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  Polozenie geograficzne (2008)Polozenie geograficzne (2007)
Afganistan Afganistan landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are w the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor) landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are w the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)
Akrotiri Akrotiri British extraterritorial rights also extended to several small off-post sites scattered across Cypr; of the Sovereign Base Terytorium land, 60% is privately owned and farmed, 20% is owned by the Ministry of Defense, and 20% is SBA Crown land British extraterritorial rights also extended to several small off-post sites scattered across Cypr
Albania Albania strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea) strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
Algieria Algieria second-largest country w Africa (after Sudan) second-largest country w Africa (after Sudan)
Samoa Amerykanskie Samoa Amerykanskie Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors w the South Ocean Spokojny, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location w the South Ocean Spokojny Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors w the South Ocean Spokojny, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location w the South Ocean Spokojny
Andora Andora landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads w the Pyrenees landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads w the Pyrenees
Angola Angola the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Anguilla Anguilla the most northerly of the Leeward Islands w the Lesser Antilles the most northerly of the Leeward Islands w the Lesser Antilles
Antarktyda Antarktyda the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator w an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator w an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable
Antigua i Barbuda Antigua i Barbuda Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline z many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline z many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor
Ocean Arktyczny Ocean Arktyczny major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Ocean Spokojny via the Bering Strait); strategic location between North America and Rosja; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Rosja; floating research stations operated by the US and Rosja; maximum snow cover w marzec or kwiecien about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10 months major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Ocean Spokojny via the Bering Strait); strategic location between North America and Rosja; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Rosja; floating research stations operated by the US and Rosja; maximum snow cover w marzec or kwiecien about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10 months
Argentyna Argentyna second-largest country w South America (after Brazylia); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Ocean Spokojnys (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates w the north to tundra w the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point w the Western Hemisphere second-largest country w South America (after Brazylia); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Ocean Spokojnys (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates w the north to tundra w the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point w the Western Hemisphere
Armenia Armenia landlocked w the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake w this mountain range landlocked w the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake w this mountain range
Aruba Aruba a flat, riverless island renowned dla its white sand beaches; its tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the Ocean Atlantycki; the temperature is almost constant at about 27 degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit) a flat, riverless island renowned dla its white sand beaches; its tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the Ocean Atlantycki; the temperature is almost constant at about 27 degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)
Wyspy Ashmore i Cartiera Wyspy Ashmore i Cartiera Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established w sierpien 1983 Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established w sierpien 1983
Ocean Atlantycki Ocean Atlantycki major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Ocean Atlantycki into the North Ocean Atlantycki and South Ocean Atlantycki major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Ocean Atlantycki into the North Ocean Atlantycki and South Ocean Atlantycki
Australia Australia world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; the invigorating sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor" affects the city of Perth on the west coast, and is one of the most consistent winds w the world world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; the invigorating sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor" affects the city of Perth on the west coast, and is one of the most consistent winds w the world
Austria Austria landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe z many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe z many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
Azerbejdzan Azerbejdzan both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
Bahamy Bahamy strategic location adjacent to US and Kuba; extensive island chain of which 30 are inhabited strategic location adjacent to US and Kuba; extensive island chain of which 30 are inhabited
Bahrajn Bahrajn close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location w Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location w Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
Wyspa Baker Wyspa Baker treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat dla seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat dla seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife
Bangladesz Bangladesz most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites z the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites z the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal
Barbados Barbados easternmost Caribbean island easternmost Caribbean island
Bialorus Bialorus landlocked; glacial scouring accounts dla the flatness of Bialorusian terrain and dla its 11,000 lakes landlocked; glacial scouring accounts dla the flatness of Bialorusian terrain and dla its 11,000 lakes
Belgia Belgia crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels, the seat of both the Unia Europejska and NATO crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels, the seat of both the Unia Europejska and NATO
Belize Belize only country w Central America without a coastline on the North Ocean Spokojny only country w Central America without a coastline on the North Ocean Spokojny
Benin Benin sandbanks create difficult access to a coast z no natural harbors, river mouths, or islands sandbanks create difficult access to a coast z no natural harbors, river mouths, or islands
Bermudy Bermudy consists of about 138 coral islands and islets z ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995 consists of about 138 coral islands and islets z ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995
Bhutan Bhutan landlocked; strategic location between Chiny and Indie; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes landlocked; strategic location between Chiny and Indie; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes
Boliwia Boliwia landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), z Peru landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), z Peru
Bosnia i Hercegowina Bosnia i Hercegowina within Bosnia i Hercegowina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Chorwacja and Czarnogora, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority w the west and an ethnic Serb majority w the east within Bosnia i Hercegowina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Chorwacja and Czarnogora, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority w the west and an ethnic Serb majority w the east
Botswana Botswana landlocked; population concentrated w eastern part of the country landlocked; population concentrated w eastern part of the country
Wyspa Bouveta Wyspa Bouveta covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve
Brazylia Brazylia largest country w South America; shares common boundaries z every South American country except Chile and Ekwador largest country w South America; shares common boundaries z every South American country except Chile and Ekwador
Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego archipelago of 55 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location w central Ocean Indyjski; island is site of joint US-UK military facility archipelago of 55 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location w central Ocean Indyjski; island is site of joint US-UK military facility
Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze strong ties to nearby US Wyspy Dziewicze and Portoryko strong ties to nearby US Wyspy Dziewicze and Portoryko
Brunei Brunei close to vital sea lanes through South Chiny Sea linking Indien and Ocean Spokojnys; two parts physically separated by Malezja; almost an enclave within Malezja close to vital sea lanes through South Chiny Sea linking Indien and Ocean Spokojnys; two parts physically separated by Malezja; almost an enclave within Malezja
Bulgaria Bulgaria strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black, Red, and White Voltas landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black, Red, and White Voltas
Birma Birma strategic location near major Ocean Indyjski shipping lanes strategic location near major Ocean Indyjski shipping lanes
Burundi Burundi landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile
Kambodza Kambodza a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap
