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Porownanie Partie polityczne i przywodcy (2008) - Partie polityczne i przywodcy (2006)

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  Partie polityczne i przywodcy (2008)Partie polityczne i przywodcy (2006)
Afganistan Afganistan Afganistan Peoples' Treaty Party (Hizb-e-Wolesi Tarhun Afganistan) [Sayyed Amir TAHSEEN]; Afganistan's Islamic Mission Organization (Tanzim Daawat-e-Islami-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Rasoul SAYYAF]; Afganistan's Islamic Nation Party (Hezb-e-Umat-e-Islam-e-Afganistan) [Toran Noor Aqa Ahmad ZAI]; Afganistan's National Islamic Party (Hezb-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Rohullah LOUDIN]; Afganistan's Welfare Party (Hezb-e-Refah-e-Afganistan) [Meer Asef ZAEEFI]; Afghan Social Democratic Party (Hezb-e-Afghan Melat) [Anwarul Haq AHADI]; Afghan Society dla the Call to the Koran and Sunna (Hezb-e-Jamahat-ul-Dawat ilal Quran-wa-Sunat-e-Afganistan) [Mawlawee Samiullah NAJEEBEE]; Comprehensive Movement of Democracy and Development of Afganistan Party (Hizb-e-Nahzat Faragir Democracy wa Taraqi-e-Afganistan) [Sher Mohammad BAZGAR]; Democratic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Democracy Afganistan) [Tawos ARAB]; Democratic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Domcrat-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Kabir RANJBAR]; Elites People of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Nakhbagan-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Hamid JAWAD]; Freedom and Democracy Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Nahzat-e-Aazadee Wa Democracy-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Raqib Jawid KOHISTANEE]; Freedom Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Azadee-e-Afganistan) [Ilaj Abdul MALEK]; Freedom Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Isteqlal-e-Afganistan) [Dr. Ghulam Farooq NEJRABEE]; Hizullah-e-Afganistan [Qari Ahmad ALI]; Human Rights Protection and Development Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Ifazat Az Uqooq-e-Bashar Wa Inkishaf-e-Afganistan) [Baryalai NASRATI]; Islamic Justice Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Adalat-e-Islami Afganistan) [Mohammad Kabir MARZBAN]; Islamic Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e Harakat-e-Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Ali JAWID]; Islamic Movement of Afganistan Party (Hizb-e-Nahzat-e-Melli Islami Afganistan) [Mohammad Mukhtar MUFLEH]; Islamic Party of Afganistan (Hizb-e-Islami Afganistan) [Mohammad Khalid FAROOQI]; Islamic Party of the Afghan Land (De Afghan Watan Islami Gond) [Mohammad Hassan FEROZKHEL]; Islamic People's Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Harakat-e-Islami Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ilhaj Said Hussain ANWARY]; Islamic Society of Afganistan (Hezb-e Jamihat-e-Islami) [Ustad RABBANI]; Islamic Unity of the Nation of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami-e-Melat-e-Afganistan) [Qurban Ali URFANI]; Islamic Unity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Karim KHALILI]; Islamic Unity Party of the People of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ustad Mohammad MOHAQQEQ]; Labor and Progress of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Kar Wa Tawsiha-e-Afganistan) [Zulfiqar OMID]; Muslim People of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Mardom-e-Mosalman-e-Afganistan) [Besmellah JOYAN]; Muslim Unity Movement Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Tahreek Wahdat-ul-Musimeen Afganistan) [Wazir Mohammad WAHDAT]; National and Islamic Sovereignty Movement Party of Afganistan (Hizb-e-Eqtedar-e-Melli wa Islami Afganistan) [Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai]; National Congress Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Kangra-e-Mili-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Latif PEDRAM]; National Country Party (Hezb-e-Mili Heward) [GHULAM MOHAMMAD]; National Development Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Taraqee Mili Afganistan) [Dr. Aref BAKTASH]; National Freedom Seekers Party (Hezb-e-Aazaadi Khwahan Maihan) [Abdul Hadi DABEER]; National Niepodleglosc Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e Esteqlal-e-Mili Afganistan) [Taj Mohammad WARDAK]; National Islamic Fighters Party of Afganistan (De Afganistan De Mili Mubarizeeno Islami Gond) [Amanat NINGARHAREE]; National Islamic Front of Afganistan (Mahaz-e-Mili Islami Afganistan) [Pir Sayed Ahmad GAILANEE]; National Islamic Moderation Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Eatedal-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Qara Bik Eized YAAR]; National Islamic Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Junbish Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Sayed NOORULLAH]; National Islamic Unity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad AKBAREE]; National Movement of Afganistan (Nahzat-e-Mili Afganistan) [Ahmad Wali MASOOUD]; National Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Mili Afganistan) [Abdul Rashid ARYAN]; National Patch of Afganistan Party (Hezb-e Paiwand Mihahani Afganistan) [Sayed Kamal SADAT]; National Peace Islamic Party of Afganistan (De Afganistan De Solay Mili Islami Gond) [Shah Mohammood Popal ZAI]; National Peace & Islamic Party of the Tribes of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Sulh-e-Mili Islami Aqwam-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Qaher SHARIATEE]; National Peace & Unity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Sulh Wa Wahdat-e-Mili-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Qader IMAMI]; National Prosperity and Islamic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Osman SALEKZADA]; National Prosperity Party (Hezb-e-Refah-e-Mili Afganistan) [Mohammad Hassan JAHFAREE]; National Solidarity Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Nahzat-e-Hambastagee Mili-e-Afganistan) [Pir Sayed Eshaq GAILANEE]; National Solidarity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Paiwand Mili Afganistan) [Sayed Mansoor NADREEI]; National Sovereignty Party (Hezb-e-Eqtedar-e-Mili) [Sayed Mustafa KAZEMI]; National Stability Party (Hezb-e-Subat-e-Mili Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Same KHAROTI]; National Stance Party (Hizb-e-Melli Dareez) [Habibullah JANEBDAR]; National Tribal Unity Islamic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Aqwam-e-Islami-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Shah KHOGYANI]; National United Front (Jumbah-e Mutahed-e Milli) [Burhanuddin RABBANI] (a coalition); National Unity Movement (Hezb-e-Tahreek Wahdat-e-Mili-e-Afganistan) [Sultan Mohammad GHAZI]; National Unity Movement of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Harakat-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Nadir AATASH]; National Unity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Mili Afganistan) [Abdul Rashid JALILI]; New Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Afganistan-e-Naween) [Mohammad Yunis QANUNI]; Peace and National Welfare Activists Society (Hezb-e-Majmeh Mili Faleen-Sulh-e-Afganistan) [Shamsul Haq Noor SHAMS]; Peace Movement (De Afganistan De Solay Ghorzang Gond) [Shahnawaz TANAI]; People's Aspirations Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Aarman-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ilhaj Saraj-u-din ZAFAREE]; People's Freedom Seekers Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Aazadee Khwahan Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Feda Mohammad EHSAS]; People's Liberal Freedom Seekers Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Lebral-e-Aazadee Khwa-e-Afganistan) [Ajmal SUHAIL]; People's Message Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Resalat-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Noor Aqa WAINEE]; People's Movement of the National Unity of Afganistan (De Afganistan De Mili Wahdat Wolesi Tahreek) [Abdul Hakim NOORZAI]; People's Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ahmad Shah ASAR]; People's Prosperity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Falah-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Ustad Mohammad ZAREEF]; People's Sovereignty Movement of Afganistan (Nahzat-e-Hakemyat-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Hayatullah SUBHANEE]; People's Uprising Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Rastakhaiz-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Sayed Zahir Qayed Omul BELADI]; People's Welfare Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Refah-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Mia Gul WASIQ]; People's Welfare Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Zubair PAIROZ]; Progressive Democratic Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Taraqee Democrat Afganistan) [Wali ARYA]; Republican Party (Hezb-e-Jamhoree Khwahane-Afganistan) [Sebghatullah SANJAR]; Solidarity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Hambastagee-e-Afganistan) [Abdul Khaleq NEMAT]; The Afganistan's Mujahid Nation's Islamic Unity Movement (Da Afganistan Mujahid Woles Yaowaali Islami Tahreek) [Saeedullah SAEED]; The People of Afganistan's Democratic Movement (Hezb-e-Junbish Democracy Mardom-e-Afganistan) [Sharif NAZARI]; Tribes Solidarity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e Hambastagee Mili Aqwam-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Zarif NASERI]; Understanding and Democracy Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Tafahum Wa Democracy-e-Afganistan) [Ahamad SHAHEEN]; United Afganistan Party (Hezb-e-Afganistan-e-Wahid) [Mohammad Wasil RAHIMEE]; United Islamic Party of Afganistan (Hizb-e-Mutahed Islami Afganistan) [Wahidullah SABAWOON]; Young Afganistan's Islamic Organization (Hezb-e-Islami-e-Afganistan-e-Jawan) [Sayed Jawad HUSSINEE]; Youth Solidarity Party of Afganistan (Hezb-e-Hambastagee Mili Jawanan-e-Afganistan) [Mohammad Jamil KARZAI]; note - includes only political parties approved by the Ministry of Justice note - includes only political parties approved by the Ministry of Justice: Afghan Millat [Anwarul Haq AHADI]; De Afganistan De Solay Ghorzang Gond [Shahnawaz TANAI]; De Afganistan De Solay Mili Islami Gond [Shah Mahmood Polal ZAI]; Harakat-e-Islami Afganistan [Mohammad Asif MOHSINEE]; Hezb-e-Aarman-e-Mardum-e-Afganistan [Iihaj Saraj-u-din ZAFAREE]; Hezb-e-Aazadee Afganistan [Abdul MALIK]; Hezb-e-Adalat-e-Islami Afganistan [Mohammad Kabeer MARZBAN]; Hezb-e-Afganistan-e-Wahid [Mohammad Wasil RAHEEMEE]; Hezb-e-Afghan Watan Islami Gond; Hezb-e-Congra-e-Mili Afganistan [Latif PEDRAM]; Hezb-e-Falah-e-Mardum-e-Afganistan [Mohammad ZAREEF]; Hezb-e-Hambastagee Mili Jawanan-e-Afganistan [Mohammad Jamil KARZAI]; Hezb-e-Hamnbatagee-e-Afganistan [Abdul Khaleq NEMAT]; Hezb-e-Harakat-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Afganistan [Mohammad Nadir AATASH]; Hezb-e-Harak-e-Islami Mardum-e-Afganistan [Ilhaj Said Hssain ANWARY]; Hezb-e-Ifazat Az Uqoq-e-Bashar Wa Inkishaf-e-Afganistan [Baryalai NASRATEE]; Hezb-e-Istiqlal-e-Afganistan [Dr. Gh. Farooq NIJZRABEE]; Hezb-e-Jamhoree Khwahan [Sibghatullah SANJAR]; Hezb-e-Kar Wa Tawsiha-e-Afganistan [Zulfiar OMID]; Hezb-e-Libral-e-Aazadee Khwa-e-Mardum-e-Afganistan [Ajmal SOHAIL]; Hezb-e-Mili Afganistan [Abdul Rasheed AARYAN]; Hezb-e-Mili Wahdat-e-Aqwam-e-Islami Afganistan [Mohammad Shah KHOGYANEE]; Hezb-e-Nuhzhat-e-Mili Afganistan [Ahmad Wali MASOUD]; Hezb-e-Paiwand-e-Mili Afganistan [Said Mansoor NADIRI]; Hezb-e-Rastakhaiz-e-Islami Mardum-e-Afganistan [Said ZAHIR]; Hezb-e-Refah-e-Mardum-e-Afganistan [Mia Gul WASEEQ]; Hezb-e-Risalat-e-Mardum-e-Afganistan [Noor Aqa ROEEN]; Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mardum-e-Afganistan [Mohammad Zubair PAIROZ]; Hezb-e-Sahadat-e-Mili Wa Islami Afganistan [Mohammad Usman SALIGZADA]; Hezb-e-Sulh-e-Mili Islami Aqwam-e-Afganistan [Abdul Qahir SHARYATEE]; Hezb-e-Sulh Wa Wahdat-e-Mili Afganistan [Abdul Qadir IMAMEE]; Hezb-e-Tafahum-e-Wa Democracy Afganistan [Ahamad SHAHEEN]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami Afganistan [Mohammad Karim KHALILI]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Islami Mardum-e-Afganistan [Ustad Mohammad MOHAQQEQ]; Hezb-e-Wahdat-e-Mili Afganistan [Abdul Rasheed JALILI]; Jamahat-ul-Dahwat ilal Qurhan-wa-Sunat-ul-Afganistan [Mawlawee Samiullah NAJEEBEE]; Jombesh-e Milli [Abdul Rashid DOSTAM]; Mahaz-e-Mili Islami Afganistan [Said Ahmad GAILANEE]; Majmah-e-Mili Fahaleen-e-Sulh-e-Afganistan [Shams ul Haq Noor SHAMS]; Nuhzat-e-Aazadee Wa Democracy Afganistan [Abdul Raqeeb Jawid KUHISTANEE]; Nuhzat-e-Hambastagee Mili Afganistan [Peer Said Ishaq GAILANEE]; Sazman-e-Islami Afganistan-e-Jawan [Siad Jawad HUSSAINEE]; Tahreek Wahdat-e-Mili [Sultan Mahmood DHAZI] (30 Sep 2004)
Albania Albania Agrarian Environmentalist Party or PAA [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Nard NDOKA]; Communist Party of Albania or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance Party or AD [Neritan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIA]; Liberal Union Party or BLD [Arjan STAROVA]; Movement dla National Development or LZhK [Dashamir SHEHI]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Adriatik ALIMADHI]; New Democratic Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy Party of Albania or PDSSh [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement dla Integration or LSI [Ilir META]; Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]; Union dla Human Rights Party or PBDNj [Vangjel DULE] Agrarian Environmentalist Party or PAA [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Nikolle LESI]; Communist Party of Albania or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance Party or DAP [Neritan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIU]; Liberal Union Party or PBL [Arjan STAROVA]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or BNK [Adriatik ALIMADHI]; New Democratic Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Renewed Democratic Party or PDRN [Dashamir SHEHI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy Party or PDS [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement dla Integration or LSI [Ilir META]; Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]; Union dla Human Rights Party or PBDNj [Vangjel DULE]
Algieria Algieria Ahd 54 [Ali Fauzi REBAINE]; Algierian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed kwiecien 1992) [Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR]; National Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Abdelaziz BELKHADEM, secretary general]; National Reform Movement or Islah (formerly MRN) [Mohamed BOULAHIA]; National Renewal Party or PRA [Mohamed BENSMAIL]; Rally dla Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SADI]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Fatah RABEI]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Society of Peace Movement or MSP [Boudjerra SOLTANI]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]


note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted w marzec 1997
Algierian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA, secretary general]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed kwiecien 1992) [Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR]; National Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Abdelaziz BELKHADEM, secretary general]; National Reform Movement or Islah (formerly MRN) [Abdellah DJABALLAH]; National Renewal Party or PRA [Yacine TERKMANE]; Progressive Republican Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally dla Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SADI]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Fatah RABEI]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Society of Peace Movement or MSP [Boudjerra SOLTANI]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUN]


note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted w marzec 1997
Samoa Amerykanskie Samoa Amerykanskie Democratic Party [Oreta M. TOGAFAU]; Republican Party [Tautai A. F. FAALEVAO] Democratic Party [Oreta M. TOGAFAU]; Republican Party [Tautai A. F. FAALEVAO]
Andora Andora Andoran Democratic Center Party or CDA (formerly Democratic Party or PD); Century 21 or S21 [Enric TARRADO]; Liberal Party of Andora or PLA [Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA] (formerly Liberal Union or UL); Social Democratic Party or PS [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY] (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND) Andoran Democratic Center Party or CDA (formerly Democratic Party or PD); Century 21 or S21 [Enric TARRADO]; Liberal Party of Andora or PLA (formerly Liberal Union or UL) [Albert PINTAT]; Social Democratic Party or PS (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND) [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY]
Angola Angola Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front dla the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed between Ngola KABANGU and Lucas NGONDA]; National Union dla the Total Niepodleglosc of Angola or UNITA (largest opposition party) [Isaias SAMAKUVA]; Popular Movement dla the Liberation of Angola or MPLA (ruling party w power since 1975) [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS]; Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]


note: about a dozen minor parties participated w the 1992 elections but only won a few seats; they and over 100 other smaller parties have little influence w the National Assembly
Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front dla the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union dla the Total Niepodleglosc of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party); Popular Movement dla the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party w power since 1975); Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO]


