Falah-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ustad Mohammad ZAREEF]; People's Sovereignty Movement of Afganistan (Nahzat-e-Hakemyat-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Hayatullah SUBHANEE]; People's Uprising Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Rastakhaiz-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Sayed Zahir Qayed Omul BELADI]; People's Welfare Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Refah-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Mia Gul WASIQ]; People's Welfare Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Zubair PAIROZ]; Progressive Democratic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Taraqee Democrat Afganistan) [Wali ARYA]; Republican Party (Hezb-e-Jamhoree Khwahane-Afganistan) [Sebghatullah SANJAR]; Solidarity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Hambastagee-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Khaleq NEMAT]; The Afganistan's Mujahid Nation's Islamic Unity Movement (Da Afganistan Mujahid Woles Yaowaali Islami Tahreek) [Saeedullah SAEED]; The People of Afganistan's Democratic Movement (Hezb-e-Junbish Democracy Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Sharif NAZARI]; Tribes Solidarity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e Hambastagee Mili Aqwam-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Zarif NASERI]; Understanding and Democracy Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Tafahum Wa Democracy-e-Afganistan) [Ahamad SHAHEEN]; United Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Afganistan-e-Wahid) [Mohammad Wasil RAHIMEE]; United Islamic Party of Afganistan (Hizb-e-Mutahed Islami Afganistan) [Wahidullah SABAWOON]; Young Afganistan's Islamic Organization (Hezb-e-Islami-e-Afganistan-e-Jawan) [Sayed Jawad HUSSINEE]; Youth Solidarity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Hambastagee Mili Jawanan-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Jamil KARZAI]; note - includes only political parties approved by the Ministry of Justice note - includes only political parties approved by the Ministry of Justice: Afghan Millat [Anwarul Haq AHADI]; De Afganistan De Solay Ghorzang Gond [Shahnawaz TANAI]; De Afganistan De Solay Mili Islami Gond [Shah Mahmood Polal ZAI]; Harakat-e-Islami Afganistan [Mohammad Asif MOHSINEE]; Hezb-e-Aarman-e-Mardum-e-Afganistan [Iihaj Saraj-u-din ZAFAREE]; Hezb-e-Aazadee Afganistan [Abdul MALIK]; Hezb-e-Adalat-e-Islami Afganistan [Mohammad Kabeer MARZBAN]; Hezb-e-Afganistan-e-Wahid [Mohammad Wasil RAHEEMEE]; Hezb-e-Afghan Watan Islami Gond; Hezb-e-Congra-e-Mili Afganistan [Latif PEDRAM]; Hezb-e-Falah-e-Mardum-e-Afganistan [Mohammad ZAREEF]; Hezb-e-Hambastagee Mili Jawanan-e-Afganistan [Mohammad Jamil KARZAI]; Hezb-e-Hamnbatagee-e-Afganistan [Abdul Khaleq NEMAT]; Hezb-e-Harakat-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Afganistan [Mohammad Nadir AATASH]; Hezb-e-Harak-e-Islami Mardum-e-Afganistan [Ilhaj Said Hssain ANWARY]; Hezb-e-Ifazat Az Uqoq-e-Bashar Wa Inkishaf-e-Afganistan [Baryalai NASRATEE]; Hezb-e-Istiqlal-e-Afganistan [Dr. Gh. Farooq NIJZRABEE]; Hezb-e-Jamhoree Khwahan [Sibghatullah SANJAR]; Hezb-e-Kar Wa Tawsiha-e-Afganistan [Zulfiar OMID]; Hezb-e-Libral-e-Aazadee Khwa-e-Mardum-e-Afganistan [Ajmal SOHAIL]; Hezb-e-Mili Afganistan [Abdul Rasheed AARYAN]; Hezb-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Aqwam-e-Islami Afganistan [Mohammad Shah KHOGYANEE]; Hezb-e-Nuhzhat-e-Mili Afganistan [Ahmad Wali MASOUD]; Hezb-e-Paiwand-e-Mili Afganistan [Said Mansoor NADIRI]; Hezb-e-Rastakhaiz-e-Islami Mardum-e-Afganistan [Said ZAHIR]; Hezb-e-Refah-e-Mardum-e-Afganistan [Mia Gul WASEEQ]; Hezb-e-Risalat-e-Mardum-e-Afganistan [Noor Aqa ROEEN]; Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mardum-e-Afganistan [Mohammad Zubair PAIROZ]; Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mili Wa Islami Afganistan [Mohammad Usman SALIGZADA]; Hezb-e-Sulh-e-Mili Islami Aqwam-e-Afganistan [Abdul Qahir SHARYATEE]; Hezb-e-Sulh Wa Wahdat-e-Mili Afganistan [Abdul Qadir IMAMEE]; Hezb-e-Tafahum-e-Wa Democracy Afganistan [Ahamad SHAHEEN]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami Afganistan [Mohammad Karim KHALILI]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami Mardum-e-Afganistan [Ustad Mohammad MOHAQQEQ]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Mili Afganistan [Abdul Rasheed JALILI]; Jamahat-ul-Dahwat ilal Qurhan-wa-Sunat-ul-Afganistan [Mawlawee Samiullah NAJEEBEE]; Jombesh-e Milli [Abdul Rashid DOSTAM]; Mahaz-e-Mili Islami Afganistan [Said Ahmad GAILANEE]; Majmah-e-Mili Fahaleen-e-Sulh-e-Afganistan [Shams ul Haq Noor SHAMS]; Nuhzat-e-Aazadee Wa Democracy Afganistan [Abdul Raqeeb Jawid KUHISTANEE]; Nuhzat-e-Hambastagee Mili Afganistan [Peer Said Ishaq GAILANEE]; Sazman-e-Islami Afganistan-e-Jawan [Siad Jawad HUSSAINEE]; Tahreek Wahdat-e-Mili [Sultan Mahmood DHAZI] (30 Sep 2004)
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow - Jamiat-e Islami (Society of Islam) [former President Burhanuddin RABBANI]; Ittihad-e Islami (Islamic Union dla the Liberation of Afganistan) [Abdul Rasul SAYYAF]; there are also small monarchist, communist, and democratic groups
Ludnosc 31,889,923 (lipiec 2007 est.) 31,056,997 (lipiec 2006 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 53% (2003) 53% (2003)
Przyrost naturalny 2.625% (2007 est.) 2.67% (2006 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 21, FM 5, shortwave 1 (broadcasts w Pashto, Dari (Afghan Persian), Urdu, and English) (2006) AM 21, FM 23, shortwave 1 (broadcasts w Pashtu, Afghan Persian (Dari), Urdu, and English) (2003)
Religie Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 19%, other 1% Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 19%, other 1%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.049 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.054 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.943 male(s)/female