Kamerun Kamerun sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa; throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Kamerun, the highest mountain w Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa; throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Kamerun, the highest mountain w Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano
Kanada Kanada second-largest country w world (after Rosja); strategic location between Rosja and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border second-largest country w world (after Rosja); strategic location between Rosja and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border
Republika Zielonego Przyladka Republika Zielonego Przyladka strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site
Kajmany Kajmany important location between Kuba and Central America important location between Kuba and Central America
Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa
Czad Czad landlocked; Lake Czad is the most significant water body w the Sahel landlocked; Lake Czad is the most significant water body w the Sahel
Chile Chile strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Ocean Spokojnys (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Ocean Spokojnys (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions
Chiny Chiny world's fourth largest country (after Rosja, Kanada, and US); Mount Everest on the border z Nepal is the world's tallest peak world's fourth largest country (after Rosja, Kanada, and US); Mount Everest on the border z Nepal is the world's tallest peak
Wyspa Bozego Narodzenia Wyspa Bozego Narodzenia located along major sea lanes of Ocean Indyjski located along major sea lanes of Ocean Indyjski
Clipperton Clipperton reef 12 km w circumference reef 12 km w circumference
Wyspy Kokosowe Wyspy Kokosowe islands are thickly covered z coconut palms and other vegetation islands are thickly covered z coconut palms and other vegetation
Kolumbia Kolumbia only South American country z coastlines on both the North Ocean Spokojny and Caribbean Sea only South American country z coastlines on both the North Ocean Spokojny and Caribbean Sea
Komory Komory important location at northern end of Mozambik Channel important location at northern end of Mozambik Channel
Kongo, Republika Demokratyczna Kongo, Republika Demokratyczna straddles equator; has very narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Ocean Atlantycki; dense tropical rain forest w central river basin and eastern highlands straddles equator; has very narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Ocean Atlantycki; dense tropical rain forest w central river basin and eastern highlands
Kongo, Republika Kongo, Republika about 70% of the population lives w Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them about 70% of the population lives w Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them
Wyspy Cooka Wyspy Cooka the northern Wyspy Cooka are seven low-lying, sparsely populated, coral atolls; the southern Wyspy Cooka, where most of the population lives, consist of eight elevated, fertile, volcanic isles, including the largest, Rarotonga, at 67 sq km the northern Wyspy Cooka are seven low-lying, sparsely populated, coral atolls; the southern Wyspy Cooka, where most of the population lives, consist of eight elevated, fertile, volcanic isles, including the largest, Rarotonga, at 67 sq km
Wyspy Morza Koralowego Wyspy Morza Koralowego important nesting area dla birds and turtles important nesting area dla birds and turtles
Kostaryka Kostaryka four volcanoes, two of them active, rise near the capital of San Jose w the center of the country; one of the volcanoes, Irazu, erupted destructively w 1963-65 four volcanoes, two of them active, rise near the capital of San Jose w the center of the country; one of the volcanoes, Irazu, erupted destructively w 1963-65
Cote d'Ivoire Cote d'Ivoire most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated
Chorwacja Chorwacja controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; the vast majority of Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Chorwacja - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; the vast majority of Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Chorwacja - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks
Kuba Kuba largest country w Caribbean and westernmost island of the Greater Antilles largest country w Caribbean and westernmost island of the Greater Antilles
Cypr Cypr the third largest island w the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia) the third largest island w the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia)
Czechy Czechy landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes w Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube w central Europe landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes w Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube w central Europe
Dania Dania controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives w greater Copenhagen controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives w greater Copenhagen
Dhekelia Dhekelia British extraterritorial rights also extended to several small off-post sites scattered across Cypr; of the Sovereign Base Terytorium land 60% is privately owned and farmed, 20% is owned by the Ministry of Defense, and 20% is SBA Crown land British extraterritorial rights also extended to several small off-post sites scattered across Cypr
Dzibuti Dzibuti strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Etiopia; mostly wasteland; Lac Assal (Lake Assal) is the lowest point w Africa strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Etiopia; mostly wasteland; Lac Assal (Lake Assal) is the lowest point w Africa
Dominika Dominika known as "The Nature Island of the Caribbean" due to its spectacular, lush, and varied flora and fauna, which are protected by an extensive natural park system; the most mountainous of the Lesser Antilles, its volcanic peaks are cones of lava craters and include Boiling Lake, the second-largest, thermally active lake w the world known as "The Nature Island of the Caribbean" due to its spectacular, lush, and varied flora and fauna, which are protected by an extensive natural park system; the most mountainous of the Lesser Antilles, its volcanic peaks are cones of lava craters and include Boiling Lake, the second-largest, thermally active lake w the world
Republika Dominikanska Republika Dominikanska shares island of Hispaniola z Haiti shares island of Hispaniola z Haiti
Ekwador Ekwador Cotopaxi w Andes is highest active volcano w world Cotopaxi w Andes is highest active volcano w world
Egipt Egipt controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Ocean Indyjski and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Izrael, establish its major role w Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Ocean Indyjski and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Izrael, establish its major role w Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees
Salwador Salwador smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea
Gwinea Równikowa Gwinea Równikowa insular and continental regions widely separated insular and continental regions widely separated
Erytrea Erytrea strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Erytrea retained the entire coastline of Etiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Etiopia on 24 maj 1993 strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Erytrea retained the entire coastline of Etiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Etiopia on 24 maj 1993
Estonia Estonia the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
Etiopia Etiopia landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost z the de jure independence of Erytrea on 24 maj 1993; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises w T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) w northwest Etiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated w Etiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost z the de jure independence of Erytrea on 24 maj 1993; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises w T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) w northwest Etiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated w Etiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean
Falklandy Falklandy deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing season deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing season
Wyspy Owcze Wyspy Owcze archipelago of 17 inhabited islands and one uninhabited island, and a few uninhabited islets; strategically located along important sea lanes w northeastern Atlantic; precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands archipelago of 17 inhabited islands and one uninhabited island, and a few uninhabited islets; strategically located along important sea lanes w northeastern Atlantic; precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands
Fidzi Fidzi includes 332 islands; approximately 110 are inhabited includes 332 islands; approximately 110 are inhabited
Finlandia Finlandia long boundary z Rosja; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain long boundary z Rosja; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
Francja Francja largest West European nation largest West European nation
Polinezja Francuska Polinezja Francuska includes five archipelagoes (4 volcanic, 1 coral); Makatea w Polinezja Francuska is one of the three great phosphate rock islands w the Ocean Spokojny - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) w Kiribati and Nauru includes five archipelagoes (4 volcanic, 1 coral); Makatea w Polinezja Francuska is one of the three great phosphate rock islands w the Ocean Spokojny - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) w Kiribati and Nauru
Francuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i Antarktyczne Francuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i Antarktyczne islands component is widely scattered across remote locations w the southern Ocean Indyjski