note: about a dozen minor parties participated w the 1992 elections but only won a few seats; they and the other 115 smaller parties have little influence w the National Assembly
Anguilla Anguilla Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Hubert HUGHES]; The Anguilla United Front or AUF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS] (a coalition of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA); Anguilla Progressive Party or APP [Roy ROGERS]; Anguilla Strategic Alternative or ANSA [Edison BAIRD] Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Hubert HUGHES]; The Anguilla United Front or AUF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS], a coalition of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA; Anguilla Progressive Party or APP [Roy ROGERS]; Anguilla Strategic Alternative or ANSA [Edison BAIRD]
Antigua i Barbuda Antigua i Barbuda Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbudans dla a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; Barbuda People's Movement dla Change [Arthur NIBBS]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP) Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; National Democratic Congress [Tillman THOMAS]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three opposition parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
Argentyna Argentyna Coalicion Civica (a broad coalition loosely affiliated z Elisa CARRIO); Front dla Victory or FV (a broad coalition, including elements of the UCR and numerous provincial parties) [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER]; Interbloque Federal or IF (a broad coalition of approximately 12 parties including PRO); Justicialist Front or FJ; Justicialist Party or PJ (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Gerardo MORALES]; Republican Proposal or PRO (including Federal Recreate Movement or RECREAR [Ricardo LOPEZ MURPHY] and Commitment dla Change or CPC [Mauricio MACRI]); Socialist Party or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI]; Union For All [Patricia BULLRICH]; several provincial parties Alternative dla a Republic of Equals or ARI [Elisa CARRIO]; Front dla Victory or FV [Nestor KIRCHNER]; Interbloque Federal or IF (a broad coalition of approximately 12 parties including RECREAR); Justicialist Front or FJ [Eduardo DUHALDE]; Justicialist Party or PJ (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Roberto IGLESIAS]; Republican Initiative Alliance or PRO (including Federal Recreate Movement or RECREAR [Ricardo LOPEZ MURPHY] and Commitment dla Change or CPC [Mauricio MACRI]); Socialist Party or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI]; Union For All [Patricia BULLRICH]; several provincial parties
Armenia Armenia Armenian National Movement or ANM [Ararat ZURABYAN]; Armenian People's Party [Tigran KARAPETYAN]; Armenian Ramkavar Azadagan Party Alliance or HRAK (includes former Dashink Party, National Revival Party, and Ramkavar Liberal Party); Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Hrant MARKARYAN]; Heritage Party [Raffi HOVHANNISYAN]; National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGHAMYAN]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Prosperous Armenia [Gagik TSAROUKYAN]; Republic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Republican Party of Armenia or HHK [Serzh SARGSYAN]; Rule of Law Party (Orinats Yerkir) [Artur BAGHDASARYAN]; Union of Konstytucjaal Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENYAN] Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALYAN]; Armenia Party [Myasnik MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Alex ARZUMANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Harutyun MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Levon MKRTCHYAN]; Democratic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Justice Bloc (comprised of the Democratic Party, National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, the People's Party, and the Republic Party) [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Revival Party [Albert BAZEYAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGHAMYAN, chairman]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Republic Party [Aram SARKISYAN, chairman]; Republican Party or RPA [Andranik MARGARYAN]; Rule of Law Party [Samvel BALASANYAN]; Union of Konstytucjaal Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENYAN]
Aruba Aruba Aliansa/Aruban Social Movement or MSA [Robert WEVER]; Aruban Liberal Organization or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic Movement or MPA [Monica ARENDS-KOCK]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Mike EMAN]; People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O. ODUBER]; Real Democracy or PDR [Andin BIKKER]; RED [Rudy LAMPE]; Workers Political Platform or PTT [Gregorio WOLFF] Aliansa/Aruban Social Movement or MSA [Robert WEVER]; Aruban Liberal Organization or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic Movement or MPA [Monica ARENDS-KOCK]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Mike EMAN]; People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O. ODUBER]; Real Democracy or PDR [Andin BIKKER]; RED [Rudy LAMPE]; Workers Political Platform or PTT [Gregorio WOLFF]
Australia Australia Australian Democrats [Lyn ALLISON]; Australian Greens [Bob BROWN]; Australian Labor Party [Kevin RUDD]; Country Liberal Party [Jodeen CARNEY]; Family First Party [Steve FIELDING]; Liberal Party [Brendan NELSON]; The Nationals [Warren TRUSS] Australian Democrats [Lyn ALLISON]; Australian Greens [Bob BROWN]; Australian Labor Party [Kevin RUDD]; Country Liberal Party [Jodeen CARNEY]; Family First Party [Steve FIELDING]; Liberal Party [John Winston HOWARD]; The Nationals [Mark VAILE]
Austria Austria Alliance dla the Future of Austria or BZOe [Peter WESTENTHALER]; Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wilhelm MOLTERER]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN] Alliance dla the Future of Austria or BZOe [Joerg HAIDER]; Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]
Azerbejdzan Azerbejdzan Azadliq ("Freedom") coalition (Popular Front Party, Liberal Party, Citizens' Development Party); Azerbejdzan Democratic Party (ADP) [Sardar JALALOGLU]; Azerbejdzan Democratic Reforms Party (ADRP) Youth Movement [Ramin HAJILI]; Azerbejdzan Popular Front or APF, now split w two [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform" APF party; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" APF party]; Azerbejdzan Public Forum [Eldar NAMAZOV]; Citizens' Development Party [Ali ALIYEV]; Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Dalga Youth Movement [Vafa JAFAROVA]; Green Party [Mais GULALIYEV and Tarana MAMMADOVA]; Hope (Umid) Party [Iqbal AGAZADE]; Ireli Youth Movement [Jeyhun OSMANLI, Roya TALIBOVA, Farhad MAMMADOV, Elnara GARIBOVA, Elnur MAMMADOV, Ziya ALIYEV]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbejdzan [Lala Shovkat HACIYEVA]; Magam Youth Movement [Emin HUSEYNOV]; Motherland Party [Fazail AGAMALI]; Musavat ("Equality") [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; Musavat Party Youth Movement [Elnur MAMMADLI]; National Democratic Party or "Grey Wolves" (Nationalist, Pan-Turkic) [Iskender HAMIDOV]; Open Society Party [Rasul GULIYEV, w exile w the US]; Party dla National Niepodleglosc of Azerbejdzan or PNIA [Ayaz RUSTAMOV]; Popular Front Party Youth Movement [Seymur KHAZIYEV]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbejdzan or SDP [Araz ALIZADE and Ayaz MUTALIBOV (in exile)]; Turkish Nationalist Party [Vugar BAYTURAN]; United Azerbejdzan Party [Karrar ABILOV]; United Azerbejdzan National Unity Party [Hajibaba AZIMOV]; United Party [Tahir KARIMLI]; Yeni (New) Azerbejdzan Party [President Ilham ALIYEV]; Yeni Azerbejdzan Party Youth Movement [Ramil HASANOV]; Yox (No) Youth Movement [Ali ISMAYILOV]


note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties;
Azerbejdzan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform" faction; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" faction]; Civic Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbejdzan or CPA [Ramiz AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party dla Azerbejdzan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbejdzan [Lala Shovkat HACIYEVA]; Motherland Party; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; Yeni Azerbejdzan Party; Party dla National Niepodleglosc of Azerbejdzan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADLI, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbejdzan or SDP [Araz ALIZADE and Ayaz MUTALIBOV]


note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties
Bahamy Bahamy Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert INGRAHAM]; Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE] Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert INGRAHAM]; Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]
Bahrajn Bahrajn political parties prohibited but political societies were legalized per a lipiec 2005 law political parties prohibited but political societies were legalized per a lipiec 2005 law
Bangladesz Bangladesz Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesz Communist Party or BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesz Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesz or JIB [Matiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Badrudozza CHOWDHURY and Oli AHMED] Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesz Communist Party or BCP [Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK]; Bangladesz Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesz or JIB [Motiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Badrudozza CHOWDHURY and Oli AHMED]
Barbados Barbados Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [David THOMPSON]; People's Empowerment Party or PEP [David COMISSIONG] Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [David THOMPSON]
Bialorus Bialorus pro-government parties: Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY]; Bialorusian Communist Party or KPB; Bialorusian Patriotic Movement (Bialorusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Nikolay ULAKHOVICH, chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party of Bialorus [Sergey GAYDUKEVICH]; Party of Labor and Justice [Viktor SOKOLOV]; Social-Sports Party [Vladimir ALEXANDROVICH]


opposition parties: Bialorusian Christian Democracy Party (unregistered) [Pavel SEVERINETS]; Bialorusian Party of Communists or PKB [Sergey KALYAKIN]; Bialorusian Party of Labor (unregistered) [Aleksandr BUKHVOSTOV, Leonid LEMESHONAK]; Bialorusian Popular Front or BPF [Vintsyuk VYACHORKA]; Bialorusian Social-Democratic Gramada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH]; Bialorusian Social Democratic Party Hramada (People's Assembly) or BSDPH [Aleksandr KOZULIN; Anatoliy LEVKOVICH, acting]; Green Party [Oleg GROMYKO]; Party of Freedom and Progress (unregistered) [Vladimir NOVOSYAD]; United Civic Party or UCP [Anatoliy LEBEDKO]; Women's Party "Nadezhda" [Valentina MATUSEVICH, chairperson]


other opposition includes: Christian Conservative BPF [Zyanon PAZNIAK]; Ecological Party of Greens [Mikhail KARTASH]; Party of Popular Accord [Sergey YERMAKK]; Republican Party [Vladimir BELAZOR]
pro-government parties: Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY]; Bialorusian Communist Party or KPB; Bialorusian Patriotic Movement (Bialorusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Nikolai ULAKHOVICH, chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party of Bialorus [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH]; Party of Labor and Justice [Viktor SOKOLOV]; Social-Sports Party [Vladimir ALEXANDROVICH]


opposition parties: 10 Plus Coalition [Alyaksandr MILINKEVICH], includes: Bialorusian Party of Communists or PKB [Syarhey KALYAKIN]; Bialorusian Party of Labor (unregistered) [Aleksandr BUKHVOSTOV, Leonid LEMESHONAK]; Bialorusian Popular Front or BPF [Vintsyuk VYACHORKA]; Bialorusian Social-Democratic Gramada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH]; Green Party [Oleg GROMYKO]; Party of Freedom and Progress (unregistered) [Vladimir NOVOSYAD]; United Civic Party or UCP [Anatol LYABEDKA]; Women's Party "Nadezhda" [Valentina MATUSEVICH, chairperson]


other opposition includes: Bialorusian Social-Democratic Party Nardonaya Hromada or BSDP NH [Alyaksandr KOZULIN, chairman]; Christian Conservative BPF [Zyanon PAZNIAK]; Ecological Party of Greens [Mikhail KARTASH]; Party of Popular Accord [Sergei YERMAKK]; Republican Party [Vladimir BELAZOR]
Belgia Belgia Flemish parties: Christian Democratic and Flemish or CDV [Etienne SCHOUPPE]; Dedecker List [Jean-Marie DEDECKER]; Flemish Liberals and Democrats or Open VLD [Bart SOMERS]; Groen! [Mieke VOGELS] (formerly AGALEV, Flemish Greens); New Flemish Alliance or N-VA [Bart DE WEVER]; Social Progressive Alternative or SP.A [Caroline GENNEZ]; Spirit [Geert LAMBERT] (new party now associated z SP.A); Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest) or VB [Bruno VALKENIERS]


Francophone parties: Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Jean-Michel JAVAUX, Isabelle DURANT, Claude BROUIR]; Humanist and Democratic Center or CDH [Joelle MILQUET]; National Front or FN [Michel BELACROIX]; Reform Movement or MR [Didier REYNDERS]; Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI RUPO]; other minor parties
Flemish parties: Christian Democrats and Flemish or CD & V [Jo VANDEURZEN]; Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Bart SOMERS]; GROEN! (formerly AGALEV, Flemish Greens) [Vera DUA]; New Flemish Alliance or NVA [Bart DE WEVER]; Social Progressive Alternative or SP.A [Johan Vande LANOTTE]; Spirit [Geert LAMBERT] (new party now associated z SP.A); Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest) or VB [Frank VANHECKE]


Francophone parties: Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Jean-Michel JAVAUX, Isabelle DURANT, Claude BROUIR]; Humanist and Democratic Center of CDH [Joelle MILQUET]; National Front or FN [Daniel FERET]; Reform Movement or MR [Didier REYNDERS]; Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI RUPO]; other minor parties
Belize Belize National Alliance dla Belizean Rights or NABR; National Reform Party or NRP [Cornelius DUECK]; People's National Party or PNP [Wil MAHEIA]; People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Dean BARROW]; Vision Inspired by the People or VIP [Paul MORGAN]; We the People Reform Movement or WTP [Hipolito BAUTISTA] People's United Party or PUP [Said MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Dean BARROW, party leader; Douglas SINGH, party chairman]
Benin Benin Alliance dla Dynamic Democracy or ADD; Alliance of Progress Forces or AFP; African Movement dla Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Benin Renaissance or RB [Rosine SOGLO]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Force Cowrie dla an Emerging Benin or FCBE; Impulse dla Progress and Democracy or IPD [Theophile NATA]; Key Force or FC [Lazare SČHOUÉTO]; Movement dla the People's Alternative or MAP [Olivier CAPO-CHICHI]; Rally dla Democracy and Progress or RDP [Dominique HOUNGNINOU]; Social Democrat Party or PSD [Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Union dla the Relief or UPR [Issa SALIFOU]; Union dla Democracy and National Solidarity or UDS [Sacca LAFIA]


note: approximately 20 additional minor parties
Alliance of Progress Forces or AFP; African Movement dla Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Impulse dla Progress and Democracy or IPD; Key Force or FC; Movement dla Development and Solidarity or MDS; Movement dla Development by the Culture-Salute Party-Congress of People dla Progress Alliance or Alliance MDC-PS-CPP; New Alliance or NA; Rally dla Democracy and Progress or RDP; Renaissance Party du Benin or RB [Nicephore SOGLO]; The Star Alliance (Alliance E'toile) [Sacca LAFIA]; Union of Tomorrow's Benin or UBF [Bruno AMOUSSOU]


note: approximately 20 additional minor parties
Bermudy Bermudy Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Ewart BROWN]; United Bermudy Party or UBP [Wayne FURBERT] Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Ewart BROWN]; United Bermudy Party or UBP [Wayne FURBERT]
Bhutan Bhutan Druk Pheunsum Tshogpa or DPT [Jigme THINLEY]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Sangay NGEDUP] no legal parties
Boliwia Boliwia Free Boliwia Movement or MBL [Franz BARRIOS]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]; Movement Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; National Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Mirta QUEVEDO]; National Unity [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]; Poder Democratico Nacional or PODEMOS [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Social Alliance [Rene JOAQUINO] Boliwian Socialist Falange or FSB [Romel PANTOJA]; Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ]; Free Boliwia Movement or MBL [Franz BARRIOS]; Marshal of Ayacucho Institutional Vanguard or VIMA [Freddy ZABALA]; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR [Jaime PAZ Zamora]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]; Movement Without Fear or MSM [Juan DEL GRANADO]; National Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]; New Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES-VILLA]; Pachakuti Indigenous Movement or MIP [Felipe QUISPE Huanca]; Poder Democratico Nacional or PODEMOS [Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez]; Socialist Party or PS [Jeres JUSTINIANO]
Bosnia i Hercegowina Bosnia i Hercegowina Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia i Hercegowina or HKDU [Marin TOPIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zvonko JURISIC]; Croat Peasants Party or HSS [Marko TADIC]; Chorwacjan Democratic Union of Bosnia i Hercegowina or HDZ-BH [Dragan COVIC]; Chorwacjan Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ1990 [Bozo LJUBIC]; Chorwacjan Peoples Union [Milenko BRKIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Rifet DOLIC]; Democratic Peoples Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croat Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party dla Bosnia i Hercegowina or SBH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party dla Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Mladen BOSIC]; Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]; Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Social Democratic Union or SDU [Sejfudin TOKIC]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC] Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia i Hercegowina or HKDU [Marin TOPIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zvonko JURISIC]; Croat Peasants Party or HSS [Marko TADIC]; Chorwacjan Democratic Union of Bosnia i Hercegowina or HDZ-BH [Dragan COVIC]; Chorwacjan Democratic Union 100 or HDZ100; Chorwacjan Peoples Union [Milenko BRKIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Rifet DOLIC]; Democratic Peoples Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croat Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party dla Bosnia i Hercegowina or SBiH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party dla Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Dragan CAVIC]; Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]; Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Social Democratic Union or SDU [Sejfudin TOKIC]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]
Botswana Botswana Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Otlaadisa KOOSALETSE]; Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus G. MOGAE]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Peoples Party or BPP; MELS Movement of Botswana or MELS; New Democratic Front or NDF


note: a number of minor parties joined forces w 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats - includes the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; the Niepodleglosc Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]; the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]
Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Otlaadisa KOOSALETSE]; Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus G. MOGAE]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Peoples Party or BPP; MELS Movement of Botswana or MELS; New Democratic Front or NDF


note: a number of minor parties joined forces w 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats - includes the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; the Niepodleglosc Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]; the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]
Brazylia Brazylia Brazyliaian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Federal Deputy Michel TEMER]; Brazyliaian Labor Party or PTB [Roberto JEFFERSON]; Brazyliaian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]; Brazyliaian Republican Party or PRB [Vitor Paulo Araujo DOS SANTOS]; Brazyliaian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator Sergio GUERRA]; Brazyliaian Socialist Party or PSB [Governor Eduardo Henrique Accioly CAMPOS]; Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]; Communist Party of Brazylia or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]; the Democrats or DEM (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL) [Federal Deputy Rodrigo MAIA]; Freedom and Socialism Party or PSOL [Heloisa HELENA]; Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz de Franca PENNA]; Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Paulo Roberto MATOS]; Labor Party of Brazylia or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]; Liberal Front Party or PFL (now known as the Democrats or DEM); National Mobilization Party or PMN [Oscar Noronha FILHO]; Party of the Republic or PR [Sergio TAMER]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Federal Deputy Fernando CORUJA]; Progressive Party or PP [Francisco DORNELLES]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]; Workers' Party or PT [Ricardo Jose Ribeiro BERZOINI] Brazyliaian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Federal Deputy Michel TEMER]; Brazyliaian Labor Party or PTB [Flavio de CASTRO MARTINEZ]; Brazyliaian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy Fidelix DA CRUZ]; Brazyliaian Republican Party or PRB [Vitor Paulo Araujo DOS SANTOS]; Brazyliaian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator Tasso JEREISSATI]; Brazyliaian Socialist Party or PSB [Federal Deputy Eduardo Henrique Accioly CAMPOS]; Communist Party of Brazylia or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Luis Marques MENDES]; Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz de Franca PENNA]; Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [leader NA]; Liberal Party or PL [Federal Deputy Valdemar COSTA Neto]; National Order Reconstruction Party or PRONA [Federal Deputy Dr. Eneas Ferreira CARNEIRO]; Partido Municipalista Renovador or PMR [Natal Wellington Rodrigues FURUCHO]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Federal Deputy Roberto FREIRE]; Progressive Party or PP [Federal Deputy Pedro CORREA]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge ABDALA NOSSEIS]; Workers' Party or PT [Ricardo Jose Ribeiro BERZOINI]
Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Ethlyn SMITH]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Orlando SMITH]; United Party or UP [Gregory MADURO]; Wyspy Dziewicze Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL] Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Ethlyn SMITH]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Orlando SMITH]; United Party or UP [Gregory MADURO]; Wyspy Dziewicze Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]
Brunei Brunei National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]


note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered; parties are small and have limited activity
Brunei Solidarity National Party (PPKB) [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin]; National Development Party (NDP) [YASSIN Affendi]; People's Awareness Party (PAKAR) [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad]


note: parties are small and have limited activity (2005)
Bulgaria Bulgaria ATAKA (Attack Coalition) (coalition of parties headed by the Attack National Union); Attack National Union [Volen SIDEROV]; Bulgarian Agrarian National Union-People's Union or BANU [Anastasia MOZER]; Bulgarian New Democracy [Borislav RALCHEV]; Bulgarian People's Union or BPU (coalition of UFD, IMRO, and BANU); Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Citizens dla the European Development of Bulgaria or GERB [Boyko BORISOV]; Coalition dla Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by BSP) [Sergei STANISHEV]; Democrats dla a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Ivan KOSTOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]; Movement dla Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement dla Stability and Progress or NDSV [Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; New Time [Emil KOSHLUKOV]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Petar STOYANOV]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces or UtDF (a coalition of center-right parties dominated by UDF) ATAKA (Attack Coalition) (coalition of parties headed by the Attack National Union); Attack National Union [Volen Siderov]; Bulgarian Agrarian National Union-People's Union or BANU [Anastasia MOZER]; Bulgarian People's Union or BPU (coalition of UFD, IMRO, and BANU); Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Coalition dla Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by BSP) [Sergei STANISHEV]; Democrats dla a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Ivan KOSTOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]; Movement dla Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement dla Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; New Time [Emil KOSHLUKOV]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Petar STOYANOV]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces or UtDF (a coalition of center-right parties dominated by UDF)
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso African Democratic Rally-Alliance dla Democracy and Federation or ADF-RDA [Gilbert OUEDRAOGO]; Citizen's Popular Rally or RPC [Antoine QUARE]; Coalition of Democratic Forces of Burkina or CFD-B [Amadou Diemdioda DICKO]; Congress dla Democracy and Progress or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement dla Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE]; Party dla African Niepodleglosc or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party dla Democracy and Progress/Socialist Party or PDP/PS [Ali LANKOANDE]; Party dla Democracy and Socialism or PDS [Felix SOUBEIGA]; Party dla National Rebirth or PAREN [Oumar DJIGUIMDE]; Rally dla the Development of Burkina or RDB [Antoine KARGOUGOU]; Rally of Ecologists of Burkina Faso or RDEB [Ram OUEDRAGO]; Republican Party dla Integration and Solidarity or PARIS [Cyril GOUNGOUNGA]; Union dla Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Fidele HIEN]; Union dla Rebirth - Sankarist Movement or UNIR-MS [Benewende STANISLAS]; Union dla the Republic or UPR [Toussaint Abel COULIBALY]; Union of Sankarist Parties or UPS [Ernest Nongma OUEDRAOGO] African Democratic Rally-Alliance dla Democracy and Federation or RDA-ADF [Herman YAMEOGO]; Confederation dla Federation and Democracy or CFD [Amadou Diemdioda DICKO]; Congress dla Democracy and Progress or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement dla Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE]; Party dla African Niepodleglosc or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party dla Democracy and Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Socialist Party or PS; Union of Greens dla the Development of Burkina Faso or UVDB [Ram OVEDRAGO]
Birma Birma National League dla Democracy or NLD [AUNG SHWE, AUNG SAN SUU KYI]; National Unity Party or NUP (pro-regime) [TUN YE]; Shan Nationalities League dla Democracy or SNLD [HKUN HTUN OO]; and other smaller parties National League dla Democracy or NLD [AUNG SHWE, chairman, AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary]; National Unity Party or NUP (pro-regime) [THA KYAW] (at last report); Shan Nationalities League dla Democracy or SNLD [HKUN HTUN OO]; and other smaller parties
Burundi Burundi governing parties: Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Leonce NGENDAKUMANA]; National Council dla the Defense of Democracy - Front dla the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Jeremie NGENDAKUMANA]; Unity dla National Progress or UPRONA [Aloys RUBUKA]