total population: 1.049 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female


total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: limited landline telephone service; an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks w major cities


domestic: aided by the presence of multiple providers, mobile-cellular telephone service is improving rapidly


international: country code - 93; five VSAT's installed w Kabul, Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, Kandahar, and Jalalabad provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity (2007)
general assessment: very limited telephone and telegraph service


domestic: telephone service is improving z the licensing of four wireless telephone service providers by 2005; approximately 4 w 100 Afghans own a wireless telephone; telephone main lines remain limited.


international: country code - 93; five VSAT's installed w Kabul, Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, Kandahar, and Jalalabad provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 280,000 (2005) 100,000 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 2.52 million (2006) 1.2 million (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne at least 7 (1 government-run central television station w Kabul and regional stations w 6 of the 34 provinces) (2006) at least 10 (one government-run central television station w Kabul and regional stations w nine of the 34 provinces; the regional stations operate on a reduced schedule; also, w 1997, there was a station w Mazar-e-Sharif reaching four northern Afganistan provinces) (1998)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly rugged mountains; plains w north and southwest mostly rugged mountains; plains w north and southwest
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 6.64 children born/woman (2007 est.) 6.69 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 40% (2005 est.) 40% (2005 est.)
Drogi wodne 1,200 km (chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT) (2007) 1,200 km (chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT) (2005)
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