Bassas da Indie (Wyspy Rozproszone): the atoll is a circular reef that sits atop a long-extinct, submerged volcano


Europa (wyspa) and Juan de Nova (Wyspy Rozproszone): wildlife sanctuary dla seabirds and sea turtles


Glorioso Island (Wyspy Rozproszone): the islands and rocks are surrounded by an extensive reef system


Wyspa Tromelin (Wyspy Rozproszone): climatologically important location dla forecasting cyclones w the western Ocean Indyjski; wildlife sanctuary (seabirds, tortoises)
islands component is widely scattered across remote locations w the southern Ocean Indyjski


Bassas da Indie (Wyspy Rozproszone): the atoll is a circular reef that sits atop a long-extinct, submerged volcano


Europa (wyspa) and Juan de Nova (Wyspy Rozproszone): wildlife sanctuary dla seabirds and sea turtles


Glorioso Island (Wyspy Rozproszone): the islands and rocks are surrounded by an extensive reef system


Wyspa Tromelin (Wyspy Rozproszone): climatologically important location dla forecasting cyclones w the western Ocean Indyjski; wildlife sanctuary (seabirds, tortoises)
Gabon Gabon a small population and oil and mineral reserves have helped Gabon become one of Africa's wealthier countries; w general, these circumstances have allowed the country to maintain and conserve its pristine rain forest and rich biodiversity a small population and oil and mineral reserves have helped Gabon become one of Africa's wealthier countries; w general, these circumstances have allowed the country to maintain and conserve its pristine rain forest and rich biodiversity
Gambia Gambia almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of Africa almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of Africa
Gaza Gaza strategic strip of land along Mideast-North African trade routes has experienced an incredibly turbulent history; the town of Gaza itself has been besieged countless times w its history strategic strip of land along Mideast-North African trade routes has experienced an incredibly turbulent history; the town of Gaza itself has been besieged countless times w its history
Georgia Georgia strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them
Niemcy Niemcy strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea
Ghana Ghana Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake
Gibraltar Gibraltar strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Ocean Atlantycki and Mediterranean Sea strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Ocean Atlantycki and Mediterranean Sea
Grecja Grecja strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands
Grenlandia Grenlandia dominates North Ocean Atlantycki between North America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast, but close to one-quarter of the population lives w the capital, Nuuk; world's second largest ice cap dominates North Ocean Atlantycki between North America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast, but close to one-quarter of the population lives w the capital, Nuuk; world's second largest ice cap
Grenada Grenada the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent i Grenadyny and Grenada the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent i Grenadyny and Grenada
Guam Guam largest and southernmost island w the Mariana Islands archipelago; strategic location w western North Ocean Spokojny largest and southernmost island w the Mariana Islands archipelago; strategic location w western North Ocean Spokojny
Gwatemala Gwatemala no natural harbors on west coast no natural harbors on west coast
Guernsey Guernsey large, deepwater harbor at Saint Peter Port large, deepwater harbor at Saint Peter Port
Gwinea Gwinea the Niger and its important tributary the Milo have their sources w the Gwinean highlands the Niger and its important tributary the Milo have their sources w the Gwinean highlands
Gwinea Bissau Gwinea Bissau this small country is swampy along its western coast and low-lying further inland this small country is swampy along its western coast and low-lying further inland
Gujana Gujana the third-smallest country w South America after Surinam and Urugwaj; substantial portions of its western and eastern territories are claimed by Wenezuela and Surinam respectively the third-smallest country w South America after Surinam and Urugwaj; substantial portions of its western and eastern territories are claimed by Wenezuela and Surinam respectively
Haiti Haiti shares island of Hispaniola z Republika Dominikanska (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Republika Dominikanska) shares island of Hispaniola z Republika Dominikanska (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Republika Dominikanska)
Watykan Watykan landlocked; enclave w Rome, Wlochy; world's smallest state; beyond the territorial boundary of Vatican City, the Lateran Treaty of 1929 grants the Holy See extraterritorial authority over 23 sites w Rome and five outside of Rome, including the Pontifical Palace at Castel Gandolfo (the Pope's summer residence) landlocked; enclave w Rome, Wlochy; world's smallest state; beyond the territorial boundary of Vatican City, the Lateran Treaty of 1929 grants the Holy See extraterritorial authority over 23 sites w Rome and five outside of Rome, including the Pontifical Palace at Castel Gandolfo (the Pope's summer residence)
Honduras Honduras has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast
Hong Kong Hong Kong more than 200 islands more than 200 islands
Howland Howland almost totally covered z grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; small area of trees w the center; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat dla seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife almost totally covered z grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; small area of trees w the center; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat dla seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife
Wegry Wegry landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraina and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraina and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
Islandia Islandia strategic location between Grenlandia and Europe; westernmost European country; Reykjavik is the northernmost national capital w the world; more land covered by glaciers than w all of continental Europe strategic location between Grenlandia and Europe; westernmost European country; Reykjavik is the northernmost national capital w the world; more land covered by glaciers than w all of continental Europe
Indie Indie dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Ocean Indyjski trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain w the world, lies on the border z Nepal dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Ocean Indyjski trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain w the world, lies on the border z Nepal
Ocean Indyjski Ocean Indyjski major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait
Indonezja Indonezja archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Ocean Indyjski to Ocean Spokojny archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Ocean Indyjski to Ocean Spokojny
Iran Iran strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways dla crude oil transport strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways dla crude oil transport
Irak Irak strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf
Irlandia Irlandia strategic location on major air and sea routes between North America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides within 100 km of Dublin strategic location on major air and sea routes between North America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides within 100 km of Dublin
Wyspa Man Wyspa Man one small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the southwest, and is a bird sanctuary one small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the southwest, and is a bird sanctuary
Izrael Izrael there are 242 Izraeli settlements and civilian land use sites w the Zachodni Brzeg, 42 w the Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights, 0 w the Gaza, and 29 w East Jerusalem (sierpien 2005 est.); Sea of Galilee is an important freshwater source there are 242 Izraeli settlements and civilian land use sites w the Zachodni Brzeg, 42 w the Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights, 0 w the Gaza, and 29 w East Jerusalem (sierpien 2005 est.); Sea of Galilee is an important freshwater source
Wlochy Wlochy strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe
Jamajka Jamajka strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamajka Channel, the main sea lanes dla the Panama Canal strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamajka Channel, the main sea lanes dla the Panama Canal