note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: National Council dla the Defense of Democracy or CNDD [Leonard NYANGOMA]; National Resistance Movement dla the Rehabilitation of the Citizen or MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI]; Party dla National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]
the three national, mainstream, governing parties are: Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Leonce NGENDAKUMANA, president]; National Council dla the Defense of Democracy, Front dla the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Hussein RADJABU, president]; Unity dla National Progress or UPRONA [Aloys RUBUKA, president]


note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: National Council dla the Defense of Democracy or CNDD; National Resistance Movement dla the Rehabilitation of the Citizen or MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI]; Party dla National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]
Kambodza Kambodza Kambodzan People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; National United Front dla an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Kambodza or FUNCINPEC [KEV PUT REAKSMEI]; Norodom Ranariddh Party or NRP [Norodom RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP [SAM RANGSI] Kambodzan Pracheachon Party (Kambodzan People's Party) or CPP [CHEA SIM]; National United Front dla an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Kambodza or FUNCINPEC [KEV PUT REAKSMEI]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP [SAM RANGSI]
Kamerun Kamerun Kamerunian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou Ndam NJOYA]; Kamerun People's Democratic Movement or RDPC [Paul BIYA]; Movement dla the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement dla the Liberation and Development of Kamerun or MLDC [Marcel YONDO]; National Union dla Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA]; Progressive Movement or MP; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of Peoples of Kamerun or UPC [Augustin Frederic KODOCK] Kamerunian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou Ndam NJOYA]; Democratic Rally of the Kamerun People or RDCP [Paul BIYA]; Movement dla the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement dla the Liberation and Development of Kamerun or MLDC [Marcel YONDO]; Movement dla the Youth of Kamerun or MYC [Dieudonne TINA]; National Union dla Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA]; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of Kamerunian Ludnoscs or UPC [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]
Kanada Kanada Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Kanada [Stephen HARPER] (a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party); Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]; Liberal Party [Stephane DION]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON] Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Kanada (a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party) [Stephen HARPER]; Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]; Liberal Party [Stephane DION]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]
Republika Zielonego Przyladka Republika Zielonego Przyladka African Party dla Niepodleglosc of Republika Zielonego Przyladka or PAICV [Jose Maria Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance dla Change or ADM [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES]; Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Victor FIDALGO]; Democratic and Independent Republika Zielonego Przyladkaan Union or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO]; Movement dla Democracy or MPD [Agostinho LOPES]; Party dla Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Isaias RODRIGUES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM] African Party dla Niepodleglosc of Republika Zielonego Przyladka or PAICV [Jose Maria Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance dla Change or ADM [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES, chairman]; Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Victor FIDALGO, president]; Democratic and Independent Republika Zielonego Przyladkaan Union or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO]; Movement dla Democracy or MPD [Agostinho LOPES, president]; Party dla Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO, president]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Isaias RODRIGUES, president]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM, president]
Kajmany Kajmany United Democratic Party or UDP [McKeeva BUSH]; People's Progressive Movement or PPM [Kurt TIBBETTS]; note - no national teams (loose groupings of political organizations) were formed dla the 2000 elections no national teams (loose groupings of political organizations) were formed dla the 2000 elections; United Democratic Party or UDP [leader McKeeva BUSH]; People's Progressive Movement or PPM [leader Kurt TIBBETTS]
Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie Alliance dla Democracy and Progress or ADP [Jacques MBOLIEDAS]; Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre KOLINGBA]; Civic Forum or FC [Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Forum dla Modernity or FODEM [Charles MASSI]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement dla Democracy and Development or MDD [David DACKO]; Movement dla the Liberation of the Central African People or MLPC [Ange-Felix PATASSE] (the party of deposed president); National Convergence or KNK; Patriotic Front dla Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA]; People's Union dla the Republic or UPR [Pierre Sammy MAKFOY]; National Unity Party or PUN [Jean-Paul NGOUPANDE]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Enoch LAKOUE] Alliance dla Democracy and Progress or ADP [Jacques MBOLIEDAS]; Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre KOLINGBA]; Civic Forum or FC [Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Forum dla Modernity or FODEM [Charles MASSI]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement dla Democracy and Development or MDD [David DACKO]; Movement dla the Liberation of the Central African People or MLPC [Ange-Felix PATASSE] (the party of deposed president); National Convergence or KNK; Patriotic Front dla Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA]; People's Union dla the Republic or UPR [Pierre Sammy MAKFOY]; National Unity Party or PUN [Jean-Paul NGOUPANDE]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Enoch LAKOUE]
Czad Czad Federation Action dla the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]; National Rally dla Development and Progress or RNDP [Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE]; National Union dla Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Party dla Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]; Rally dla Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union dla Democracy and Republic or UDR [Jean ALINGUE]; Union dla Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE] Federation Action dla the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]; National Rally dla Development and Progress or RNDP [Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]; National Union dla Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Party dla Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]; Rally dla Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union dla Democracy and Republic or UDR [Jean ALINGUE]; Union dla Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]
Chile Chile Alliance dla Chile ("Alianza") or APC (including National Renewal or RN [Carlos LARRAIN Pena] and Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Hernan LARRAIN Fernandez]); Coalition of Parties dla Democracy ("Concertacion") or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Soledad ALVEAR], Socialist Party or PS [Camilo ESCALONA Medina], Party dla Democracy or PPD [Sergio BITAR Chacra], Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Jose Antonio GOMEZ Urrutia]); Communist Party or PC [Guillermo TEILLIER]; Humanist Party [Marilen CABRERA Olmos] Alliance dla Chile ("Alianza") or APC (including National Renewal or RN [Sergio DIEZ Urzia] and Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Jovino NOVOA Vasquez]); Coalition of Parties dla Democracy ("Concertacion") or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Adolfo ZALDIVAR Larrain], Socialist Party or PS [Ricardo NUNEZ], Party dla Democracy or PPD [Victor BARRUETO], Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Jose Antonio GOMEZ Urrutia]); Communist Party or PC [Guillermo TEILLIER]
Chiny Chiny Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
Wyspa Bozego Narodzenia Wyspa Bozego Narodzenia none none
Wyspy Kokosowe Wyspy Kokosowe none none
Kolumbia Kolumbia Kolumbian Conservative Party or PC [Julio MANZUR Abdala]; Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Carlos GAVIRIA Diaz]; Liberal Party or PL [Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo]; Radical Change or CR [German VARGAS Lleras]; Social National Unity Party or U Party [Carlos GARCIA Orjuela]


note: Kolumbia has 15 formally recognized political parties, and numerous unofficial parties that did not meet the vote threshold w the marzec 2006 legislative elections required dla recognition
Clandestine Communist Party of Kolumbia or PCC [Jaime CAICEDO]; Kolumbian Conservative Party or PC [Carlos HOLGUIN Sardi]; Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Samuel MORENO Rojas]; Liberal Party or PL [Cesar GAVIRIA]; Social National Unity Party or PSUN [Juan Manuel SANTOS]


note: Kolumbia has about 60 formally recognized political parties, most of which do not have a presence w either house of Congress
Komory Komory Convention dla the Renewal of the Komory or CRC [AZALI Assowmani]; Camp of the Autonomous Islands or CdIA (a coalition of parties organized by the islands' presidents w opposition to the Union President); Front National pour la Justice or FNJ [Ahmed RACHID] (Islamic party w opposition); Mouvement pour la Democratie et le Progress or MDP-NGDC [Abbas DJOUSSOUF]; Parti Comorien pour la Democratie et le Progress or PCDP [Ali MROUDJAE]; Rassemblement National pour le Development or RND [Omar TAMOU, Abdoulhamid AFFRAITANE] Convention dla the Renewal of the Komory [AZALI Assowmani]; Camp of the Autonomous Islands (a coalition of parties organized by the island Presidents w opposition to the Union President); Front National pour la Justice or FNJ [Ahmed RACHID] (Islamic party w opposition); Mouvement pour la Democratie et le Progress or MDP-NGDC [Abbas DJOUSSOUF]; Parti Comorien pour la Democratie et le Progress or PCDP [Ali MROUDJAE]; Rassemblement National pour le Development or RND [Omar TAMOU, Abdoulhamid AFFRAITANE]
Kongo, Republika Demokratyczna Kongo, Republika Demokratyczna Christian Democrat Party or PDC [Jose ENDUNDO]; Congolese Rally dla Democracy or RCD [Azarias RUBERWA]; Convention of Christian Democrats or CDC; Forces of Renewal or FR [Mbusa NYAMWISI]; Movement dla the Liberation of the Congo or MLC [Jean-Pierre BEMBA]; People's Party dla Reconstruction and Democracy or PPRD [Joseph KABILA]; Social Movement dla Renewal or MSR [Pierre LUMBI]; Unified Lumumbist Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union dla Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI]; Union of Mobutuist Democrats or UDEMO [MOBUTU Nzanga] Democratic Social Christian Party or PDSC [Andre BO-BOLIKO]; Forces dla Renovation dla Union and Solidarity or FONUS [Joseph OLENGHANKOY]; National Congolese Lumumbist Movement or MNC [Francois LUMUMBA]; Popular Movement of the Revolution or MPR (three factions: MPR-Fait Prive [Catherine NZUZI wa Mbombo]; MPR/Vunduawe [Felix VUNDUAWE]; MPR/Mananga [MANANGA Dintoka Mpholo]); Unified Lumumbast Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union dla Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa Mulumba]; Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans or UFERI (two factions: UFERI [Lokambo OMOKOKO]; UFERI/OR [Adolph Kishwe MAYA])
Kongo, Republika Kongo, Republika Action Movement dla Renewal or MAR; Congolese Movement dla Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Congolese Labour Party or PCT; Movement dla Solidarity and Development or MSD; Pan-African Union dla Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Rally dla Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]; Rally dla Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond Damasge NGOLLO]; Union dla Democracy and Republic or UDR; Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Sebastian EBAO]; many less important parties the most important of the many parties are the Democratic and Patriotic Forces or FDP [Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, president] (an alliance of Convention dla Alternative Democracy, Congolese Labor Party or PCT, Liberal Republican Party, National Union dla Democracy and Progress, Patriotic Union dla the National Reconstruction, and Union dla the National Renewal); Congolese Movement dla Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Pan-African Union dla Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Rally dla Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]; Rally dla Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond Damasge NGOLLO]; Union dla Democracy and Republic or UDR; Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Sebastian EBAO]
Wyspy Cooka Wyspy Cooka Wyspy Cooka Party or CIP [Henry PUNA]; Democratic Party or Demo [Dr. Terepai MAOATE] Wyspy Cooka Party or CIP [Henry PUNA]; Democratic Party or Demo [Dr. Terepai MAOATE]
Kostaryka Kostaryka Authentic Member from Heredia [Jose SALAS]; Citizen Action Party or PAC [Epsy CAMPBELL Barr]; Kostarykan Renovation Party or PRC [Gerardo Justo OROZCO Alvarez]; Democratic Force Party or PFD [Marco NUNEZ Gonzalez]; General Union Party or PUGEN [Carlos Alberto FERNANDEZ Vega]; Homeland First or PP [Juan Jose VARGAS Fallas]; Independent Worker Party or PIO [Jose Alberto CUBERO Carmona]; Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Otto GUEVARA Guth]; National Christian Alliance Party or ANC [Juan Carlos CHAVEZ Mora]; National Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National Liberation Party or PLN [Francisco Antonio PACHECO Fernandez]; National Patriotic Party or PPN [Daniel Enrique REYNOLDS Vargas]; National Restoration Party or PRN [Fabio Enrique DELGADO Hernandez]; National Union Party or PUN [Arturo ACOSTA Mora]; Nationalist Democratic Alliance or ADN [Jose Miguel VILLALOBOS Umana]; Patriotic Union or UP [Jose Miguel CORRALES Bolanos]; Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Luis FISHMAN Zonzinski]; Union dla Change Party or UPC [Antonio ALVAREZ Desanti]; United Leftist Coalition or IU [Humberto VARGAS Carbonel] Authentic Member from Heredia [Jose SALAS]; Citizen Action Party or PAC [Otton SOLIS]; Kostarykan Renovation Party or PRC [Gerardo Justo OROZCO Alvarez]; Democratic Force Party or PFD [Vladimir DE LA CRUZ]; General Union Party or PUGEN [Carlos Alberto FERNANDEZ Vega]; Homeland First or PP [Juan Jose VARGAS Fallas]; Independent Worker Party or PIO [Jose Alberto CUBERO Carmona]; Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Otto GUEVARA Guth]; National Christian Alliance Party or ANC [Juan Carlos CHAVEZ Mora]; National Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National Liberation Party or PLN [Francisco Antonio PACHECO]; National Patriotic Party or PPN [Daniel Enrique REYNOLDS Vargas]; National Restoration Party or PRN [Carlos AVENDANO]; Nationalist Democratic Alliance or ADN [Jose Miguel VILLALOBOS Umana]; Patriotic Union or UP [Humberto ARCE Salas]; Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Lorena VASQUEZ Badilla]; Union dla Change Party or UPC [Antonio ALVAREZ Desanti]; United Leftist Coalition or IU [Humberto VARGAS Carbonel]
Cote d'Ivoire Cote d'Ivoire Citizen's Democratic Union or UDCY [Theodore MEL EG]; Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire-African Democratic Rally or PDCI-RDA [Henri Konan BEDIE]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Pascale Affi N'GUESSAN]; Ivorian Worker's Party or PIT [Francis WODIE]; Opposition Movement of the Future or MFA [Innocent sierpienin ANAKY]; Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Alassane OUATTARA]; Union dla Democracy and Peace w Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Toikeuse MABRI]; over 144 smaller registered parties Citizen's Democratic Union or UDCY [Eg Theodore MEL]; Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire-African Democratic Rally or PDCI-RDA [Henri Konan BEDIE]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Laurent GBAGBO]; Ivorian Worker's Party or PIT [Francis WODIE]; Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Alassane OUATTARA]; Union dla Democracy and Peace or UDPCI [Paul Akoto YAO]; over 20 smaller parties
Chorwacja Chorwacja Chorwacjan Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Vladimir SISLJAGIC]; Chorwacjan Democratic Union or HDZ [Ivo SANADER]; Chorwacjan Party of the Right or HSP [Anto DJAPIC]; Chorwacjan Peasant Party or HSS [Josip FRISCIC]; Chorwacjan Pensioner Party or HSU [Vladimir JORDAN]; Chorwacjan People's Party or HNS [Vesna PUSIC]; Chorwacjan Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Djurdja ADLESIC]; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Social Democratic Party of Chorwacja or SDP [Zoran MILANOVIC] Chorwacjan Bloc or HB [Ivic PASALIC]; Chorwacjan Christian Democratic Union or HKDU [Anto KOVACEVIC]; Chorwacjan Democratic Union or HDZ [Ivo SANADER]; Chorwacjan Party of Rights or HSP [Anto DJAPIC]; Chorwacjan Peasant Party or HSS [Josip FRISCIC]; Chorwacjan Pensioner Party or HSU [Vladimir JORDAN]; Chorwacjan People's Party or HNS [Vesna PUSIC] (in 2005 party merged z Libra to become Chorwacjan People's Party-Liberal Democrats or NS-LD [Vesna PUSIC]); Chorwacjan Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Djurdja ADLESIC]; Chorwacjan True Revival Party or HIP [Miroslav TUDJMAN]; Democratic Centre or DC [Vesna SKARE-OZBOLT]; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Social Democratic Party of Chorwacja or SDP [Ivica RACAN]
Kuba Kuba Kuban Communist Party or PCC [Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary] only party - Kuban Communist Party or PCC [Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]
Cypr Cypr area under government control: Democratic Party or DIKO [Marios KAROYIAN]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS]; European Democracy or EURO.DI [Prodromos PRODROMOU] (evolved from For Europe which merged z New Horizons); European Party or EURO.KO [Demetris SYLLOURIS]; Fighting Democratic Movement or ADIK [Dinos MIKHAILIDIS]; Green Party of Cypr [George PERDIKIS]; Movement dla Social Democrats or EDEK [Yannakis OMIROU]; Political Movement of Hunters [Michalis PAFITANIS]; Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS]; United Democrats or EDI [Michalis PAPAPETROU]