Jan majen Jan majen barren volcanic island z some moss and grass barren volcanic island z some moss and grass
Japonia Japonia strategic location w northeast Asia strategic location w northeast Asia
Jarvis Jarvis sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat dla seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat dla seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife
Jersey Jersey largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated w Saint Helier largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated w Saint Helier
Johnston Johnston strategic location w the North Ocean Spokojny; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; the egg-shaped reef is 34 km w circumference; closed to the public; a former US nuclear weapons test site; site of now-closed Johnston Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); most facilities dismantled and cleanup complete w 2004; some low-growing vegetation strategic location w the North Ocean Spokojny; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; the egg-shaped reef is 34 km w circumference; closed to the public; a former US nuclear weapons test site; site of now-closed Johnston Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); most facilities dismantled and cleanup complete w 2004; some low-growing vegetation
Jordania Jordania strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border z Izrael and the occupied Zachodni Brzeg strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border z Izrael and the occupied Zachodni Brzeg
Kazachstan Kazachstan landlocked; Rosja leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome; w styczen 2004, Kazachstan and Rosja extended the lease to 2050 landlocked; Rosja leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome; w styczen 2004, Kazachstan and Rosja extended the lease to 2050
Kenia Kenia the Kenian Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions w Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenia, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value the Kenian Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions w Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenia, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
Kingman Kingman barren coral atoll z deep interior lagoon; closed to the public barren coral atoll z deep interior lagoon; closed to the public
Kiribati Kiribati 21 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) w Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands w the Ocean Spokojny - the others are Makatea w Polinezja Francuska, and Nauru 21 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) w Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands w the Ocean Spokojny - the others are Makatea w Polinezja Francuska, and Nauru
Polnocna Korea Polnocna Korea strategic location bordering Chiny, South Korea, and Rosja; mountainous interior is isolated and sparsely populated strategic location bordering Chiny, South Korea, and Rosja; mountainous interior is isolated and sparsely populated
Poludniowa Korea Poludniowa Korea strategic location on Korea Strait strategic location on Korea Strait
Kuwejt Kuwejt strategic location at head of Persian Gulf strategic location at head of Persian Gulf
Kirgistan Kirgistan landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
Laos Laos landlocked; most of the country is mountainous and thickly forested; the Mekong River forms a large part of the western boundary z Tajlandia landlocked; most of the country is mountainous and thickly forested; the Mekong River forms a large part of the western boundary z Tajlandia
Lotwa Lotwa most of the country is composed of fertile, low-lying plains, z some hills w the east most of the country is composed of fertile, low-lying plains, z some hills w the east
Liban Liban Nahr el Litani is the only major river w Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity Nahr el Litani is the only major river w Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity
Lesotho Lesotho landlocked, completely surrounded by Republika Poludniowej Afryki; mountainous, more than 80% of the country is 1,800 meters above sea level landlocked, completely surrounded by Republika Poludniowej Afryki; mountainous, more than 80% of the country is 1,800 meters above sea level
Liberia Liberia facing the Ocean Atlantycki, the coastline is characterized by lagoons, mangrove swamps, and river-deposited sandbars; the inland grassy plateau supports limited agriculture facing the Ocean Atlantycki, the coastline is characterized by lagoons, mangrove swamps, and river-deposited sandbars; the inland grassy plateau supports limited agriculture
Libia Libia more than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert more than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein along z Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries w the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation along z Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries w the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation
Litwa Litwa fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
Luksemburg Luksemburg landlocked; the only Grand Duchy w the world landlocked; the only Grand Duchy w the world
Makau Makau essentially urban; an area of land reclaimed from the sea measuring 5.2 sq km and known as Cotai now connects the islands of Coloane and Taipa; the island area is connected to the mainland peninsula by three bridges essentially urban; an area of land reclaimed from the sea measuring 5.2 sq km and known as Cotai now connects the islands of Coloane and Taipa; the island area is connected to the mainland peninsula by three bridges
Macedonia Macedonia landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
Madagaskar Madagaskar world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambik Channel world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambik Channel
Malawi Malawi landlocked; Lake Nyasa, some 580 km long, is the country's most prominent physical feature landlocked; Lake Nyasa, some 580 km long, is the country's most prominent physical feature
Malezja Malezja strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South Chiny Sea strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South Chiny Sea
Malediwy Malediwy 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands z tourist resorts); archipelago z strategic location astride and along major sea lanes w Ocean Indyjski 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands z tourist resorts); archipelago z strategic location astride and along major sea lanes w Ocean Indyjski
Mali Mali landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
Malta Malta the country comprises an archipelago, z only the three largest islands (Malta, Ghawdex or Gozo, and Kemmuna or Comino) being inhabited; numerous bays provide good harbors; Malta and Tunezja are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly dla oil exploration the country comprises an archipelago, z only the three largest islands (Malta, Ghawdex or Gozo, and Kemmuna or Comino) being inhabited; numerous bays provide good harbors; Malta and Tunezja are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly dla oil exploration
Wyspy Marshalla Wyspy Marshalla the Marshal Islands Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous Swiat War II battleground, is used as a US missile test range; island city of Ebeye is the second largest settlement w the Wyspy Marshalla, after the capital of Majuro, and one of the most densely populated locations w the Pacific Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous Swiat War II battleground, is used as a US missile test range; island city of Ebeye is the second largest settlement w the Wyspy Marshalla, after the capital of Majuro, and one of the most densely populated locations w the Pacific
Mauretania Mauretania most of the population concentrated w the cities of Nouakchott and Nouadhibou and along the Senegal River w the southern part of the country most of the population concentrated w the cities of Nouakchott and Nouadhibou and along the Senegal River w the southern part of the country
Mauritius Mauritius the main island, from which the country derives its name, is of volcanic origin and is almost entirely surrounded by coral reefs the main island, from which the country derives its name, is of volcanic origin and is almost entirely surrounded by coral reefs
Majotta Majotta part of Comoro Archipelago; 18 islands part of Comoro Archipelago; 18 islands
Meksyk Meksyk strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated w Meksyk strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated w Meksyk
Mikronezja, Sfederowane Stany Mikronezji Mikronezja, Sfederowane Stany Mikronezji four major island groups totaling 607 islands four major island groups totaling 607 islands