area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Communal Liberation Party or TKP [Huseyin ANGOLEMLI]; Cypr Socialist Party or KSP [Kazim ONGEN]; Democratic Party or DP [Serder DENKTASH]; Freedom and Reform Party or OP [Turgay AVCI]; National Unity Party or UBP [Tahsin ERTUGRULOGLU]; Nationalist Justice Party or MAP [Ata TEPE]; New Party or YP [Huseyin TURAN]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU]; Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Oguz OZEN]; Peace and Democratic Movement or BDH [Mustafa AKINCI]; Renewal Progress Party or YAP [Ertugrul HASIPOGLU]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Ferdi Sabit SOYER]; United Cypr Party or BKP [Isset IZCAN]
Republic of Cypr: Democratic Party or DIKO [Tassos PAPADOPOULOS]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS]; European Democracy or EURO.DE [Prodromos PRODROMOU] (evolved from For Europe which merged z New Horizons); European Party or EURO.KO [Demetris SYLLOURIS]; Fighting Democratic Movement or ADIK [Dinos MIKHAILIDIS]; Green Party of Cypr [George PERDIKIS]; Movement dla Social Democracy United Democratic Union of Center or KISOS [Yannakis OMIROU]; Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS]; United Democrats Movement or EDE [Michalis PAPAPETROU]; north Cypr: Democratic Party or DP [Serder DENKTASH]; National Birth Party or UDP [Enver EMIN]; National Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU]; Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Alpay DURDURAN]; Peace and Democratic Movement [Mustafa AKINCI]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Mehmet ALI TALAT]
Czechy Czechy Association of Independent Candidates-European Democrats or SNK-ED [Helmut DOHNALEK]; Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Jiri CUNEK]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Mirek TOPOLANEK]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Jiri PAROUBEK]; Union of Freedom-Democratic Union or US-DEU [Jan CERNY]; Green Party [Martin BURSIK]; Independent Democrats (NEZDEM) [Vladimir ZELEZNY]; Party of Open Society (SOS) [Pavel NOVACEK]; Path of Change [Jiri LOBKOWITZ] Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Jan KASAL, chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Jirina NOVAKOVA, chairwoman]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Mirek TOPOLANEK, chairman]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP, chairman]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Jiri PAROUBEK, chairman]; Freedom Union-Democratic Union or US-DEU [Jan HADRAVA, chairman]; Green Party [Martin BURSIK, chairman]; Independent Democrats (NEZDEM) [Vladimir ZELEZNY, chairman]; Party of Open Society (SOS) [Pavel NOVACEK, chairman]; Path of Change [Jiri LOBKOWITZ, chairman]; SNK-European Democrats or SNK-ED [Jana HYBASKOVA, chairman]
Dania Dania Christian Democrats [Bodil KORNBEK] (was Christian People's Party); Conservative Party [Bendt BENDTSEN] (sometimes known as Conservative People's Party); Danish People's Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]; Liberal Party [Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN]; New Alliance [Naser KHADER]; Red-Green Unity List (Alliance) [collective leadership] (bloc includes Left Socialist Party, Communist Party of Dania, Socialist Workers' Party); Social Democratic Party [Helle THORNING-SCHMIDT]; Social Liberal Party [Margrethe VESTAGER]; Socialist People's Party [Villy SOEVNDAL] Christian Democrats (was Christian People's Party) [Bodil KORNBEK]; Conservative Party (sometimes known as Conservative People's Party) [Bendt BENDTSEN]; Danish People's Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]; Liberal Party [Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN]; Red-Green Unity List (bloc includes Left Socialist Party, Communist Party of Dania, Socialist Workers' Party) [collective leadership]; Social Democratic Party [Helle THORNING-SCHMIDT]; Social Liberal Party (sometimes called the Radical Left) [Marianne JELVED, leader; Soren BALD, chairman]; Socialist People's Party [Villy SOEVNDAL]
Dzibuti Dzibuti Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH]; Dzibuti Development Party or PDD [Mohamed Daoud CHEHEM]; Front pour la Restauration de l'Unite Democratique or FRUD [Ali Mohamed DAOUD]; People's Progress Assembly or RPP [Ismail Omar GUELLEH] (governing party); Peoples Social Democratic Party or PPSD [Moumin Bahdon FARAH]; Republican Alliance dla Democracy or ARD; Union dla a Presidential Majority or UMP (a coalition of parties including RPP, FRUD, PND, and PPSD); Union dla Democracy and Justice or UDJ Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH]; Dzibuti Development Party or PDD [Mohamed Daoud CHEHEM]; Front pour la Restauration de l'Unite Democratique or FRUD [Ali Mohamed DAOUD]; People's Progress Assembly or RPP [Ismail Omar GUELLEH] (governing party); Peoples Social Democratic Party or PPSD [Moumin Bahdon FARAH]; Republican Alliance dla Democracy or ARD [Ahmed Dini AHMED]; Union dla Democracy and Justice or UDJ
Dominika Dominika Dominika Freedom Party or DFP [Charles SAVARIN]; Dominika Labor Party or DLP [Roosevelt SKERRIT]; Dominika United Workers Party or UWP [Earl WILLIAMS] Dominika Freedom Party or DFP [Charles SAVARIN]; Dominika Labor Party or DLP [Roosevelt SKERRIT]; Dominika United Workers Party or UWP [Earl WILLIAMS]
Republika Dominikanska Republika Dominikanska Dominikan Liberation Party or PLD [Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna]; Dominikan Revolutionary Party or PRD [Ramon ALBURQUERQUE]; National Progressive Front [Vincent CASTILLO, Pelegrin CASTILLO]; Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Enrique ANTUN] Dominikan Liberation Party or PLD [Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna]; Dominikan Revolutionary Party or PRD [Ramon ALBURQUERQUE]; National Progressive Front [Vincent CASTILLO, Pelegrin CASTILLO]; Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Enrique ATUN]
Timor Wschodni Timor Wschodni - Associacao Social-Democrata Timorense or ASDT [Francisco Xavier do AMARAL]; Christian Democratic Party of Timor or PDC [Antonio XIMENES]; Christian Democratic Union of Timor or UDC [Vicente da Silva GUTERRES]; Democratic Party or PD [Fernando de ARAUJO]; People's Party of Timor or PPT [Jacob XAVIER]; Revolutionary Front of Independent Timor Wschodni or FRETILIN [Francisco Guterres Lu OLO]; Social Democrat Party of Timor Wschodni or PSD [Mario CARRASCALAO]; Socialist Party of Timor or PST [Pedro da COSTA]; Sons of the Mountain Warriors (also known as Association of Timorese Heroes) or KOTA [Clementino dos Reis AMARAL]; Timor Democratic Union or UDT [Joao CARRASCALAO]; Timor Labor Party or PTT [Paulo Freitas DA SILVA]; Timorese Nationalist Party or PNT [Abilio ARAUJO]
Ekwador Ekwador Alianza PAIS Movement [Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado]; Christian Democratic Union or UDC [Diego ORDONEZ Guerrero]; Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP; Democratic Left or ID [Andres PAEZ Benalcazar]; Ethical and Democratic Network or RED [Leon ROLDOS]; National Action Institutional Renewal Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]; Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement - New Country or MUPP-NP [Gilberto TALAHUA]; Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Ciro GUZMAN Aldaz]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]; Socialist Party - Broad Front or PS-FA [Gustavo AYALA Cruz] Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic Left or ID [Guillermo LANDAZURI]; National Action Institutional Renewal Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]; Pachakutik Movement [Gilberto TALAHUA]; Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]; Popular Democracy or DP [Dr. Juan Manuel FUERTES]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Gustavo TERAN Acosta]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Leon FEBRES CORDERO]; Socialist Party - Broad Front or PS-FA [Victor GRANDA]
Egipt Egipt National Democratic Party or NDP (governing party) [Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Mahmoud ABAZA]; Tomorrow Party [Moussa Mustafa MOUSSA]


note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government; only parties z representation w elected bodies are listed
National Democratic Party or NDP [Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (governing party)]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Mahmoud ABAZA]; Tomorrow Party [Naji AL-GHATRIFI]


note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government
Salwador Salwador Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rodolfo PARKER]; Democratic Convergence or CD [Ruben ZAMORA] (formerly United Democratic Center or CDU); Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Medardo GONZALEZ]; National Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ ZEPEDA]; National Republican Alliance or ARENA [Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez]; Popular Social Christian Party or PPSC [Rene AGUILUZ]; Revolutionary Democratic Front or FDR [Julio Cesar HERNANDEZ Carcamo] Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rodolfo PARKER, secretary general]; Democratic Convergence or CD (formerly United Democratic Center or CDU) [Ruben ZAMORA, secretary general]; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Medardo GONZALEZ, coordinator general]; National Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ ZEPEDA, president]; National Republican Alliance or ARENA [Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez]; Popular Social Christian Party or PPSC [Rene AGUILUZ]; Revolutionary Democratic Front or FDR [Julio Cesar HERNANDEZ Carcamo, coordinator general]
Gwinea Równikowa Gwinea Równikowa Convergence Party dla Social Democracy or CPDS [Placido MICO Abogo]; Democratic Party dla Gwinea Równikowa or PDGE (ruling party) [Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO]; Party dla Progress of Gwinea Równikowa or PPGE [Severo MOTO]; Popular Action of Gwinea Równikowa or APGE [Avelino MOCACHE]; Popular Union or UP Convergence Party dla Social Democracy or CPDS [Placido MIKO Abogo]; Democratic Party dla Gwinea Równikowa or PDGE [Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO] (ruling party); Party dla Progress of Gwinea Równikowa or PPGE [Severo MOTO]; Popular Action of Gwinea Równikowa or APGE [Miguel Esono EMAN]; Popular Union or UP [Andres Moises Bda ADA]; Progressive Democratic Alliance or ADP [Victorino Bolekia BONAY]; Union of Independent Democrats of UDI [Daniel OYONO]
Erytrea Erytrea People's Front dla Democracy and Justice or PFDJ [ISAIAS Afworki] (the only party recognized by the government); note - a National Assembly committee drafted a law on political parties w styczen 2001, but the full National Assembly has not yet debated or voted on it People's Front dla Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, the only party recognized by the government [ISAIAS Afworki]; note - a National Assembly committee drafted a law on political parties w styczen 2001, but the full National Assembly has not yet debated or voted on it
Estonia Estonia Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR]; Estonian Greens (Rohelised) [Marek STRANDBERG]; Estonian People's Union (Rahvaliit) [Villu REILJAN]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Andrus ANSIP]; Estonian United Rosjan People's Party or EUVRP [Yevgeniy TOMBERG]; Social Democratic Party (formerly People's Party Moodukad or Moderates) [Ivari PADAR]; Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica (Isamaa je Res Publica Liit) [Mart LAAR] Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Estonian People's Union (Rahvaliit) [Villu REILJAN, chairman]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Andrus ANSIP]; Estonian United Rosjan People's Party or EUVRP [Yevgeniy TOMBERG, chairman]; Social Democratic Party (formerly People's Party Moodukad or Moderates) [Ivari PADAR, chairman]; Social Liberals (group of eight parliamentarians, former Center Party members) [Peeter KREITZBERG]; Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica (Isamaa je Res Publica Liit) [Tonis LUKAS and Taavi VESKIMAGI, co-chairman]
Etiopia Etiopia Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front or BGPDUF [Mulualem BESSE]; Coalition dla Unity and Democratic Party or CUDP [AYELE Chamisso] (awarded to AYELE 11 styczen 2008, but AYELE has virtually no support among former CUD MPs, other CUD MPs must now be affiliated z their original CUD-precursor parties); Etiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi] (an alliance of Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM, Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO, the South Etiopian People's Democratic Front or SEPDF, and Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front or TPLF); Gurage Nationalities' Democratic Movement or GNDM; Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM [BULCHA Demeksa]; Omoro People's Congress or OPC [IMERERA Gudina]; Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP; United Etiopian Democratic Forces or UEDF [BEYENE Petros] Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front or BGPDUF [Mulualem BESSE]; Coalition dla Unity and Democracy or CUD [HAILU Shawel]; Etiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi] (an alliance of Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM, Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO, the South Ethiopean People's Democratic Front or SEPDF, and TigrAyan Peoples' Liberation Front or TPLF); Gurage Nationalities' Democratic Movement or GNDM; Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM [BULCHA Demeksa]; Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP; United Ethopian Democratic Forces or UEDF [BEYENE Petros]; dozens of small parties
Unia Europejska Unia Europejska Confederal Group of the European United Left-Nordic Green Left or EUL/NGL [Francis WURTZ]; European People's Party-European Democrats or EPP-ED [Joseph DAUL]; Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats dla Europe or ALDE [Graham R. WATSON]; Group of Greens/European Free Alliance or Greens/EFA [Monica FRASSONI and Daniel Marc COHN-BENDIT]; Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty Group or ITS [Bruno GOLLNISCH]; Niepodleglosc/Democracy Group or IND/DEM [Jens-Peter BONDE and Nigel FARAGE]; Socialist Group w the European Parliament or PES [Martin SCHULZ]; Union dla Europe of the Nations Group or UEN [Brian CROWLEY and Cristiana MUSCARDINI] Confederal Group of the European United Left-Nordic Green Left or EUL/NGL [Francis WURTZ]; European People's Party-European Democrats or EPP-ED [Hans-Gert POETTERING]; Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats dla Europe or ALDE [Graham R. WATSON]; Group of Greens/European Free Alliance or Greens/EFA [Monica FRASSONI and Daniel Marc COHN-BENDIT]; Niepodleglosc/Democracy Group or IND/DEM [Jens-Peter BONDE and Nigel FARAGE]; Socialist Group w the European Parliament or PES [Martin SCHULZ]; Union dla Europe of the Nations Group or UEN [Brian CROWLEY and Cristiana MUSCARDINI]
Falklandy Falklandy none; all independents none; all independents
Wyspy Owcze Wyspy Owcze Center Party [Jenis A. RANA]; Niepodleglosc Party [Kari P. HOJGAARD]; People's Party [Jorgen NICLASEN]; Republican Party [Hogni HOYDAL]; Social Democratic Party [Joannes EIDESGAARD]; Union Party [Kaj Leo JOHANNESEN] Center Party [Jenis A. RANA]; Niepodleglosc Party [Kari P. HOJGAARD]; People's Party [Anfinn KALLSBERG]; Republican Party [Hogni HOYDAL]; Social Democratic Party [Joannes EIDESGAARD]; Union Party [Kaj Leo JOHANNESEN]
Fidzi Fidzi Dodonu Ni Taukei Party or DNT [Fereti S. DEWA]; Fidzi Democratic Party or FDP [Filipe BOLE] (a merger of the Christian Democrat Alliance or VLV [Poesci Waqalevu BUNE], Fidzian Association Party or FAP, Fidzian Political Party or SVT (primarily Fidzian) [Sitiveni RABUKA], and New Labor Unity Party or NLUP [Ofa SWANN]); Fidzi Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]; General Voters Party or GVP (became part of United General Party); Girmit Heritage Party or GHP; Justice and Freedom Party or AIM; Lio 'On Famor Rotuma Party or LFR; National Federation Party or NFP (primarily Indien) [Pramond RAE]; Nationalist Vanua Takolavo Party or NVTLP [Saula TELAWA]; Party of National Unity or PANU [Ponipate LESAVUA]; Party of the Truth or POTT; United Fidzi Party/Sogosogo Duavata ni Lewenivanua or SDL [Laisenia QARASE]; United Peoples Party or UPP [Millis Mick BEDDOES] Conservative Alliance Party/Matanitu Vanua or CAMV [Ratu Josefa DIMURI]; Dodonu Ni Taukei Party or DNT [Fereti S. DEWA]; Fidzi Democratic Party or FDP [Filipe BOLE] (a merger of the Christian Democrat Alliance or VLV [Poesci Waqalevu BUNE], Fidzian Association Party or FAP, Fidzian Political Party or SVT (primarily Fidzian) [Sitiveni RABUKA], and New Labor Unity Party or NLUP [Ofa SWANN]); Fidzi Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]; General Voters Party or GVP (became part of United General Party); Girmit Heritage Party or GHP; Justice and Freedom Party or AIM; Lio 'On Famor Rotuma Party or LFR; National Federation Party or NFP (primarily Indien) [Pramond RAE]; Nationalist Vanua Takolavo Party or NVTLP [Saula TELAWA]; Party of National Unity or PANU [Ponipate LESAVUA]; Party of the Truth or POTT; United Fidzi Party/Sogosogo Duavata ni Lewenivanua or SDL [Laisenia QARASE]; United General Party or UGP [Millis Mick BEDDOES]
Finlandia Finlandia Center Party or Kesk [Matti VANHANEN]; Christian Democrats or KD [Paivi RASANEN]; Green Party or VIHR [Tarja CRONBERG]; Left Alliance or VAS [Martti KORHONEN] (composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative); National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Jyrki KATAINEN]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Eero HEINALUOMA]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Stefan WALLIN]; True Finns [Timo SOINI] Center Party or Kesk [Matti VANHANEN]; Christian Democrats or KD [Paivi RASANEN]; Green League or VIHR [Tarja CRONBERG]; Left Alliance or VAS composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative [Martti KORHONEN]; National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Jyrki KATAINEN]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Eero HEINALUOMA]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Stefan WALLIN]
Francja Francja Democratic Movement or MoDem [Francois BAYROU] (previously Union dla French Democracy or UDF); Democratic and Social European Rally or RDSE [Pierre LAFFITTE] (mainly Radical Republican and Socialist Parties, and PRG); French Communist Party or PCF [Marie-George BUFFET]; Greens [Cecile DUFLOT]; Left Radical Party or PRG [Jean-Michel BAYLET] (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG); Movement dla Francja or MPF [Philippe DE VILLIERS]; National Front or FN [Jean-Marie LE PEN]; New Center or NC [Herve MORIN]; Rally dla Francja or RPF [Charles PASQUA]; Republican and Citizen Movement or MRC [Jean Pierre CHEVENEMENT and Georges SARRE]; Socialist Party or PS [Francois HOLLANDE]; Union dla a Popular Movement or UMP [Patrick DEVEDJIAN, Jean-Claude GAUDIN, Jean-Pierre RAFFARIN, Pierre MEHAIGNERIE]; Radical Party [Jean-Louis BORLOO] Citizen and Republican Movement or MRC [Jean Pierre CHEVENEMENT]; Democratic and European Social Rally or RDSE (mainly Radical Republican and Socialist Parties, and PRG) [Jacques PELLETIER]; French Communist Party or PCF [Marie-George BUFFET]; Greens [Yan WEHRLING, national secretary]; Left Radical Party or PRG (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG) [Jean-Michel BAYLET]; Movement dla Francja or MPF [Philippe DE VILLIERS]; National Front or FN [Jean-Marie LE PEN]; Rally dla Francja or RPF [Charles PASQUA]; Socialist Party or PS [Francois HOLLANDE]; Union dla French Democracy or UDF [Francois BAYROU]; Union dla a Popular Movement or UMP [Nicolas SARKOZY]
Gujana Francuska Gujana Francuska - Gujana Democratic Forces or FDG [Georges OTHILY]; Guyanese Democratic Action or ADG [Andre LECANTE]; Guyanese Socialist Party or PSG [Marie-Claude VERDAN]; Popular National Guyanese Party or PNPG [Jose DORCY]; Socialist Party or PS [Alix LABBE]; Union dla French Democracy or UDF [Georges HABRAN-MERY]; Union dla a Popular Movement or UMP (includes RPR) [Remi Louis DUBOC]; Walwari Committee (aligned z the PRG w Francja) [Christine TAUBIRA-DELANON]
Polinezja Francuska Polinezja Francuska Alliance dla a New Democracy or ADN [Nicole BOUTEAU and Philip SCHYLE](includes the parties The New Star and This Country is Yours); Independent Front dla the Liberation of Polynesia (Tavini Huiraatira) [Oscar TEMARU]; New Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api) [Emile VERNAUDON]; Our Home alliance; People's Rally dla the Republic of Polynesia or RPR (Tahoeraa Huiraatira) [Gaston FLOSSE]; Union dla Democracy alliance or UPD [Oscar TEMARU] Alliance dla a New Democracy or ADN [Nicole BOUTEAU and Philip SCHYLE](includes the parties The New Star and This Country is Yours); Independent Front dla the Liberation of Polynesia (Tavini Huiraatira) [Oscar TEMARU]; New Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api) [Emile VERNAUDON]; People's Rally dla the Republic of Polynesia or RPR (Tahoeraa Huiraatira) [Gaston FLOSSE]; Union dla Democracy or UPD [Oscar TEMARU]
Gabon Gabon Circle of Liberal Reformers or CLR [General Jean Boniface ASSELE]; Congress dla Democracy and Justice or CDJ [Jules Aristide Bourdes OGOULIGUENDE]; Democratic and Republican Alliance or ADERE [Divungui-di-Ndinge DIDJOB]; Gabonese Democratic Party or PDG (former sole party) [Simplice Nguedet MANZELA]; Gabonese Party dla Progress or PGP [Benoit Mouity NZAMBA]; Gabonese Union dla Democracy and Development or UGDD [Zacherie MYBOTO]; National Rally of Woodcutters or RNB; National Rally of Woodcutters-Rally dla Gabon or RNB-RPG (Bucherons) [Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE]; Party of Development and Social Solidarity or PDS [Seraphin Ndoat REMBOGO]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Louis Gaston MAYILA]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pierre Claver MAGANGA-MOUSSAVOU]; Union dla Democracy and Social Integration or UDIS; Union of Gabonese Patriots or UPG [Pierre MAMBOUNDOU] Circle of Liberal Reformers or CLR [General Jean Boniface ASSELE]; Congress dla Democracy and Justice or CDJ [Jules Aristide Bourdes OGOULIGUENDE]; Democratic and Republican Alliance or ADERE [Divungui-di-Ndinge DIDJOB]; Gabonese Democratic Party or PDG [Simplice Nguedet MANZELA] (former sole party); Gabonese Party dla Progress or PGP [Pierre-Louis AGONDJO-OKAWE]; National Rally of Woodcutters or RNB; National Rally of Woodcutters-Rally dla Gabon or RNB-RPG (Bucherons) [Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Louis Gaston MAYILA]; Rally dla Democracy and Progress or RDP [Pierre EMBONI]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pierre Claver MAGANGA-MOUSSAVOU]; Union dla Democracy and Social Integration or UDIS; Union of Gabonese People or UPG [Pierre MAMBOUNDOU]
Gambia Gambia Alliance dla Patriotic Reorientation and Construction or APRC (the ruling party) [Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH]; Gambia People's Democratic Party or GPDP [Henry GOMEZ]; National Alliance dla Democracy and Development or NADD [Halifa SALLAH]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sheriff DIBBA]; National Reconciliation Party or NRP [Hamat N. K. BAH]; People's Democratic Organization dla Niepodleglosc and Socialism or PDOIS [Sidia JATTA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Ousainou DARBOE] Alliance dla Patriotic Reorientation and Construction or APRC [Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH] (the ruling party); Gambian People's Party-Progressive People's Party-United Democratic Party or GPP-PPP-UDP Coalition [Ousainou DARBOE]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sheriff DIBBA]; National Reconciliation Party or NRP [Hamat N. K. BAH]; People's Democratic Organization dla Niepodleglosc and Socialism or PDOIS [Sidia JATTA]


note: w sierpien 2001, an independent electoral commission allowed the reregistration of the GPP, NCP, and PPP, three parties banned since 1996
Georgia Georgia Burjanadze-Democrats [Nino BURJANADZE]; Georgian People's Front [Nodar NATADZE]; Georgian United Communist Party or UCPG [Panteleimon GIORGADZE]; Georgia's Way Party [Salome ZOURABICHVILI]; Greens [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Georgi TOPADZE]; Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Bachuki KARDAVA]; National Movement Democratic Front [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI] (bloc composed of National Movement and Burjanadze-Democrats); National Movement [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]; New Rights [David GAMKRELIDZE]; Republican Party [David USUPASHVILI]; Rightist Opposition [David GAMKRELIDZE] (bloc composed of Industrialists and New Right Party); Socialist Party or SPG [Irakli MINDELI]; Traditionalists [Akaki ASATIANI]; Union of National Forces-Conservatives [Koba DAVITASHVILI and Zviad DZIDZIGURI] Burjanadze-Democrats [Nino BURJANADZE]; Georgian People's Front [Nodar NATADZE]; Georgian United Communist Party or UCPG [Panteleimon GIORGADZE]; Greens [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Georgi TOPADZE]; Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Bachuki KARDAVA]; National Movement Democratic Front [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI] bloc composed of National Movement and Burjanadze-Democrats; National Movement [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]; New Rights [David GAMKRELIDZE]; Republican Party [David USUPASHVILI]; Rightist Opposition [David GAMKRELIDZE] bloc composed of Industrialists and New Right Party; Socialist Party or SPG [Irakli MINDELI]; Traditionalists [Akaki ASATIANI]; Union of National Forces-Conservatives [Koba DAVITASHVILI and Zviad DZIDZIGURI]
Niemcy Niemcy Alliance '90/Greens [Claudia ROTH and Reinhard BUETIKOFER]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Erwin HUBER]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Guido WESTERWELLE]; Left Party or Die Linke [Lothar BISKY and Oskar LAFONTAINE]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Kurt BECK] Alliance '90/Greens [Claudia ROTH and Reinhard BUETIKOFER]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Edmund STOIBER, chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Guido WESTERWELLE, chairman]; Left Party (Linkspartei. was Party of Democratic Socialism) or PDS [Lothar BISKY]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Kurt BECK]
Ghana Ghana Convention People's Party or CPP [Ladi NYLANDER]; Democratic Freedom Party or DFP [Alhaji Abudu Rahman ISSAKAH]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTEY]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Kwabena ADJEI]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Peter MAC-MANU]; People's National Convention or PNC [Alhaji Amed RAMADAN]; Reform Party [Kyeretwie OPUKU]; United Renaissance Party or URP [Charles WAYO] Convention People's Party or CPP [Nii Noi DOWUONA, general secretary]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE [Owuraku AMOFA, chairman]; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTY]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sarpong KUMA-KUMA]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Huudu YAHAYA, general secretary]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Samuel Arthur ODOI-SYKES]; People's Convention Party or PCP [P. K. DONKOH-AYIFI, acting chairman]; People's Heritage Party or PHP [Emmanuel Alexander ERSKINE]; People's National Convention or PNC [Edward MAHAMA]; Reform Party [Kyeretwie OPUKU, general secretary]
Gibraltar Gibraltar Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]; Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John BOSSANO] Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]; Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John BOSSANO]
Grecja Grecja Coalition of the Left and Progress (Synaspismos) [Alekos ALAVANOS]; Communist Party of Grecja or KKE [Aleka PAPARIGA]; New Democracy or ND (conservative) [Konstandinos KARAMANLIS]; Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Yiorgos PAPANDREOU]; Popular Orthodox Rally or LAOS [Yeoryios KARATZAFERIS] Coalition of the Left and Progress (Synaspismos) [Alekos ALAVANOS]; Communist Party of Grecja or KKE [Aleka PAPARIGA]; New Democracy or ND (conservative) [Konstandinos KARAMANLIS]; Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Yiorgos PAPANDREOU]; Popular Orthodox Rally or LAOS [Yeoryios KARATZAFERIS]
Grenlandia Grenlandia Atassut Party (Solidarity) [Finn KARLSEN] (a conservative party favoring continuing close relations z Dania); Demokratiit [Per BERTHELSEN]; Inuit Ataqatigiit or IA (Eskimo Brotherhood) [Josef MOTZFELDT] (a leftist party favoring complete independence from Dania rather than home rule); Kattusseqatigiit (Candidate List) (an independent right-of-center party z no official platform); Siumut (Forward Party) [Hans ENOKSEN] (a social democratic party advocating more distinct Grenlandiaic identity and greater autonomy from Dania) Atassut Party (Solidarity, a conservative party favoring continuing close relations z Dania) [Finn KARLSEN]; Demokratiit [Per BERTHELSEN]; Inuit Ataqatigiit or IA (Eskimo Brotherhood, a leftist party favoring complete independence from Dania rather than home rule) [Josef MOTZFELDT]; Issituup (Polar Party) [Nicolai HEINRICH]; Kattusseqatigiit (Candidate List, an independent right-of-center party z no official platform; Siumut (Forward Party, a social democratic party advocating more distinct Grenlandiaic identity and greater autonomy from Dania) [Hans ENOKSEN]
Grenada Grenada Grenada United Labor Party or GULP [Gloria Payne BANFIELD]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Tillman THOMAS]; New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL] Good Old Democracy or GOD [Justin MCBURNIE]; Grenada United Labor Party or GULP [Gloria Payne BANFIELD]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Tillman THOMAS]; New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]; People Labor Movement or PLM [Dr. Francis ALEXIS]
Gwadelupa Gwadelupa - Communist Party of Gwadelupa or PCG [Mona CADOCE]; FGPS [Dominique LARIFLA]; Left Radical Party or PRG [Flavien FERRANT]; Progressive Democratic Party or PPDG [Henri BANGOU]; Socialist Party or PS [Jules OTTO]; Union dla French Democracy or UDF [Claudine LACAVE]; Union dla a Popular Movement or UMP (including Rassemblement pour la Republique or RPR) [Gabrielle LOUIS-CARABIN]
Guam Guam Democratic Party [leader Michael PHILLIPS]; Republican Party [Philip J. FLORES] (controls the legislature) Democratic Party [leader Michael PHILLIPS]; Republican Party (controls the legislature) [leader Philip J. FLORES]
Gwatemala Gwatemala Center of Social Action or CASA [Eduardo SUGER]; Democracy Front or FRENTE [Alfonso CABRERA]; Democratic Union or UD [Manuel CONDE Orellana]; Encounter dla Gwatemala or EG [Nineth MONTENGRO]; Grand National Alliance or GANA [Alfredo VILLA]; Gwatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG [Hector NUILA]; Gwatemalan Republican Front or FRG [Efrain RIOS Montt]; National Advancement Party or PAN [Ruben Dario MORALES]; National Unity dla Hope or UNE [Alvaro COLOM Caballeros]; Patriot Party or PP [Ret. Gen. Otto PEREZ Molina]; Unionista Party or PU [Fritz GARCIA]; Unity of National Change or UCN [Sidney SHAW] Authentic Integral Development or DIA [Eduardo SUGER]; Grand National Alliance or GANA (an alliance of smaller parties) [Alfredo VILA Giron, secretary general]; Green Party or LOV [Rodolfo ROSALES Garcis-Salaz]; Gwatemalan Christian Democracy or DCG [Vinicio CEREZO Arevalo]; Gwatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG [Alba ESTELA Maldonado, secretary general]; Gwatemalan Republican Front or FRG [Efrain RIOS Montt]; Movement dla Gwatemalan Unity or MGU [Jacobo ARBENZ Villanueva]; Movement dla Principals and Values or MPV [Francisco BIANCHI]; National Advancement Party or PAN [Leonel LOPEZ Rodas, secretary general]; National Unity dla Hope or UNE [Alvarado COLOM Caballeros]; New Nation Alliance or ANN (formed by an alliance of DIA, URNG, and several splinter groups most of whom subsequently defected) [led by three co-equal partners - Nineth Varenca MONTENEGRO Cottom, Rodolfo BAUER Paiz, and Jorge Antonio BALSELLS TUT]; Patriot Party or PP [Ret. Gen. Otto PEREZ Molina]; Progressive Liberator Party or PLP [Acisclo VALLADARES Molina]; Reform Movement or MR [Alfredo SKINNER-KLEE, secretary general]; Unionista Party
Guernsey Guernsey none; all independents none; all independents
Gwinea Gwinea National Union dla Progress or UPN [Mamadou Bhoye BARRY]; Party dla Unity and Progress or PUP (the governing party) [Lansana CONTE]; People's Party of Gwinea or PPG [Charles Pascal TOLNO]; Rally dla the Gwinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]; Union of Democratic Forces of Gwinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]; Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]; Union dla Progress of Gwinea or UPG [Jean-Marie DORE, secretary-general]; Union dla Progress and Renewal or UPR [Ousmane BAH] Democratic Party of Gwinea-African Democratic Rally or PDG-RDA [El Hadj Ismael Mohamed Gassim GUSHEIN]; National Union dla Progress or UPN [Mamadou Bhoye BARRY]; Party dla Unity and Progress or PUP [Lansana CONTE] (the governing party); People's Party of Gwinea or PPG [Pascal TOLNO]; Rally dla the Gwinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]; Union of Democratic Forces of Gwinea or UFDG [Mamadou BA]; Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]; Union dla Progress of Gwinea or UPG [Jean-Marie DORE, secretary-general]; Union dla Progress and Renewal or UPR [Ousmane BAH]
Gwinea Bissau Gwinea Bissau African Party dla the Niepodleglosc of Gwinea Bissau and Republika Zielonego Przyladka or PAIGC [Carlos GOMES Junior]; Party dla Social Renewal or PRS [Kumba YALA]; Democratic Social Front or FDS; Electoral Union or UE; Gwinea Bissau Civic Forum/Social Democracy or FCGSD [Antonieta Rosa GOMES]; Gwinea Bissau Democratic Party or PDG; Gwinea Bissau Socialist Democratic Party or PDSG [Serifo BALDE]; Labor and Solidarity Party or PST [Iancuba INDJAI]; Party dla Democratic Convergence or PCD [Victor MANDINGA]; Party dla Renewal and Progress or PRP; Progress Party or PP [Ibrahima SOW]; Union dla Change or UM [Amine SAAD]; Union of Gwinean Patriots or UPG [Francisca VAZ]; United Platform or UP (coalition formed by PCD, FDS, FLING, and RGB-MB); United Popular Alliance or APU; United Social Democratic Party or PUSD African Party dla the Niepodleglosc of Gwinea Bissau and Republika Zielonego Przyladka or PAIGC [Carlos GOMES Junior]; Democratic Social Front or FDS; Electoral Union or UE; Party dla Democratic Convergence or PCD [Victor MANDINGA]; Social Renovation Party or PRS [Alberto NAMBEIA]; Union dla Change or UM [Jorge MANDINGA, president, Dr. Anne SAAD, secretary general]; United Platform or UP (coalition formed by PCD, FDS, FLING, and RGB-MB); United Popular Alliance or APU; United Social Democratic Party or PUSD [Francisco Jose FADUL]
Gujana Gujana Alliance dla Change or AFC [Raphael TROTMAN and Khemraj RAMJATTAN]; Gujana Action Party or GAP [Paul HARDY]; Justice dla All Party [C.N. SHARMA]; People's National Congress/Reform or PNC/R [Robert Herman Orlando CORBIN]; People's Progressive Party/Civic or PPP/C [Bharrat JAGDEO]; Rise, Organize, and Rebuild or ROAR [Ravi DEV]; The United Force or TUF [Manzoor NADIR]; The Unity Party [Joey JAGAN]; Vision Gujana [Peter RAMSAROOP]; Working People's Alliance or WPA [Rupert ROOPNARAINE] Alliance dla Change or AFC [Raphael TROTMAN and Khemraj RAMJATTAN]; Gujana Action Party or GAP [Paul HARDY]; Justice dla All Party [C.N. SHARMA]; People's National Congress/Reform or PNC/R [Robert Herman Orlando CORBIN]; People's Progressive Party/Civic or PPP/C [Bharrat JAGDEO]; Rise, Organize, and Rebuild or ROAR [Ravi DEV]; The United Force or TUF [Manzoor NADIR]; The Unity Party [Joey JAGAN]; Vision Gujana [Peter RAMSAROOP]; Working People's Alliance or WPA [Rupert ROOPNARAINE]
Haiti Haiti Artibonite w Action or LAAA [Youri LATORTUE]; Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Leslie MANIGAT]; Convention dla Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]; Cooperative Action to Build Haiti or KONBA [Evans LESCOUFALIR]; Democratic Alliance or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition composed of KID and PPRH); Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative dla the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]; For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]; Front dla Hope or L'ESPWA [Rene PREVAL] (alliance of ESKAMP, PLB, and grass-roots organizations Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, the Central Plateau Peasants' Group, and Kombit Sudest); Haitian Christian Democratic Party or PDCH [Osner FEVRY and Marie-Denise CLAUDE]; Haitian Democratic and Reform Movement or MODEREH [Dany TOUSSAINT and Pierre Soncon PRINCE]; Heads Together or Tet-Ansanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]; Independent Movement dla National Reconciliation or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]; Justice dla Peace and National Development or JPDN [Rigaud DUPLAN]; Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Rudy HERIVEAUX]; Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Gehy MICHEL]; Merging of Haitian Social Democratic Parties or FUSION or FPSDH [Serge GILLES] (coalition of Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements); Mobilization dla Haiti's Development or MPH [Samir MOURRA]; Mobilization dla National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]; Movement dla National Reconstruction or MRN [Jean Henold BUTEAU]; Movement dla the Installation of Democracy w Haiti or MIDH [Marc BAZIN]; National Christian Union dla the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH [Marie Claude GERMAIN]; National Front dla the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]; New Christian Movement dla a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]; Open the Gate Party or PLB [Anes LUBIN]; Popular Party dla the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]; Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Edgard LEBLANC]; Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNITE [Edouard FRANCISQUE] Artibonite w Action or LAAA [Youri LATORTUE]; Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Leslie MANIGAT]; Convention dla Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]; Cooperative Action to Build Haiti or KONBA [Evans LESCOUFALIR]; Democratic Alliance or ALYANS (coalition composed of KID and PPRH) [Evans PAUL]; Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative dla the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]; For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]; Front dla Hope or L'ESPWA (alliance of ESKAMP, PLB, and grass-roots organizations Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, the Central Plateau Peasants' Group, and Kombit Sudest) [Rene PREVAL]; Grand Center Right Front coalition (composed of MDN, MRN, and PDCH) [Hubert de RONCERAY]; Haitian Christian Democratic Party or PDCH [Osner FEVRY and Marie-Denise CLAUDE]; Haitian Democratic and Reform Movement or MODEREH [Dany TOUSSAINT and Pierre Soncon PRINCE]; Heads Together or Tet-Ansanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]; Independent Movement dla National Reconciliation or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]; Justice dla Peace and National Development or JPDN [Rigaud DUPLAN]; Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Rudy HERIVEAUX]; Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Gehy MICHEL]; Merging of Haitian Social Democratic Parties or FUSION or FPSDH (merged Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements) [Serge GILLES]; Mobilization dla Haiti's Development or MPH [Samir MOURRA]; Mobilization dla National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]; Movement dla National Reconstruction or MRN [Jean Henold BUTEAU]; Movement dla the Installation of Democracy w Haiti or MIDH [Marc BAZIN]; National Christian Union dla the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH [Marie Claude GERMAIN]; National Front dla the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]; New Christian Movement dla a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]; Open the Gate Party or PLB [Anes LUBIN]; Popular Party dla the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN and Daniel SUPPLICE]; Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Edgard LEBLANC]; Union dla Haiti or UPH (coalition of MIDH and FL) [Marc BAZIN]; Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNITE [Edouard FRANCISQUE]
Watykan Watykan none none
Honduras Honduras Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Felicito AVILA]; Democratic Unification Party or PUD [Cesar HAM]; Liberal Party or PL [Patricia RODAS]; National Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Jorge AQUILAR Paredes]; National Party of Honduras or PN [Porfirio LOBO] Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Saul ESCOBAR Andrade]; Democratic Unification Party or PUD [Matias FUNES]; Liberal Party or PL [Patricia RODAS]; National Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Olban F. VALLADARES]; National Party of Honduras or PN [Gilberto GOLDSTEIN]
Hong Kong Hong Kong Association dla Democracy and People's Livelihood or ADPL [Frederick FUNG Kin-kee]; Citizens Party [Alex CHAN Kai-chung]; Civic Party [KUAN Hsin-chi]; Democratic Alliance dla the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong or DAB [TAM Yiu Cheng]; Democratic Party [Albert HO]; Frontier Party [Emily LAU Wai-hing]; League of Social Democrats [Raymond WONG]; Liberal Party [James TIEN Pei-chun]


note: political blocs include: pro-democracy - ADPL, Democratic Party, Frontier Party, League of Social Democrats; pro-Beijing - DAB, Liberal Party, The Alliance (a group of five generally pro-government and pro-business Legco members from functional constituencies); there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies
Association dla Democracy and People's Livelihood or ADPL [Frederick FUNG Kin-kee]; Citizens Party [Alex CHAN Kai-chung]; Democratic Alliance dla the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong or DAB [MA Lik]; Democratic Party [LEE Wing-tat]; Frontier Party [Emily LAU Wai-hing]; Liberal Party [James TIEN Pei-chun]