Midway Midway a coral atoll managed as a national wildlife refuge and open to the public dla wildlife-related recreation w the form of wildlife observation and photography, sport fishing, snorkeling, and scuba diving; the refuge is temporarily closed dla reorganization at present (2004) a coral atoll managed as a national wildlife refuge and open to the public dla wildlife-related recreation w the form of wildlife observation and photography, sport fishing, snorkeling, and scuba diving; the refuge is temporarily closed dla reorganization at present (2004)
Moldawia Moldawia landlocked; well endowed z various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone landlocked; well endowed z various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
Monako Monako second-smallest independent state w the world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban second-smallest independent state w the world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban
Mongolia Mongolia landlocked; strategic location between Chiny and Rosja landlocked; strategic location between Chiny and Rosja
Czarnogora Czarnogora strategic location along the Adriatic coast strategic location along the Adriatic coast
Montserrat Montserrat the island is entirely volcanic w origin and comprised of three major volcanic centers of differing ages the island is entirely volcanic w origin and comprised of three major volcanic centers of differing ages
Maroko Maroko strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar
Mozambik Mozambik the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
Namibia Namibia first country w the world to incorporate the protection of the environment into its constitution; some 14% of the land is protected, including virtually the entire Namib Desert coastal strip first country w the world to incorporate the protection of the environment into its constitution; some 14% of the land is protected, including virtually the entire Namib Desert coastal strip
Nauru Nauru Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands w the Ocean Spokojny - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) w Kiribati and Makatea w Polinezja Francuska; only 53 km south of Equator Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands w the Ocean Spokojny - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) w Kiribati and Makatea w Polinezja Francuska; only 53 km south of Equator
Navassa Navassa strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Kuba; mostly exposed rock z numerous solution holes but z enough grassland to support goat herds; dense stands of fig trees, scattered cactus strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Kuba; mostly exposed rock z numerous solution holes but z enough grassland to support goat herds; dense stands of fig trees, scattered cactus
Nepal Nepal landlocked; strategic location between Chiny and Indie; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest - on the borders z Chiny and Indie respectively landlocked; strategic location between Chiny and Indie; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest - on the borders z Chiny and Indie respectively
Holandia Holandia located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde) located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde)
Antyle Holenderskie Antyle Holenderskie the five islands of the Antyle Holenderskie are divided geographically into the Leeward Islands (northern) group (Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten) and the Windward Islands (southern) group (Bonaire and Curacao); the island of Saint Martin is the smallest landmass w the Swiat shared by two independent states, the French territory of Saint Martin and the Dutch territory of Sint Maarten the five islands of the Antyle Holenderskie are divided geographically into the Leeward Islands (northern) group (Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten) and the Windward Islands (southern) group (Bonaire and Curacao); the island of Saint Martin is the smallest landmass w the Swiat shared by two independent states, the French territory of Saint Martin and the Dutch territory of Sint Maarten
Nowa Kaledonia Nowa Kaledonia consists of the main island of Nowa Kaledonia (one of the largest w the Ocean Spokojny), the archipelago of Iles Loyaute, and numerous small, sparsely populated islands and atolls consists of the main island of Nowa Kaledonia (one of the largest w the Ocean Spokojny), the archipelago of Iles Loyaute, and numerous small, sparsely populated islands and atolls
Nowa Zelandia Nowa Zelandia about 80% of the population lives w cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital w the world about 80% of the population lives w cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital w the world
Nikaragua Nikaragua largest country w Central America; contains the largest freshwater body w Central America, Lago de Nikaragua largest country w Central America; contains the largest freshwater body w Central America, Lago de Nikaragua
Niger Niger landlocked; one of the hottest countries w the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable dla livestock and limited agriculture landlocked; one of the hottest countries w the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable dla livestock and limited agriculture
Nigeria Nigeria the Niger enters the country w the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta w the Gulf of Gwinea the Niger enters the country w the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta w the Gulf of Gwinea
Niue Niue one of world's largest coral islands one of world's largest coral islands
Wyspa Norfolk Wyspa Norfolk most of the 32 km coastline consists of almost inaccessible cliffs, but the land slopes down to the sea w one small southern area on Sydney Bay, where the capital of Kingston is situated most of the 32 km coastline consists of almost inaccessible cliffs, but the land slopes down to the sea w one small southern area on Sydney Bay, where the capital of Kingston is situated
Mariany Polnocne Mariany Polnocne strategic location w the North Ocean Spokojny strategic location w the North Ocean Spokojny
Norwegia Norwegia about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes w North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines w the world about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes w North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines w the world
Oman Oman strategic location on Musandam Peninsula adjacent to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point dla world crude oil strategic location on Musandam Peninsula adjacent to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point dla world crude oil
Ocean Spokojny Ocean Spokojny the major chokepoints are the Bering Strait, Panama Canal, Luzon Strait, and the Singapur Strait; the Equator divides the Ocean Spokojny into the North Ocean Spokojny and the South Ocean Spokojny; dotted z low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands w the southwestern Ocean Spokojny the major chokepoints are the Bering Strait, Panama Canal, Luzon Strait, and the Singapur Strait; the Equator divides the Ocean Spokojny into the North Ocean Spokojny and the South Ocean Spokojny; dotted z low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands w the southwestern Ocean Spokojny
Pakistan Pakistan controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indien Subcontinent controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indien Subcontinent
Palau Palau westernmost archipelago w the Caroline chain, consists of six island groups totaling more than 300 islands; includes Swiat War II battleground of Beliliou (Peleliu) and world-famous rock islands westernmost archipelago w the Caroline chain, consists of six island groups totaling more than 300 islands; includes Swiat War II battleground of Beliliou (Peleliu) and world-famous rock islands
Palmyra Palmyra about 50 islets covered z dense vegetation, coconut trees, and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall about 50 islets covered z dense vegetation, coconut trees, and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall
Panama Panama strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Ocean Atlantycki via Caribbean Sea z North Ocean Spokojny strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Ocean Atlantycki via Caribbean Sea z North Ocean Spokojny
Papua-Nowa Gwinea Papua-Nowa Gwinea shares island of New Gwinea z Indonezja; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast shares island of New Gwinea z Indonezja; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast
Wyspy Paracelskie Wyspy Paracelskie composed of 130 small coral islands and reefs divided into the northeast Amphitrite Group and the western Crescent Group composed of 130 small coral islands and reefs divided into the northeast Amphitrite Group and the western Crescent Group