note: political blocs include: pro-democracy - ADPL, Democratic Party, Frontier Party; pro-Beijing - DAB, Liberal Party
Wegry Wegry Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Janos KOKA]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]; Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Ferenc GYURCSANY] Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Gabor KUNCZE]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]; Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Istvan HILLER, chairman]
Islandia Islandia Niepodleglosc Party or IP [Geir H. HAARDE]; Left-Green Movement or LGM [Steingrimur SIGFUSSON]; Liberal Party or LP [Gudjon KRISTJANSSON]; Progressive Party or PP [Gudni AGUSTSSON]; Social Democratic Alliance or SDA [Ingibjorg Solrun GISLADOTTIR] (includes People's Alliance or PA, Social Democratic Party or SDP, Women's List) Niepodleglosc Party or IP [Geir HAARDE]; Left-Green Movement or LGM [Steingrimur SIGFUSSON]; Liberal Party or LP [Gudjon KRISTJANSSON]; Progressive Party or PP [Halldor ASGRIMSSON - will step down w sierpien 2006]; Social Democratic Alliance (includes People's Alliance or PA, Social Democratic Party or SDP, Women's List) or SDA [Ingibjorg Solrun GISLADOTTIR]
Indie Indie Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Rajnath SINGH]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of Indie or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of Indie-Marxist or CPI-M [Prakash KARAT]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indien National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]; Janata Dal (United) or JD(U) [Sharad YADEV]; Jharkhand Mukti Morcha or JMM [Shibu SOREN]; Lok Jan Shakti Party or LJSP [Ram Vilas PASWAN]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKU]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Pattali Makkal Katchi or PMK [S. RAMADOSS]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Prakash Singh BADAL]; Shiv Sena or SS [Bal THACKERAY]; Telangana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrasekhar RAO]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]; note - Indie has dozens of national and regional political parties; only parties z four or more seats w the People's Assembly are listed note - Indie has dozens of national and regional political parties; only parties z four or more seats w the People's Assembly are listed; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Rajnath SINGH]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of Indie or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of Indie (Marxist) or CPI (M) [Prakash KARAT]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indien National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]; Janata Dal (United) or JD(U) [Sharad YADEV]; Jharkhand Mukti Morcha or JMM [Shibu SOREN]; Lok Jan Shakti Party or LJSP [Ram Vilas PASWAN]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKU]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Pattali Makkal Katchi or PMK [S. RAMADOSS]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Prakash Singh BADAL]; Shiv Sena or SS [Bal THACKERAY]; Telangana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrasekhar RAO]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]
Indonezja Indonezja Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [MS KABAN]; Democratic Party or PD [Hadi UTOMO]; Functional Groups Party or Golkar [Yusuf KALLA]; Indonezja Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [MUHAIMIN Iskander]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Sutrisno BACHIR]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Tifatul SEMBIRING]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI] Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA]; Democratic Party or PD [Subur BUDHISANTOSO]; Functional Groups Party or Golkar [Yusuf KALLA]; Indonezja Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Alwi SHIHAB]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Sutrisno BACHIR]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Tifatul SEMBIRING]; United Development Party or PPP [Hamzah HAZ]
Iran Iran formal political parties are a relatively new phenomenon w Iran and most conservatives still prefer to work through political pressure groups rather than parties, and often political parties or coalitions are formed prior to elections and disbanded soon thereafter; a loose pro-reform coalition called the 2nd Khordad Front, which includes political parties as well as less formal groups and organizations, achieved considerable success at elections to the sixth Majles w early 2000; groups w the coalition include: Islamic Iran Participation Front (IIPF), Executives of Construction Party (Kargozaran), Solidarity Party, Islamic Labor Party, Mardom Salari, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization (MIRO), and Militant Clerics Society (Ruhaniyun); the coalition participated w the seventh Majles elections w early 2004; following his defeat w the 2005 presidential elections, former MCS Secretary General and sixth Majles Speaker Mehdi KARUBI formed the National Trust Party; a new conservative group, Islamic Iran Developers Coalition (Abadgaran), took a leading position w the new Majles after winning a majority of the seats w luty 2004; following the 2004 Majles elections, traditional and hardline conservatives have attempted to close ranks under the United Front of Principlists; the IIPF has repeatedly complained that the overwhelming majority of its candidates have been unfairly disqualified from the 2008 elections formal political parties are a relatively new phenomenon w Iran and most conservatives still prefer to work through political pressure groups rather than parties; a loose pro-reform coalition called the 2nd Khordad Front, which includes political parties as well as less formal pressure groups and organizations, achieved considerable success at elections to the sixth Majles w early 2000; groups w the coalition include: Islamic Iran Participation Front (IIPF), Executives of Construction Party (Kargozaran), Solidarity Party, Islamic Labor Party, Mardom Salari, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization (MIRO), and Militant Clerics Society (Ruhaniyun); the coalition participated w the seventh Majles elections w early 2004; following his defeat w the 2005 presidential elections, former MCS Secretary General Mehdi KARRUBI formed the National Trust Party; a new apparently conservative group, the Builders of Islamic Iran, took a leading position w the new Majles after winning a majority of the seats w luty 2004
Irak Irak Assyrian Democratic Movement [Yunadim KANNA]; Badr Organization [Hadi al-AMIRI]; Konstytucjaal Monarchy Movement or CMM [Sharif Ali Bin al-HUSAYN]; Da'wa al-Islamiya Party [Ibrahim al-JA'FARI]; General Conference of Iraki People [Adnan al-DULAYMI]; Independent Iraki Alliance or IIA [Falah al-NAQIB]; Iraki Communist Party [Hamid MAJEED]; Iraki Front dla National Dialogue [Salih al-MUTLAQ]; Iraki Hizballah [Karim Mahmud al-MUHAMMADAWI]; Iraki Independent Democrats or IID [Adnan PACHACHI, Mahdi al-HAFIZ]; Iraki Islamic Party or IIP [Tariq al-HASHIMI]; Iraki National Accord or INA [Ayad ALLAWI]; Iraki National Congress or INC [Ahmad CHALABI]; Iraki National Council dla Dialogue or INCD [Khalaf Ulayan al-Khalifawi al-DULAYMI]; Iraki National Unity Movement or INUM [Ahmad al-KUBAYSI]; Islamic Action Organization or IAO [Ayatollah Muhammad al-MUDARRISI]; Islamic Supreme Council of Irak or ISCI [Abd al-Aziz al-HAKIM]; Jama'at al Fadilah or JAF [Muhammad Ali al-YAQUBI]; Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masud BARZANI]; Kurdistan Islamic Union [Salah ad-Din Muhammad BAHA al-DIN]; National Reconciliation and Liberation Party [Mishan al-JABBURI]; Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [Jalal TALABANI]; Sadrist Trend [Muqtada al-SADR] (not an organized political party, but it fields independent candidates affiliated z Muqtada al-SADR); Sahawa al-Irak [Ahmed al-RISAWHI]


note: the Kurdistan Alliance, Iraki National List, Tawafuq Front, Iraki Front dla National Dialogue, and Unified Iraki Alliance were only electoral slates consisting of the representatives from the various Iraki political parties
Al-Sadr Movement [Muqtada Al-SADR]; Assyrian Democratic Movement [Yunadim KANNA]; Conference of Iraki People [Adnan al-DULAYMI]; Konstytucjaal Monarchy Movement or CMM [Sharif Ali Bin al-HUSAYN]; Da'wa Party [Ibrahim al-JA'FARI]; Independent Iraki Alliance or IIA [Falah al-NAQIB]; Iraki Communist Party [Hamid al-MUSA]; Iraki Hizballah [Karim Mahud al-MUHAMMADAWI]; Iraki Independent Democrats or IID [Adnan PACHACHI, Mahdi al-HAFIZ]; Iraki Islamic Party or IIP [Muhsin Abd al-HAMID, Hajim al-HASSANI]; Iraki National Accord or INA [Ayad ALLAWI]; Iraki National Congress or INC [Ahmad CHALABI]; Iraki National Council dla Dialogue or INCD [Khalaf Ulayan al-Khalifawi al-DULAYMI]; Iraki National Unity Movement or INUM [Ahmad al-KUBAYSI, chairman]; Islamic Action Organization or IAO [Ayatollah Muhammad al-MUDARRISI]; Jama'at al Fadilah or JAF [Ayatollah Muhammad Ali al-YAQUBI]; Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masud BARZANI]; Muslim Ulama Council or MUC [Harith Sulayman al-DARI, secretary general]; National Iraki Front [Salih al-MUTLAQ]; National Reconciliation and Liberation Party [Mishan al-JABBURI]; Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [Jalal TALABANI]; Supreme Council dla the Islamic Revolution w Irak or SCIRI [Abd al-Aziz al-HAKIM]


note: the Kurdistan Alliance, Iraki National List, Iraki Consensus Front, Iraki Front dla National Dialogue, and United Iraki Alliance were only electoral slates consisting of the representatives from the various Iraki political parties
Irlandia Irlandia Fianna Fail [Bertie AHERN]; Fine Gael [Enda KENNY]; Green Party [John GORMLEY]; Labor Party [Eamon GILMORE]; Progressive Democrats [Mary HARNEY, acting leader]; Sinn Fein [Gerry ADAMS]; Socialist Party [Joe HIGGINS]; The Workers' Party [Sean GARLAND] Fianna Fail [Bertie AHERN]; Fine Gael [Enda KENNY]; Green Party [Trevor SARGENT]; Labor Party [Pat RABITTE]; Progressive Democrats [Michael McDOWELL]; Sinn Fein [Gerry ADAMS]; Socialist Party [Joe HIGGINS]; The Workers' Party [Sean GARLAND]
Wyspa Man Wyspa Man Alliance dla Progressive Government; Liberal Vannin Party [Peter KARRAN]; Man Labor Party; Man Nationalist Party (Mec Vannin) [Bernard MOFFATT]


note: most members sit as independents
Alliance dla Progressive Government; Man Labor Party; Man Nationalist Party (branch of the British National Party)


note: most members sit as independents
Izrael Izrael Democratic Front dla Peace and Equality (HADASH) [Muhammad BARAKA]; GIL (Pensioners) [Rafael "Rafi" EITAN]; Kadima [Ehud OLMERT]; Labor Party [Ehud BARAK]; Likud [Binyamin NETANYAHU]; Meretz-YAHAD [Yossi BEILIN]; National Democratic Assembly (Balad) [Jamal ZAHALKA]; National Union (NU)/National Religious Party (NRP) [Binyamin ELON]; SHAS [Eliyahu YISHAI]; Torah and Shabbat Judaism [Yaakov LITZMAN]; United Arab List [Ibrahim SARSOUR]; Yisrael Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN] Democratic Front dla Peace and Equality (HADASH) [Muhammad BARAKA]; GIL (Pensioners) [Rafael EITAN]; Kadima [Ehud OLMERT]; Labor Party [Amir PERETZ]; Likud Party [Binyamin NETANYAHU]; Meretz-YAHAD [Yossi BEILIN]; National Democratic Assembly (Balad) [Azmi BISHARA]; National Union (NU)/National Religious Party (NRP) [Binyamin ELON]; SHAS [Eliyahu YISHAI]; Torah and Shabbat Judaism [Yaakov LITZMAN]; United Arab List [Ibrahim SARSOUR]; Yisrael Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]; Yisrael Ba'Aliya (merged z Likud)
Wlochy Wlochy Center-Left Union Coalition [Romano PRODI]: Ulivo Alliance (including Democrats of the Left or DS [Piero FASSINO] (along z the DL merged into the Democratic Party or PD); Daisy-Democracy is Freedom or DL [Francjasco RUTELLI] (along z the DS merged into the Democratic Party or PD)); Rose w the Fist (including Italian Social Democrats or SDI [Enrico BOSELLI]; Italian Radical Party [Emma BONINO]); Together z the Union (including Italian Communist Party or PdCI [Oliviero DILIBERTO]; Green Federation [Alfonso PECORARO SCANIO]; United Consumers); Communist Renewal or RC [Fausto BERTINOTTI]; Wlochy of Values or IdV [Antonio DI PIETRO]; Union of Democrats dla Europe or UDEUR [Clemente MASTELLA]; Republican European Movement or MRE [Luciana SBARBATI]


Center-Right Freedom House Coalition [Silvio BERLUSCONI]: Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI]; National Alliance or AN [Gianfranco FINI]; Union of Christian Democrats and Centrist Democrats or UDC [Pier Ferdinando CASINI]; Northern League or LEGA [Umberto BOSSI]; Christian Democracy (Per la Autonomie) [Gianfranco ROTONDI]


other non-allied parties: New Italian Socialist Party or New PSI [Gianni DE MICHELIS]; Italian Republican Party or PRI [Giorgio LA MALFA]; Social Alternative [Alessandra MUSSOLINI]; Social Movement-Tricolor Flame or MSI-Fiamma [Luca ROMAGNOLI]; Social Idea Movement z Rauti or MIS [Pino RAUTI]; South Tyrol People's Party or SVP (German speakers) [Elmar Pichler ROLLE]; Union of Valley Aosta Region or UV [Guido CESAL]
Center-Left Union Coalition [Romano PRODI]: Ulivo Alliance (including Democrats of the Left or DS [Piero FASSINO]; Daisy-Democracy is Freedom or DL [Francjasco RUTELLI]); Rose w the Fist (including Italian Social Democrats or SDI [Enrico BOSELLI]; Italian Radical Party [Emma BONINO]); Italian Communist Party or PdCI [Oliviero DILIBERTO]; Green Federation [Alfonso PECORARO SCANIO]; Communist Renewal or RC [Fausto BERTINOTTI]; Wlochy of Values or IdV [Antonio DI PIETRO]; Union of Democrats dla Europe or UDEUR [Clemente MASTELLA]; Republican European Movement or MRE [Luciana SBARBATI]


Center-Right Freedom House Coalition [Silvio BERLUSCONI]: Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI]; National Alliance or AN [Gianfranco FINI]; Union of Christian Democrats of the Center or UDC [Pier Ferdinando CASINI]; Northern League or LEGA [Umberto BOSSI]; Christian Democracy (Per la Autonomie) [Publio FIORI]


other non-allied parties: New Italian Socialist Party or New PSI [Gianni DE MICHELIS]; Italian Republican Party or PRI [Giorgio LA MALFA]; Social Alternative [Alessandra MUSSOLINI]; Social Movement-Tricolor Flame or MSI-Fiamma [Luca ROMAGNOLI]; Social Idea Movement z Rauti or MIS [Pino RAUTI]; South Tyrol People's Party or SVP (German speakers) [Elmar Pichler ROLLE]; Union of Valley Aosta Region or UV [Guido CESAL]
Jamajka Jamajka Jamajka Labor Party or JLP [Bruce GOLDING]; People's National Party or PNP [Portia SIMPSON-MILLER]; National Democratic Movement or NDM [Michael WILLIAMS] Jamajka Labor Party or JLP [Bruce GOLDING]; National Democratic Movement or NDM [Hyacinth BENNETT]; People's National Party or PNP [Percival James PATTERSON]
Japonia Japonia Democratic Party of Japonia or DPJ [Ichiro OZAWA]; Japonia Communist Party or JCP [Kazuo SHII]; Komeito [Akihiro OTA]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Yasuo FUKUDA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Mizuho FUKUSHIMA] Democratic Party of Japonia or DPJ [Ichiro OZAWA]; Japonia Communist Party or JCP [Kazuo SHII]; Komeito [Akihoro OTA]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Shinzo ABE]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Mizuho FUKUSHIMA]
Jersey Jersey two declared parties: Centre Party; Jersey Democratic Alliance


note: all senators and deputies elected w 2005 were independents
none; all independents
Jordania Jordania al-Ahd Party; Arab Islamic Democratic Movement [Yusuf ABU BAKR]; Arab Land Party [Dr. Ayishah Salih HIJAZAYN]; Arab Socialist Ba'th Party [Taysir al-HIMSI]; Ba'th Arab Progressive Party [Fu'ad DABBUR]; Freedom Party; Future Party; Islamic Action Front or IAF [Zaki Sa'ed BANI IRSHEID]; Islamic Center Party [Marwan al-FAURI]; Jordaniaian Arab Ansar Party; Jordaniaian Arab New Dawn Party; Jordaniaian Arab Party; Jordaniaian Citizens' Rights Movement; Jordaniaian Communist Party [Munir HAMARINAH]; Jordaniaian Communist Workers Party; Jordaniaian Democratic Left Party [Musa MA'AYTEH]; Jordaniaian Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'id Dhiyab Ali MUSTAFA]; Jordaniaian Generations Party [Muhammad KHALAYLEH]; Jordaniaian Green Party [Muhammad BATAYNEH]; Jordaniaian Labor Party [Dr. Mazin Sulayman Jiryis HANNA]; Jordaniaian Peace Party; Jordaniaian People's Committees Movement; Jordaniaian People's Democratic Party (Hashd) [Ahmad YUSUF]; Jordaniaian Rafah Party; Jordaniaian Renaissance Party; Mission Party; Nation Party [Ahmad al-HANANDEH]; National Action Party (Haqq) [Tariq al-KAYYALI]; National Konstytucjaal Party [Abdul Hadi MAJALI]; National Popular Democratic Movement [Mahmud al-NUWAYHI]; Progressive Party [Fawwaz al-ZUBI] al-Ahd Party; Arab Islamic Democratic Movement [Yusuf ABU BAKR, president]; Arab Land Party [Dr. Ayishah Salih HIJAZAYN, secretary general]; Arab Socialist Ba'th Party [Taysir al-HIMSI, secretary general]; Ba'th Arab Progressive Party [Fu'ad DABBUR, secretary general]; Freedom Party; Future Party; Islamic Action Front or IAF [Zaki Sa'ed BANI IRSHEID, secretary general]; Islamic Center Party [Marwan al-FAURI, secretary general]; Jordaniaian Arab Ansar Party; Jordaniaian Arab New Dawn Party; Jordaniaian Arab Party; Jordaniaian Citizens' Rights Movement; Jordaniaian Communist Party [Munir HAMARINAH, secretary general]; Jordaniaian Communist Workers Party; Jordaniaian Democratic Left Party [Musa MA'AYTEH, secretary general]; Jordaniaian Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'id Dhiyab Ali MUSTAFA, secretary general]; Jordaniaian Generations Party [Muhammad KHALAYLEH, secretary general]; Jordaniaian Green Party [Muhammad BATAYNEH, secretary general]; Jordaniaian Labor Party [Dr. Mazin Sulayman Jiryis HANNA, secretary general]; Jordaniaian Peace Party; Jordaniaian People's Committees Movement; Jordaniaian People's Democratic Party (Hashd) [Ahmad YUSUF, secretary general]; Jordaniaian Rafah Party; Jordaniaian Renaissance Party; Mission Party; Nation Party [Ahmad al-HANANDEH, secretary general]; National Action Party (Haqq) [Tariq al-KAYYALI, secretary general]; National Konstytucjaal Party [Abdul Hadi MAJALI, secretary general]; National Popular Democratic Movement [Mahmud al-NUWAYHI, secretary general]; Progressive Party [Fawwaz al-ZUBI, secretary general]
Kazachstan Kazachstan Adilet (Justice) [Maksut NARIKBAYEV, Zeynulla ALSHIMBAYEV, Bakhytbek AKHMETZHAN, Yerkin ONGARBAYEV, Tolegan SYDYKOV] (formerly Democratic Party of Kazachstan); Agrarian and Industrial Union of Workers Block or AIST (Agrarian Party and Civic Party); Ak Zhol Party (Bright Path) [Alikhan BAIMENOV]; Auyl (Village) [Gani KALIYEV]; Communist Party of Kazachstan or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN]; Communist People's Party of Kazachstan [Vladislav KOSAREV]; National Social Democratic Party (NSDP)[Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]; Nur-Otan [Bakhytzhan ZHUMAGULOV] (the Agrarian, Asar, and Civic parties merged z Otan); Patriots' Party [Gani KASYMOV]; Rukhaniyat (Spirituality) [Altynshash ZHAGANOVA] Adilet (Justice) [Maksut NARIKBAYEV, co-chair, Zeynulla ALSHIMBAYEV, co-chair, Bakhytbek AKHMETZHAN, co-chair, Yerkin ONGARBAYEV, co-chair, Tolegan SYDYKOV, co-chair] (formerly Democratic Party of Kazachstan); Aq Zhol Party (Bright Path) [Alikhan BAIMENOV, chairman]; AUL (Village) [Gani KALIYEV, chairman]; Communist Party of Kazachstan or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN, first secretary]; Communist People's Party of Kazachstan [Vladislav KOSAREV, first secretary]; Otan [Bakhytzhan ZHUMAGULOV, acting chairman] (the Agrarian, Asar, and Civic parties merged z Otan); Patriots' Party [Gani KASYMOV, chairman]; Rukhaniyat (Spirituality) [Altynshash ZHAGANOVA, chairwoman]
Kenia Kenia Forum dla the Restoration of Democracy-Kenia or FORD-Kenia [Musikari KOMBO]; Forum dla the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Simeon NYACHAE]; Kenia African National Union or KANU [Uhuru KENYATTA]; National Rainbow Coalition-Kenia or NARC-Kenia [Raphael TUJU]; Orange Democratic Movement or ODM [Raila ODINGA]; Orange Democratic Movement-Kenia or ODM-K [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]; Party of National Unity or PNU [Mwai KIBAKI] Forum dla the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Kimaniwa NYOIKE, chairman]; Kenia African National Union or KANU [Uhuru KENYATTA]; National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Mwai KIBAKI] (the governing party)
Kiribati Kiribati Boutokaan Te Koaua Party or BTK [Taberannang TIMEON]; Maneaban Te Mauri Party or MTM [Teburoro TITO]; Maurin Kiribati Pati or MKP; National Progressive Party or NPP [Dr. Harry TONG]


note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties w Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures
Boutokaan Te Koaua Party or BTK [Taberannang TIMEON]; Maneaban Te Mauri Party or MTM [Teburoro TITO]; Maurin Kiribati Pati or MKP; National Progressive Party or NPP [Dr. Harry TONG]


note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties w Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures
Polnocna Korea Polnocna Korea major party - Korean Workers' Party or KWP [KIM Jong Il]; minor parties - Chondoist Chongu Party [RYU Mi Yong] (under KWP control), Social Democratic Party [KIM Yong Dae] (under KWP control) major party - Korean Workers' Party or KWP [KIM Jong Il]; minor parties - Chondoist Chongu Party [RYU Mi Yong] (under KWP control), Social Democratic Party [KIM Yong Dae] (under KWP control)
Poludniowa Korea Poludniowa Korea Creative Korea Party or CKP [MOON Kook-hyun]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [CHUN Young-se]; Grand National Party or GNP [KANG Jae-sup]; Liberty Forward Party or LFP [SIM Dae-pyung]; United Democratic Party or UDP [SOHN Hak-kyu] Democratic Labor Party or DLP [MOON Seong-hyun]; Democratic Party or DP [HAHN Hwa-kap]; Grand National Party or GNP [KANG Jae-sup]; People-Centered Party or PCP [SHIN Kook-hwan]; Uri Party [KIM Geun-tae]
Kosowo Kosowo Albanian Christian Democratic Party of Kosowo or PSHDK [Mark KRASNIQI]; Alliance dla the Future of Kosowo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]; Alliance of Independent Social Democrats of Kososvo and Metohija or SDSKiM [Slavisa PETKOVIC]; Autonomous Liberal Party of SLS [Slobodan PETROVIC]; Bosniak Vakat Coalition [ Dzezair MURATI]; Citizens' Initiative of Gora or GIG [Murselj HALILI]; Council of Independent Social Democrats of Kosowo or SNSDKIM [Ljubisa ZIVIC]; Democratic League of Dardania or LDD [Nexhat DACI]; Democratic League of Kosowo or LDK [Fatmir SEJDIU]; Democratic Party of Ashkali of Kosowo or PDAK [Sabit RRAHMANI]; Democratic Party of Kosowo or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Kosowo Democratic Turkish Party of KDTP [Mahir YAGCILAR]; New Democratic Initiative of Kosowo or IRDK [Xhevdet Neziraj]; New Democratic Party or ND [Branislav GRBIC]; New Kosowo Alliance [Behgjet PACOLLI]; Popular Movement of Kosowo or LPK [Emrush XHEMAJLI]; Reform Party Ora; Serb National Party or SNS [Mihailo SCEPANOVIC]; Serbian Kosowo and Metohija Party or SKMS [Dragisa MIRIC]; United Roma Party of Kosowo or PREBK [Haxhi Zylfi MERXHA]; Democratic Action Party or SDA [Numan BALIC] -
Kuwejt Kuwejt none; formation of political parties is w practice illegal, but is not forbidden by law none; formation of political parties is illegal
Kirgistan Kirgistan Ak Jol [Avtandil ARABAYEV, Elmira IBRAIMOVA, Vladimir NIFADYEV, co-chairs]; Ar-Namys (Dignity) Party [Emil ALIYEV]; Asaba (Banner National Revival Party) [Azimbek BEKNAZAROV]; Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAYEV]; Democratic Movement of Kirgistan or DDK [Viktor TCHETRNOMORETS]; Erkindik (Freedom) Party [Topchubek TURGUNALIYEV]; Moya Strana (My Country Party of Action) [Medet SADYRKULOV]; Party of Communists of Kirgistan or KCP [Ishak MASALIYEV]; Party of Justice and Progress [Muratbek IMANALIEV]; Party of Peasants [Esengul ISAKOV]; Republican Party of Labor and Unity [Tabaldy OROZALIYEV]; Sanjira (Tree of Life) [Ednan KARABAYEV]; Social Democratic Party [Almaz ATAMBAYEV]; Union of Democratic Forces [Kubatbek BAIBOLOV] Adilet (Justice) Party [Toychubek KASYMOV]; Agrarian Labor Party of Kirgistan [Uson SYDYKOV]; Agrarian Party of Kirgistan [Erkin ALIYEV]; Alga, Kirgistan (Forward, Kirgistan) [Bolot BEGALIYEV]; Ar-Namys (Dignity) Party [Emil ALIYEV]; Asaba (Banner National Revival Party) [Azimbek BEKNAZAROV]; Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAYEV]; Communist Party of Kirgistan [Klara ADZHIBEKOVA]; Democratic Movement of Kirgistan or DDK [Jypar JEKSHEYEV]; Erkin Kirgistan Progressive and Democratic Party [Bektur ASANOV]; Erkindik (Freedom) Party [Topchubek TURGUNALIYEV]; Future of Kirgistan [Balbak TULEBAYEV]; Jany Kirgistan (New Kirgistan) [Dosbol NUR UULU]; Kairan El [Dooronbek SADYKOV]; Kyrgyz National Party [Bakyt BESHIMOV]; Kirgistan Kelechegi [Ruslan CHYNYBAYEV]; Manas El (Party of Spiritual Restoration) [Chingiz AITMATOV]; Moya Strana (My Country Party of Action) [Joomart OTORBAYEV]; Party of Communists of Kirgistan or KCP [Bakytbek BEKBOYEV]; Party of Justice and Progress [Muratbek IMANALIEV]; Party of Peasants [Esengul ISAKOV]
Laos Laos Lao People's Revolutionary Party or LPRP [CHOUMMALI Saignason]; other parties proscribed Lao People's Revolutionary Party or LPRP [CHOUMMALY Sayasone]; other parties proscribed
Lotwa Lotwa First Party of Lotwa/Lotwa's Way or LPP/LC [Ainars SLESERS, Ivars GODMANIS]; For Human Rights w a United Lotwa or PCTVL [Jakovs PLINERS]; For the Fatherland and Freedom/Lotwan National Niepodleglosc Movement or TB/LNNK [Roberts ZILE, Maris GRINBLATS]; Harmony Center or SC [Janis URBANOVICS, Nils USAKOVS]; Lotwan Social Democratic Workers Party (Social Democrats) or LSDSP [Juris BOJARS]; Lotwan Socialist Party or LSP [Alfreds RUBIKS]; New Democrats or JD [Maris GULBIS]; New Era Party or JL [Einars REPSE, Krisjanis KARINS]; People's Party or TP [Aigars KALVITIS]; The Union of Lotwan Greens and Farmers Party or ZZS [Augusts BRIGMANIS] First Party of Lotwa or LPP [Juris LUJANS]; For Human Rights w a United Lotwa or PCTVL [Tatjana ZDANOKA, Jakovs PLINERS]; For the Fatherland and Freedom/Lotwan National Niepodleglosc Movement or TB/LNNK [Janis STRAUME]; Harmony Center or SC [Sergejs DOLGOPOLOVS]; Lotwan Green Party or ZZS [Indulis EMSIS, Viesturs SILENIEKS, Raimonds VEJONIS]; Lotwan Farmer's Union or LZS [Augusts BRIGMANIS]; Lotwan Social Democratic Workers Party (Social Democrats) or LSDSP [Juris BOJARS]; Lotwan Socialist Party or LSP [Alfreds RUBIKS]; Lotwa's Way or LC [Ivars GODMANIS]; New Democrats or JD [Maris GULBIS]; New Era Party or JL [Einars REPSE]; People's Harmony Party or TSP [Aivars DATAVS]; People's Party or TP [Atis SLAKTERIS]; Social Democratic Union or SDS [Egils BALDZENS]
Liban Liban 14 marzec Coalition: Democratic Gathering Bloc [Walid JUNBLATT, leader of Progressive Socialist Party]; Democratic Left [Ilyas ATALLAH]; Democratic Renewal Movement [Nassib LAHUD]; Future Movement Bloc [Sa'ad HARIRI]; Kataeb Party [Amine GEMAYEL]; Lebanese Forces [Samir JA'JA]; Tripoli Independent Bloc


Change and Reform Alliance Bloc: Free Patriotic Movement [Michel AWN]; Metn Bloc [Michel MURR]; Popular Bloc [Elias SKAFF]; Tashnaq


Hizballah and Amal Alliance: Development and Resistance Bloc [Nabih BERRI, leader of Amal Movement]; Hizballah Party [Hassan NASRALLAH]; Loyalty to the Resistance [Mohammad RA'AD]; Nasserite Popular Movement [Ussama SAAD]; Syrian Ba'th Party [Sayez SHUKR]; Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Ali QANSO]
Ba'th Party; Democratic Gathering [Walid JUMBLATT]; Democratic Left [Ilyas ATALLAH]; Democratic Renewal Movement [Nassib LAHUD]; Development and Resistance Bloc [Nabih BERRI, Amal Movement leader/Speaker of the National Assembly]; Free Patriotic Movement [Michel AWN]; Future Movement Bloc [Sa'ad HARIRI]; Kataeb Party [Karim PAKRADONI]; Kataeb Reform Movement [Amine GEMAYAL]; Lebanese Forces [Samir JA'JA]; Loyalty to the Resistance [Mohammad RA'AD]; Metn Bloc [Michel MURR]; Nasserite Popular Movement [Ussama SAAD]; National Bloc [Carlos EDDE]; Popular Bloc [Elias SKAFF]; Qornet Shewan Gathering [a grouping z no individual leader]; Syrian National Socialist Party [Ali QANSU]; Tachnaq Party; Tripoli Independent Bloc [a grouping z no individual leader]
Lesotho Lesotho Alliance of Congress Parties or ACP; All Basotho Convention or ABC [Thomas THABANE]; Basotholand African Congress or BAC [Khauhelo RALITAPOLE]; Basotho Congress Party or BCP [Ntsukunyane MPHANYA]; Basotho National Party or BNP [Maj. Gen. Justin Metsing LEKHANYA]; Kopanang Basotho Party or KPB [Pheelo MOSALA]; Lesotho Congress dla Democracy or LCD (the governing party) [Pakalitha MOSISILI]; Lesotho Education Party or LEP [Thabo PITSO]; Lesotho Workers Party or LWP [Macaefa BILLY]; Marematlou Freedom Party or MFP [Vincent MALEBO]; National Independent Party or NIP [Anthony MANYELI]; New Lesotho Freedom Party or NLFP [Manapo MAJARA]; Popular Front dla Democracy or PFD [Lekhetho RAKUOANE]; Sefate Democratic Union or SDU [Bofihla NKUEBE]; Social Democratic Party of SDP [Masitise SELESO] Basotholand African Congress or BAC [Khauhelo RALITAPOLE]; Basotholand Congress Party or BCP [Ntsukunyane MPHANYA]; Basotho National Party or BNP [Maj. Gen. Justine Metsing LEKHANYA]; Kopanang Basotho Party or KPB [MOSALA]; Lesotho Congress dla Democracy or LCD [Pakalitha MOSISILI] (the governing party); Lesotho Education Party or LEP [Thabo PITSO]; Lesotho People's Congress or LPC [Kelebone MAOPE]; Lesotho Workers Party of LWP [Macaefa BILLY]; Marematlou Freedom Party or MFP [Vincent MALEBO]; National Independent Party or NIP [Anthony MANYELI]; National Progressive Party or NPP [Chief Peete Nkoebe PEETE]; Popular Front dla Democracy or PFD [Lekhetho RAKUOANE]; Sefate Democratic Union or SDU [Bofihla NKUEBE]; Social Democratic Party of SDP [Masitise SELESO]; United Democratic Party or UDP [C.D. MOFELI]; United Party or UP [Makara SEKAUTU]
Liberia Liberia Alliance dla Peace and Democracy or APD [Togba-na TIPOTEH]; Coalition dla the Transformation of Liberia or COTOL [H. Varney SHERMAN]; Congress dla Democratic Change or CDC [George WEAH]; Liberty Party or LP [Charles BRUMSKINE]; National Patriotic Party or NPP [Roland MASSAQUOI]; Unity Party or UP [Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF] Alliance dla Peace and Democracy or APD [Togba-na TIPOTEH]; Coalition dla the Transformation of Liberia or COTOL; Congress dla Democratic Change or CDC [George WEAH]; Liberian Action Party or LAP [H. Varney SHERMAN]; Liberty Party or LP [Charles BRUMSKINE]; National Patriotic Party or NPP [Cyril ALLEN]; Unity Party or UP [Charles CLARKE]
Libia Libia none none
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Patriotic Union or VU [Adolf HEEB] (was Fatherland Union); Progressive Citizens' Party or FBP [Marcus VOGT]; The Free List or FL [Claudia HEEB-FLECK and Egon MATT] Patriotic Union (was Fatherland Union) or VU [Adolf HEEB]; Progressive Citizens' Party or FBP [Otmar HASLER]; The Free List or FL
Litwa Litwa Civil Democracy Party or PDP [Viktor MUNTIANAS]; Electoral Action of Litwan Poles [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI]; National Farmer's Union or VLS [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Andrius KUBILIUS]; Labor Party or DP [Viktor USPASKICH]; Liberal and Center Union [Arturas ZUOKAS]; Liberal Democrats/Order and Justice Party or TT [Rolandas PAKSAS]; Liberal Movement or LLS [Petras AUSTREVICIUS]; Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Gediminas KIRKILAS]; Social Liberal/New Union [Arturas PAULAUSKAS]; Young Litwa and New Nationalists [Stanislovas BUSKEVICIUS] Civil Democracy Party [Viktor MUNTIANAS, chairman]; Electoral Action of Litwan Poles [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI, chairman]; National Farmer's Union [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE, chairman]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Andrius KUBILIUS, chairman]; Labor Party; Liberal and Center Political Group [Arturas ZUOKAS, chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party [Valentinas MAZURONIS, chairman]; Liberal Movement; Litwan Christian Democrats or LKD [Valentinas STUNDYS, chairman]; Litwan People's Union dla a Fair Litwa; Litwan Social Democratic Coalition [Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS, chairman] consists of the Litwan Democratic Labor Party or LDDP and the Litwan Social Democratic Party or LSDP; Social Liberal/New Union [Arturas PAULAUSKAS, chairman]; Social Union of Christian Conservatives [Gediminas VAGNORIUS, chairman]; Young Litwa and New Nationalists
Luksemburg Luksemburg Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Robert MENLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Francois BILTGEN] (also known as Christian Social Party or PCS); Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; Luksemburg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Alex BODRY]; dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left); other minor parties Action Committee dla Democracy and Justice or ADR [Gast GIBERYEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV (also known as Christian Social Party or PCS) [Francois BILTGEN]; Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; Luksemburg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Alex BODRY]; Marxist and Reformed Communist Party dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left) [no formal leadership]; other minor parties
Makau Makau Civil Service Union [Jose Maria Pereira COUTINHO]; Development Union [KWAN Tsui-hang]; Makau Development Alliance [Angela LEONG On-kei]; Makau United Citizens' Association [CHAN Meng-kam]; New Democratic Makau Association [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]; United Forces