Paragwaj Paragwaj landlocked; lies between Argentyna, Boliwia, and Brazylia; population concentrated w southern part of country landlocked; lies between Argentyna, Boliwia, and Brazylia; population concentrated w southern part of country
Peru Peru shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, z Boliwia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, z Boliwia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
Filipiny Filipiny the Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located w relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South Chiny Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait the Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located w relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South Chiny Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait
Pitcairn Pitcairn Britain's most isolated dependency; only the larger island of Pitcairn is inhabited but it has no port or natural harbor; supplies must be transported by rowed longboat from larger ships stationed offshore Britain's most isolated dependency; only the larger island of Pitcairn is inhabited but it has no port or natural harbor; supplies must be transported by rowed longboat from larger ships stationed offshore
Polska Polska historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain
Portugalia Portugalia Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
Portoryko Portoryko important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors w the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt w north important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors w the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt w north
Katar Katar strategic location w central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits strategic location w central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits
Rumunia Rumunia controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldawia, and Ukraina controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldawia, and Ukraina
Rosja Rosja largest country w the world w terms of area but unfavorably located w relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) dla agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak largest country w the world w terms of area but unfavorably located w relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) dla agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak
Ruanda Ruanda landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland z the population predominantly rural landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland z the population predominantly rural
Swieta Helena Swieta Helena Swieta Helena harbors at least 40 species of plants unknown anywhere else w the world; Ascension is a breeding ground dla sea turtles and sooty terns; Queen Mary's Peak on Tristan da Cunha is the highest island mountain w the South Atlantic and a prominent landmark on the sea lanes around southern Africa Swieta Helena harbors at least 40 species of plants unknown anywhere else w the world; Ascension is a breeding ground dla sea turtles and sooty terns; Queen Mary's Peak on Tristan da Cunha is the highest island mountain w the South Atlantic and a prominent landmark on the sea lanes around southern Africa
Saint Kitts i Nevis Saint Kitts i Nevis with coastlines w the shape of a baseball bat and ball, the two volcanic islands are separated by a three-km-wide channel called The Narrows; on the southern tip of long, baseball bat-shaped Saint Kitts lies the Great Salt Pond; Nevis Peak sits w the center of its almost circular namesake island and its ball shape complements that of its sister island with coastlines w the shape of a baseball bat and ball, the two volcanic islands are separated by a three-km-wide channel called The Narrows; on the southern tip of long, baseball bat-shaped Saint Kitts lies the Great Salt Pond; Nevis Peak sits w the center of its almost circular namesake island and its ball shape complements that of its sister island
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia the twin Pitons (Gros Piton and Petit Piton), striking cone-shaped peaks south of Soufriere, are one of the scenic natural highlights of the Caribbean the twin Pitons (Gros Piton and Petit Piton), striking cone-shaped peaks south of Soufriere, are one of the scenic natural highlights of the Caribbean
Saint Martin Saint Martin the island of Saint Martin is the smallest landmass w the Swiat shared by two independent states, the French territory of Saint Martin and the Dutch territory of Sint Maarten the island of Saint Martin is the smallest landmass w the Swiat shared by two independent states, the French territory of Saint Martin and the Dutch territory of Sint Maarten
Saint-Pierre i Miquelon Saint-Pierre i Miquelon vegetation scanty vegetation scanty
Saint Vincent i Grenadyny Saint Vincent i Grenadyny the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent i Grenadyny and Grenada; Saint Vincent i Grenadyny is comprised of 32 islands and cays the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent i Grenadyny and Grenada; Saint Vincent i Grenadyny is comprised of 32 islands and cays
Samoa Samoa occupies an almost central position within Polynesia occupies an almost central position within Polynesia
San Marino San Marino landlocked; smallest independent state w Europe after the Holy See and Monako; dominated by the Apennines landlocked; smallest independent state w Europe after the Holy See and Monako; dominated by the Apennines
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca the smallest country w Africa; the two main islands form part of a chain of extinct volcanoes and both are fairly mountainous the smallest country w Africa; the two main islands form part of a chain of extinct volcanoes and both are fairly mountainous
Arabia Saudyjska Arabia Saudyjska extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal
Senegal Senegal westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
Serbia Serbia controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turcja and the Near East controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turcja and the Near East
Seszele Seszele 41 granitic and about 75 coralline islands 41 granitic and about 75 coralline islands
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone rainfall along the coast can reach 495 cm (195 inches) a year, making it one of the wettest places along coastal, western Africa rainfall along the coast can reach 495 cm (195 inches) a year, making it one of the wettest places along coastal, western Africa
Singapur Singapur focal point dla Southeast Asian sea routes focal point dla Southeast Asian sea routes
Slowacja Slowacja landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains w the north are interspersed z many scenic lakes and valleys landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains w the north are interspersed z many scenic lakes and valleys
Slowenia Slowenia despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes
Wyspy Salomona Wyspy Salomona strategic location on sea routes between the South Ocean Spokojny, the Solomon Sea, and the Coral Sea; on 2 kwiecien 2007 an undersea earthquake measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale occurred 345 km WNW of the capital Honiara, the resulting tsunami devastated coastal areas of Western and Choiseul provinces z dozens of deaths and thousands dislocated; the provincial capital of Gizo was especially hard hit strategic location on sea routes between the South Ocean Spokojny, the Solomon Sea, and the Coral Sea; on 2 kwiecien 2007 an undersea earthquake measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale occurred 345 km WNW of the capital Honiara, the resulting tsunami devastated coastal areas of Western and Choiseul provinces z dozens of deaths and thousands dislocated; the provincial capital of Gizo was especially hard hit
Somalia Somalia strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal
Republika Poludniowej Afryki Republika Poludniowej Afryki Republika Poludniowej Afryki completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Suazi Republika Poludniowej Afryki completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Suazi
Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early w the 20th century, live on South Georgia the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early w the 20th century, live on South Georgia
Ocean Poludniowy Ocean Poludniowy the major chokepoint is the Drake Passage between South America and Antarktyda; the Polar Front (Antarctic Convergence) is the best natural definition of the northern extent of the Ocean Poludniowy; it is a distinct region at the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that separates the cold polar surface waters to the south from the warmer waters to the north; the Front and the Current extend entirely around Antarktyda, reaching south of 60 degrees south near Nowa Zelandia and near 48 degrees south w the far South Atlantic coinciding z the path of the maximum westerly winds the major chokepoint is the Drake Passage between South America and Antarktyda; the Polar Front (Antarctic Convergence) is the best natural definition of the northern extent of the Ocean Poludniowy; it is a distinct region at the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that separates the cold polar surface waters to the south from the warmer waters to the north; the Front and the Current extend entirely around Antarktyda, reaching south of 60 degrees south near Nowa Zelandia and near 48 degrees south w the far South Atlantic coinciding z the path of the maximum westerly winds
Hiszpania Hiszpania strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
Wyspy Spratly Wyspy Spratly strategically located near several primary shipping lanes w the central South Chiny Sea; includes numerous small islands, atolls, shoals, and coral reefs strategically located near several primary shipping lanes w the central South Chiny Sea; includes numerous small islands, atolls, shoals, and coral reefs
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka strategic location near major Ocean Indyjski sea lanes strategic location near major Ocean Indyjski sea lanes
Sudan Sudan largest country w Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries largest country w Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries
Surinam Surinam smallest independent country on South American continent; mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora and fauna that, dla the most part, is increasingly threatened by new development; relatively small population, mostly along the coast smallest independent country on South American continent; mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora and fauna that, dla the most part, is increasingly threatened by new development; relatively small population, mostly along the coast
Svalbard Svalbard northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norwegia; consists of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area; Spitsbergen Island is the site of the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, a seed repository established by the Global Crop Diversity Trust and the Norwegian Government northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norwegia; consists of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area; site of future seed repository under construction by the Global Crop Diversity Trust and the Norwegian Government
Suazi Suazi landlocked; almost completely surrounded by Republika Poludniowej Afryki landlocked; almost completely surrounded by Republika Poludniowej Afryki
Szwecja Szwecja strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas
Szwajcaria Szwajcaria landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe; along z southeastern Francja, northern Wlochy, and southwestern Austria, has the highest elevations w the Alps landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe; along z southeastern Francja, northern Wlochy, and southwestern Austria, has the highest elevations w the Alps
Syria Syria there are 42 Izraeli settlements and civilian land use sites w the Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights (sierpien 2005 est.) there are 42 Izraeli settlements and civilian land use sites w the Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights (sierpien 2005 est.)
Tajwan Tajwan strategic location adjacent to both the Tajwan Strait and the Luzon Strait strategic location adjacent to both the Tajwan Strait and the Luzon Strait
Tadzykistan Tadzykistan landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range w the north and the Pamirs w the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain w the former USSR landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range w the north and the Pamirs w the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain w the former USSR
Tanzania Tanzania Kilimanjaro is highest point w Africa; bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) w the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) w the west, and Lake Nyasa w the southwest Kilimanjaro is highest point w Africa; bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) w the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) w the west, and Lake Nyasa w the southwest
Tajlandia Tajlandia controls only land route from Asia to Malezja and Singapur controls only land route from Asia to Malezja and Singapur
Timor Wschodni Timor Wschodni Timor comes from the Malay word dla "East"; the island of Timor is part of the Malay Archipelago and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands Timor comes from the Malay word dla "East"; the island of Timor is part of the Malay Archipelago and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands
Togo Togo the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
Tokelau Tokelau consists of three atolls (Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu), each z a lagoon surrounded by a number of reef-bound islets of varying length and rising to over 3 m above sea level consists of three atolls (Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu), each z a lagoon surrounded by a number of reef-bound islets of varying length and rising to over 3 m above sea level
Tonga Tonga archipelago of 169 islands (36 inhabited) archipelago of 169 islands (36 inhabited)
Trynidad i Tobago Trynidad i Tobago Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt
Tunezja Tunezja strategic location w central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunezja are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly dla oil exploration strategic location w central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunezja are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly dla oil exploration
Turcja Turcja strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is w the far eastern portion of the country strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is w the far eastern portion of the country
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan landlocked; the western and central low-lying desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau landlocked; the western and central low-lying desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau
Turks i Caicos Turks i Caicos about 40 islands (eight inhabited) about 40 islands (eight inhabited)
Tuvalu Tuvalu one of the smallest and most remote countries on Earth; six of the 9 coral atolls - Nanumea, Nui, Vaitupu, Nukufetau, Funafuti, and Nukulaelae - have lagoons open to the ocean; Nanumaya and Niutao have landlocked lagoons; Niulakita does not have a lagoon one of the smallest and most remote countries on Earth; six of the 9 coral atolls - Nanumea, Nui, Vaitupu, Nukufetau, Funafuti, and Nukulaelae - have lagoons open to the ocean; Nanumaya and Niutao have landlocked lagoons; Niulakita does not have a lagoon
Uganda Uganda landlocked; fertile, well-watered country z many lakes and rivers landlocked; fertile, well-watered country z many lakes and rivers
Ukraina Ukraina strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country w Europe strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country w Europe
Zjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie Zjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point dla world crude oil strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point dla world crude oil
Wielka Brytania Wielka Brytania lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from Francja and linked by tunnel under the English Channel; because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from Francja and linked by tunnel under the English Channel; because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters
Stany Zjednoczone Stany Zjednoczone world's third-largest country by size (after Rosja and Kanada) and by population (after Chiny and Indie); Mt. McKinley is highest point w North America and Death Valley the lowest point on the continent world's third-largest country by size (after Rosja and Kanada) and by population (after Chiny and Indie); Mt. McKinley is highest point w North America and Death Valley the lowest point on the continent
Stany Zjednoczone Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges Stany Zjednoczone Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges Baker, Howland, and Jarviss: scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat dla seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife


Johnston: Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; the egg-shaped reef is 34 km w circumference


Kingman: barren coral atoll z deep interior lagoon; closed to the public


Midway: a coral atoll managed as a national wildlife refuge and open to the public dla wildlife-related recreation w the form of wildlife observation and photography


Palmyra: the high rainfall and resulting lush vegetation make the environment of this atoll unique among the US Pacific Island territories; it supports one of the largest remaining undisturbed stands of Pisonia beach forest w the Pacific
Baker, Howland, and Jarviss: scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat dla seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife


Johnston: Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; the egg-shaped reef is 34 km w circumference


Kingman: barren coral atoll z deep interior lagoon; closed to the public


Midway: a coral atoll managed as a national wildlife refuge and open to the public dla wildlife-related recreation w the form of wildlife observation and photography


Palmyra: the high rainfall and resulting lush vegetation make the environment of this atoll unique among the US Pacific Island territories; it supports one of the largest remaining undisturbed stands of Pisonia beach forest w the Pacific
Urugwaj Urugwaj second-smallest South American country (after Surinam); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal dla cattle and sheep raising second-smallest South American country (after Surinam); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal dla cattle and sheep raising
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan along z Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries w the world along z Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries w the world
Vanuatu Vanuatu a Y-shaped chain of four main islands and 80 smaller islands; several of the islands have active volcanoes a Y-shaped chain of four main islands and 80 smaller islands; several of the islands have active volcanoes
Wenezuela Wenezuela on major sea and air routes linking North and South America; Angel Falls w the Guiana Highlands is the world's highest waterfall on major sea and air routes linking North and South America; Angel Falls w the Guiana Highlands is the world's highest waterfall
Wietnam Wietnam extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point
Wyspy Dziewicze Wyspy Dziewicze important location along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane dla the Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural deepwater harbors w the Caribbean important location along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane dla the Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural deepwater harbors w the Caribbean
Wake Wake strategic location w the North Ocean Spokojny; emergency landing location dla transpacific flights strategic location w the North Ocean Spokojny; emergency landing location dla transpacific flights
Wallis i Futuna Wallis i Futuna both island groups have fringing reefs both island groups have fringing reefs
Zachodni Brzeg Zachodni Brzeg landlocked; highlands are main recharge area dla Izrael's coastal aquifers; there are 242 Zachodni Brzeg settlements and 29 East Jerusalem settlements w addition to at least 20 occupied outposts (sierpien 2005 est.) landlocked; highlands are main recharge area dla Izrael's coastal aquifers; there are 242 Zachodni Brzeg settlements and 29 East Jerusalem settlements w addition to at least 20 occupied outposts (sierpien 2005 est.)
Sahara Zachodnia Sahara Zachodnia the waters off the coast are particularly rich fishing areas the waters off the coast are particularly rich fishing areas
Swiat Swiat the world is now thought to be about 4.55 billion years old, just about one-third of the 13.7-billion-year age estimated dla the universe the world is now thought to be about 4.55 billion years old, just about one-third of the 13.7-billion-year age estimated dla the universe
Jemen Jemen strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes
Zambia Zambia landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary z Zimbabwe landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary z Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary z Zambia; w full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary z Zambia; w full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water
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