note: there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies
Civil Service Union [Jose Maria Pereira COUTINHO]; Development Union [KWAN Tsui-hang]; Makau Development Alliance [Angela LEONG On-kei]; Makau United Citizens' Association [CHAN Meng-kam]; New Democratic Makau Association [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]; United Forces
Macedonia Macedonia Democratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic League of Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh/DPA [Menduh THACI]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Renewal of Macedonia [Liljana POPOVSKA]; Democratic Union of Albanians or BDSh [BardYL MAHMUTI]; Democratic Union of Vlachs dla Macedonia [Mitko KOSTOV]; Democratic Union dla Integration or BDI/DUI [Ali AHMETI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party dla Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-People's Party or VMRO-Narodna [Gjorgji TRENDAFILOV]; League dla Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Jovan MANSIEVSKI]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Alternative [Harun ALIU]; National Democratic Union or BDK [Hysni SHAQIR]; New Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party dla Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Abduljhadi VEJSELI]; Party dla European Future or PEI [Fijat CANOSKI]; Party of Free Democrats or PSD [Ljubco JORDANOVSKI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Radmila SEKERINSKA]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV-ZINGO]; Union of Romas or SR [Saliu SHABAN]; United Party dla Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA] Democratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI]; Democratic League of the Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSH/DPA [Arben XHAFERI]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Renewal of Macedonia [Liljana POPOVSKA]; Democratic Republican Union of Macedonia or DRUM [Goran RAFAJLOVSKI]; Democratic Union of Vlachs dla Macedonia [Mitko KOSTOV]; Democratic Union dla Integration or DUI [Ali AHMETI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party dla Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Macedonian [Boris STOJMENOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-People's Party or VMRO-Narodna [Vesna JANEVSKA, acting]; League dla Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto PENOV]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Alternative [Harun ALIU]; National Democratic Party or PDK [Basri HALITI]; National Farmers' Party [Vejljo TANTAROV]; New Democratic Forces [Hysni SHAQIRI]; New Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party dla Democratic Future [Alajdin DEMIRI]; Party dla Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Abduljhadi VEJSELI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Vlado BUCKOVSKI]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV-ZINGO]; United Party dla Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA]
Madagaskar Madagaskar Association dla the Rebirth of Madagaskar or AREMA [Pierrot RAJAONARIVELO]; Democratic Party dla Union w Madagaskar or PSDUM [Jean LAHINIRIKO]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action dla National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Party or FP [Guy-Willy RAZANAMASY]; I Love Madagaskar or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON] Association dla the Rebirth of Madagaskar or AREMA [Pierrot RAJAONARIVO]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action dla National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Party or FP [Guy-Willy RAZANAMASY]; I Love Madagaskar or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]
Malawi Malawi Alliance dla Democracy or AFORD; Congress dla National Unity or CONU; Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Bingu wa MUTHARIKA]; Malawi Congress Party or MCP [John TEMBO]; Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo KALUA]; Malawi Forum dla Unity and Development or MAFUNDE [George MNESA]; Mgwirizano Coalition or MC [Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA] (coalition of MAFUNDE, MDP, MGODE, NUP, PETRA, PPM, RP); Movement dla Genuine Democratic Change or MGODE [Sam Kandodo BANDA]; National Democratic Alliance or NDA [Brown MPINGANJIRA]; National Unity Party or NUP [Harry CHIUME]; People's Progressive Movement or PPM [Aleke BANDA]; People's Transformation Movement or PETRA [Kamuzu CHIBAMBO]; Republican Party or RP [Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Bakili MULUZI] Alliance dla Democracy or AFORD [Chakufwa CHIHANA]; Congress dla National Unity or CONU; Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Bingu wa MUTHARIKA]; Malawi Congress Party or MCP [John TEMBO]; Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo KALUA]; Malawi Forum dla Unity and Development or MAFUNDE [George MNESA]; Mgwirizano Coalition or MC [Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA] (coalition of MAFUNDE, MDP, MGODE, NUP, PETRA, PPM, RP); Movement dla Genuine Democratic Change or MGODE [Sam Kandodo BANDA]; National Democratic Alliance or NDA [Brown MPINGANJIRA]; National Unity Party or NUP [Harry CHIUME]; People's Progressive Movement or PPM [Aleke BANDA]; People's Transformation Movement or PETRA [Kamuzu CHIBAMBO]; Republican Party or RP [Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA]; United Democratic Front or UDF
Malezja Malezja National Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN (ruling coalition) consists of the following parties: Gerakan Rakyat Malezja Party or PGRM [KOH Tsu Koon - acting]; Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP [LIEW Vui Keong]; Malezjan Chinese Association (Persatuan Chiny Malezja) or MCA [ONG Ka Ting]; Malezjan Indien Congress (Kongres Indie Malezja) or MIC [S. Samy VELLU]; Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS [Joseph KURUP]; Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]; Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu or PBB [Abdul TAIB Mahmud]; Parti Rakyat Sarawak or PRS [James MASING]; Sabah Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Sabah) or SAPP [YONG Teck Lee]; Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [George CHAN Hong Nam]; United Malays National Organization or UMNO [ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi]; United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Bernard DOMPOK]; People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malezja) or PPP [M.Kayveas]; Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party or SPDP [William MAWAN]); opposition parties: Alternative Front (Barisan Alternatif) or BA (consists of PAS and PKR); Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [KARPAL Singh]; Islamic Party of Malezja (Parti Islam se Malezja) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang]; People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismael]; Sarawak National Party or SNAP [Edwin DUNDANG] ruling-coalition National Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN, consisting of the following parties: Gerakan Rakyat Malezja Party or PGRM [LIM Keng Yaik]; Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP [LIEW Vui Keong]; Malezjan Chinese Association (Persatuan Chiny Malezja) or MCA [ONG Ka Ting]; Malezjan Indien Congress (Kongresi Indie Malezja) or MIC [S. Samy VELLU]; Parti Bersatu Pakyat Sabah or PBRS [Joseph KURUP]; Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]; Parti Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu or PBB [Patinggi Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud]; Parti Rakyat Sarawak or PRS [James MASING]; Sabah Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Sabah) or SAPP [YONG Teck Lee]; Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [George CHAN Hong Nam]; United Malays National Organization or UMNO [ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi]; United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Bernard DOMPOK]; People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malezja) or PPP [M.Keyveas]; Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party or SPDP [William MAWANI]; opposition parties: Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [KARPAL Singh]; Islamic Party of Malezja (Parti Islam se Malezja) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang]; People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismael]; Sarawak National Party or SNAP [Edwin DUNDANG]; opposition coalition Alternative Front (Barisan Alternatif) or BA - consists of PAS and PKR
Malediwy Malediwy Adhaalath (Justice) Party or AP [Abdul Majeed Abdul BARI]; Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party (Maldivian People's Party) or DRP [Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM]; Islamic Democratic Party or IDP [Omar NASEER]; Maldivian Democratic Party or MDP [Mohamed NASHEED]; note - political parties were allowed to register w czerwiec 2005 political parties were allowed to register w czerwiec 2005; the first entrants are: Adhaalath (Justice) Party or AP [Abdul Majeed Abdul BARI]; Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party (Maldivian People's Party) or DRP [Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM]; Islamic Democratic Party or IDP [Omar NASEER]; Maldivian Democratic Party or MDP [Mohamed NASHEED]
Mali Mali Alliance dla Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region); African Solidarity dla Democracy and Niepodleglosc or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]; Alliance dla Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed w grudzien 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); Alliance dla Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]; Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]; Front dla Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); National Congress dla Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]; Party dla Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party dla National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]; Patriotic Movement dla Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally dla Democracy and Labor or RDT; Rally dla Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE]; Union dla Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union dla Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE] Alliance dla Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE, party chairman]; Hope 2002 (a coalition of CNID, MPR, RDT, and RPM); National Congress dla Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Party dla Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party dla National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME, secretary general]; Patriotic Movement dla Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally dla Democracy and Labor or RDT; Rally dla Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA, chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary general]; Union dla Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union dla Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
Malta Malta Alternativa Demokratika/Alliance dla Social Justice or AD [Harry VASSALLO]; Malta Labor Party or MLP [Alfred SANT]; Nationalist Party or PN [Lawrence GONZI] Alternativa Demokratika/Alliance dla Social Justice or AD [Harry VASSALLO]; Malta Labor Party or MLP [Alfred SANT]; Nationalist Party or PN [Lawrence GONZI]
Wyspy Marshalla Wyspy Marshalla traditionally there have been no formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures; the following two "groupings" have competed w legislative balloting w recent years - Aelon Kein Ad Party [Michael KABUA] and United Democratic Party or UDP [Litokwa TOMEING] traditionally there have been no formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures; the following two "groupings" have competed w legislative balloting w recent years - Aelon Kein Ad Party [Michael KABUA] and United Democratic Party or UDP [Litokwa TOMEING]
Martynika Martynika - Martynika Communist Party or PCM [Georges ERICHOT]; Martynika Niepodleglosc Movement or MIM [Alfred MARIE-JEANNE]; Martynika Progressive Party or PPM [Pierre SUEDILE]; Martynika Socialist Party or PMS [Ernest WAN-AJOUHU]; Movement of Democrats and Ecologists dla a Sovereign Martynika or Modemas [Garcin MALSA]; Rally dla the Republic or RPR [Michel CHARLONE]; Socialist Revolution Group or GRS [Philippe PIERRE-CHARLES]; Union dla French Democracy or UDF [Jean MAREN]
Mauretania Mauretania Alternative or El-Badil; Centrist Reformists (independent moderate Islamists); Coalition dla Forces dla Democratic Change or CFCD (coalition of political parties including APP, Centrist Reformists (independent moderate Islamists), HATEM-PMUC, PUDS, RD, RFD, UFP); Democratic and Social Republican Party or PRDS; Democratic Renewal or RD; Mauretanian Party dla Unity and Change or HATEM-PMUC; Mithaq (coalition of independents and parties associated z the former regime including Alternative or El-Badil, PRDR, UDP, RDU); National Rally dla Freedom, Democracy and Equality or RNDLE; Popular Front or FP [Ch'bih Ould CHEIKH MALAININE]; Popular Progressive Alliance or APP [Messoud Ould BOULKHEIR]; Rally of Democratic Forces or RFD [Ahmed Ould DADDAH]; Rally dla Democracy and Unity or RDU [Ahmed Ould SIDI BABA]; Republican Party dla Democracy and Renewal or PRDR [Boullah Ould MOGUEYA] (formerly ruling Democratic and Social Republican Party or PRDS); Socialist and Democratic Unity Party or PUDS; Union dla Democracy and Progress or UDP [Naha Mint MOUKNASS]; Union of Democratic Centre or UCD; Union of the Forces dla Progress or UFP Action dla Change or AC (no longer active) [Messoud Ould BOULKHEIR]; Alliance dla Justice and Democracy or AJD [Cisse Amadou CHEIKHOU]; National Union dla Democracy and Development or UNDD [Tidjane KOITA]; Party dla Liberty, Equality, and Justice or PLEJ [Ba Mamdou ALASSANE]; Party of Democratic Convergence or PCD [Cheikh Ould HORMA]; Popular Front or FP [Ch'bih Ould CHEIKH MALAININE]; Popular Progressive Alliance or APP [Messoud Ould BOULKHEIR]; Progress Force Union or UFP (no longer active) [Mohamed Ould MAOULOUD]; Rally of Democratic Forces or RFD [Ahmed Ould DADDAH]; Rally dla Democracy and Unity or RDU [Ahmed Ould SIDI BABA]; Republican Party dla Democracy and Renewal or PRDR (formerly ruling Democratic and Social Republican Party or PRDS) [Boullah Ould MOGUEYA]; Right Way or SAWAB [Cheikh Ould Sidi Ould HANANA]; Union dla Democracy and Progress or UDP [Naha Mint MOUKNASS]; Union of Forces of Progress or UFP [Mohamed Ould MAOULOUD]


note: the Party of Democratic Convergence was banned w pazdziernik 2005 because it was regarded as Islamist and therefore w breach of Mauretanian law
Mauritius Mauritius Alliance Sociale or AS [Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM] (governing coalition - includes MLD, MMSM, MR, MSD, PMXD); Mauritian Labor Party or MLP [Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM]; Mauritian Militant Movement or MMM [Paul BERENGER]; Mauritian Socialist Militant Movement or MMSM [Madan DOLLOO]; Militant Socialist Movement or MSM [Nando BODHA]; Mouvement Republicain or MR [Jayarama VALAYDEN]; Parti Mauricien Xavier Duval or PMXD [Xavier Luc DUVAL]; Rodrigues Movement or MR [Joseph (Nicholas) Von MALLY]; Rodrigues Peoples Organization or OPR [Serge CLAIR] Alliance Sociale or AS; Hizbullah [Cehl Mohamed FAKEEMEEAH]; Mauritian Labor Party or MLP [Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM]; Mauritian Militant Movement or MMM [Paul BERENGER] (in coalition z MSM); Mauritian Social Democrat Party or PMSD [Charles Xavier-Luc DUVAL]; Militant Socialist Movement or MSM [Pravind JUGNAUTH] (the governing party); Rodrigues Movement or MR [Joseph (Nicholas) Von MALLY]; Rodrigues Peoples Organization or OPR [Serge CLAIR]
Majotta Majotta Democratic Front or FD [Youssouf MOUSSA]; Mahoran Popular Movement or MPM [Ahmed MADI]; Federation of Mahorans or UMP-RPR [Mansour KAMARDINE]; Force of the Rally and the Alliance dla Democracy or FRAP; Movement dla Department Status Majotta or MDM [Mouhoutar SALIM]; Renewed Communist Party of Majotta or MRC [Omar SIMBA]; Socialist Party or PS [Ibrahim ABUBACAR] (local branch of French Parti Socialiste); Union dla French Democracy or UDF [Henri JEAN-BAPTISTE] Democratic Front or FD [Youssouf MOUSSA]; Mahoran Popular Movement or MPM [Ahmed MADI]; Federation of Mahorans or RPR (UMP) [Mansour KAMARDINE]; Force of the Rally and the Alliance dla Democracy or FRAP; Movement dla Department Status Majotta or MDM [Mouhoutar SALIM]; Renewed Communist Party of Majotta or MRC [Omar SIMBA]; Socialist Party or PS (local branch of French Parti Socialiste) [Ibrahim ABUBACAR]; Union dla French Democracy or UDF [Henri JEAN-BAPTISTE]
Meksyk Meksyk Convergence dla Democracy or CD [Luis MALDONADO Venegas]; Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI [Beatriz PAREDES]; Labor Party or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]; Mexican Green Ecological Party or PVEM [Jorge Emilio GONZALEZ Martinez]; National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [German MARTINEZ Cazares]; New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA [Jorge Antonio KAHWAGI Macari]; Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Leonel COTA Montano]; Social Democratic and Peasant Alternative Party (Partido Alternativa Socialdemocrata y Campesina) or Alternativa [Alberto BEGNE Guerra] Convergence dla Democracy or CD [Dante DELGADO Ranauro]; Institutional Revolutionary Party (Institutional Revolutionary Party) or PRI [leader NA]; Mexican Green Ecological Party or PVEM [Jorge Emilio GONZALEZ Martinez]; National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Manuel ESPINO Barrientos]; New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA [Miguel Angel JIMENEZ Godines]; Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Leonel COTA Montano]; Workers Party or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]
Mikronezja, Sfederowane Stany Mikronezji Mikronezja, Sfederowane Stany Mikronezji no formal parties no formal parties
Moldawia Moldawia Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Communist Party of the Republic of Moldawia or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]; Democratic Party or PD [Dumitru DIACOV]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLDM [Vladmir FILAT]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]; Our Moldawia Alliance or AMN [Serafim URECHEAN]; Party dla Social Democracy or PDSM [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Oleg SEREBRIAN] Braghis Faction [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Communist Party of the Republic of Moldawia or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN, first chairman]; Democratic Moldawia Bloc (comprised of the AMN, Democratic Party, and PSL); Democratic Party [Dumitru DIACOV]; Our Moldawia Alliance or AMN [Serafim URECHEANU]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Oleg SEREBRIAN]
Monako Monako Union dla Monako or UPM (including National Union dla the Future of Monako or UNAM); Rally and Issues dla Monako or REM; Monako Together National and Democratic Union or UND [Guy MAGNAN]; Union dla Monako or UPM (including National Union dla the Future of Monako or UNAM)
Mongolia Mongolia Citizens Will Party [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN] (also called Civil Will); Democratic Party or DP [Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [Badarchyn ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Sanji BAYAR]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN]; People's Party or PP [Lamjav GUNDALAI]


note: DP and Motherland Party formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) w 2003 and z cooperation from Civil Will and Republican parties contested czerwiec 2004 elections as single party; coalition was dissolved w grudzien 2004
Citizens' Will Republican Party or CWRP (also called Civil Courage Republican Party or CCRP) [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [Badarchyn ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Miegombyn ENKHBOLD]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN]; People's Party or PP [Lamjav GUNDALAI]


note: DP and M-MNSDP formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) w 2003 and z CWRP contested czerwiec 2004 elections as single party; MDC's leadership dissolved coalition w grudzien 2004
Czarnogora Czarnogora Albanian Alternative or AA [Vesel SINISHTAJ]; Coalition dla European Czarnogora or DPS-SDP (bloc) [Milo DUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DUKANOVIC] and Social Democratic Party of SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]); Coalition SNP-NS-DSS (bloc) (includes Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC], People's Party of Czarnogora or NS [Predrag POPOVIC], and Democratic Serbian Party of Czarnogora or DSS [Ranko KADIC]); Democratic League-Party of Democratic Prosperity or SPP [Mehmet BARHDI]; Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Ferhat DINOSA]; Liberals and the Bosniak Party (bloc) [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC] (includes Liberal Party of Czarnogora or LP [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC] and Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]); Movement dla Changes or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]; Serbian List (bloc) [Andrija MANDIC] (includes Party of Serb Radicals or SSR [Dusko SEKULIC], People's Socialist Party or NSS [Emilo LABUDOVIC], and Serbian People's Party of Czarnogora or SNS [Andrija MANDIC]) Albanian Alternative or AA; Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]; Coalition dla a European Czarnogora (Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS and Social Democratic Party or SDP) [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; Coalition SPP/NS/DSS; Democratic League-Party of Democratic Prosperity [Mehmet BARHDI]; Democratic Serbian Party of Czarnogora or DSS; Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Ferhat DINOSA]; Liberal Party of Czarnogora or LP [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC]; Movement dla Changes or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]; People's Party of Czarnogora or NS [Predrag POPOVIC]; Serbian People's Party of Czarnogora or SNS [Andrija MANDIC]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]; Social Democratic Party of Czarnogora or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; Socialist People's Party or SNP [Predrag BULATOVIC]
Montserrat Montserrat Montserrat Democratic Party or MDP [Lowell LEWIS]; Movement dla Change and Prosperity or MCAP [Roselyn CASSELL-SEALY]; New People's Liberation Movement or NPLM [John A. OSBORNE] Montserrat Democratic Party or MDP [Lowell LEWIS]; Movement dla Change and Prosperity or MCAP [Roselyn CASSELL-SEALY]; New People's Liberation Movement or NPLM [John A. OSBORNE]
Maroko Maroko Action Party or PA [Muhammad EL IDRISSI]; Alliance of Liberties or ADL [Ali BELHAJ]; Annahj Addimocrati or Annahj [Abdellah EL HARIF]; Avant Garde Social Democratic Party or PADS [Ahmed BENJELLOUN]; Citizen Forces or FC [Abderrahman LAHJOUJI]; Citizen's Initiatives dla Development [Mohamed BENHAMOU]; Konstytucjaal Union or UC [Mohamed ABIED]; Democratic and Niepodleglosc Party or PDI [Abdelwahed MAACH]; Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]; Democratic Forces Front or FFD; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Aissa OUARDIGHI]; Democratic Society Party or PSD [Zhor CHEKKAFI]; Democratic Union or UD [Bouazza IKKEN]; Environment and Development Party or PED [Ahmed EL ALAMI]; Front of Democratic Forces or FFD [Thami EL KHYARI]; Niepodleglosc Party (Istiqlal) or PI [Abbas el FASSI]; Justice and Development Party or PJD [Saad Eddine El OTHMANI]; Labor Party [Abdelkrim BENATIK]; Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohamed ZIANE]; National Democratic Party or PND [Abdallah KADIRI]; National Ittihadi Congress Party or CNI [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]; National Rally of Independents or RNI [Mustapha El MANSOURI]; National Union of Popular Forces or UNFP [Abdellah IBRAHIM]; Parti Al Ahd or Al Ahd [Najib EL OUAZZANI]; Party of Progress and Socialism or PPS [Ismail ALAOUI]; Party of Renewal and Equity or PRE [Chakir ACHABAR]; Party of the Unified Socialist Left or GSU [Mohamed Ben Said AIT IDDER]; Popular Movement or MP [Mohamed LAENSER]; Reform and Development Party or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOUHEN]; Social Center Party or PSC [Lahcen MADIH]; Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP Action Party or PA [Muhammad EL IDRISSI]; Alliance of Liberties or ADL [Ali BELHAJ]; Annahj Addimocrati or Annahj [Abdellah EL HARIF]; Avant Garde Social Democratic Party or PADS [Ahmed BENJELLOUN]; Citizen Forces or FC [Abderrahman LAHJOUJI]; Citizen's Initiatives dla Development [Mohamed BENHAMOU]; Konstytucjaal Union or UC [Mohamed ABIED (interim)]; Democratic and Niepodleglosc Party or PDI [Abdelwahed MAACH]; Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Aissa OUARDIGHI]; Democratic Union or UD [Bouazza IKKEN]; Environment and Development Party or PED [Ahmed EL ALAMI]; Front of Democratic Forces or FFD [Thami EL KHYARI]; Istiqlal Party (Niepodleglosc Party) or PI [Abbas El FASSI]; Justice and Development Party or PJD [Saad Eddine OTHMANI]; Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohamed ZIANE]; National Democratic Party or PND [Abdallah KADIRI]; National Ittihadi Congress Party or CNI [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]; National Popular Movement or MNP [Mahjoubi AHERDANE]; National Rally of Independents or RNI [Ahmed OSMAN]; National Union of Popular Forces or UNFP [Abdellah IBRAHIM]; Parti Al Ahd or Al Ahd [Najib EL OUAZZANI, chairman]; Party of Progress and Socialism or PPS [Ismail ALAOUI]; Party of Renewal and Equity or PRE [Chakir ACHABAR]; Party of the Unified Socialist Left or GSU [Mohamed Ben Said AIT IDDER]; Popular Movement or MP [Mohamed LAENSER]; Reform and Development Party or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOUHEN]; Social Center Party or PSC [Lahcen MADIH]; Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Mohammed El-YAZGHI]
Mozambik Mozambik Front dla the Liberation of Mozambik (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]; Mozambik National Resistance-Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or RENAMO-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA] Front dla the Liberation of Mozambik (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, president]; Mozambik National Resistance-Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or RENAMO-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA, president]
Namibia Namibia Congress of Democrats or COD [Ben ULENGA]; Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [Katuutire KAURA]; Monitor Action Group or MAG [Jurie VILJOEN]; National Democratic Movement dla Change or NamDMC; National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Kuaima RIRUAKO]; Rally dla Democracy and Progress or RDP [Hidipo HAMUTENYA]; Republican Party or RP [Henk MUDGE]; South West Africa National Union or SWANU [Rihupisa KANDANDO]; South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Hifikepunye POHAMBA]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus GAROEB] Congress of Democrats or COD [Ben ULENGA]; Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [Katuutire KAURA, president]; Monitor Action Group or MAG [Jurie VILJOEN]; South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Sam Shafishuna NUJOMA]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus GAROEB]; Republican Party or RP [Henk MUDGE]; National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Kuaima RIRUAKO]
Nauru Nauru Democratic Party [Kennan ADEANG]; Nauru Party (informal); Nauru First (Naoero Amo) Party; note - loose multiparty system loose multiparty system; Democratic Party [Kennan ADEANG]; Nauru Party (informal); Nauru First (Naoero Amo) Party
Nepal Nepal Communist Party of Nepal/United Marxist-Leninist or CPN/UML [Madhav Kumar NEPAL]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Pashupati Shumsher RANA] (also called Rastriya Prajantra Party or RPP); Nepal Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party or NSP - Mandal [Bhadri Prasad MANDAL]; Nepal Sadbhavana Party - Ananda Devi [Ananda DEVI]; Nepal Workers and Peasants Party or NWPP [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]; People's Front Nepal (Amik Sherchan Group); People's Front Nepal (Chitra Bahadur Ale Group); People's Front Nepal (Chitra Bahadur K.C. Group); Rastriya Janashakti Party or RJP [Surya Bahadur THAPA] (split from RPP w marzec 2005); Samyukta Janmorcha Nepal (merged z People's Front Nepal or PFN w 2002); United Leftist Front or UFL [C.P. MAINALI] Communist Party of Nepal/United Marxist-Leninist or CPN/UML [Madhav Kumar NEPAL, general secretary]; National Democratic Party or NDP (also called Rastriya Prajantra Party or RPP) [Pashupati Shumsher RANA, chairman]; Nepali Congress-Democratic [Sher Bahadur DEUBA, president]; Nepali Congress or NC [Girija Prasad KOIRALA, party president, Sushil KOIRALA, vice president]; Nepal Sadbhavana (Goodwill) Party or NSP - Mandal [Bhadri Prasad MANDAL, party president]; Nepal Sadbhavana Party - Ananda Devi [Ananda DEVI, president]; Nepal Workers and Peasants Party or NWPP [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE, party chairman]; People's Front Nepal (Rastriya Jana Morcha) [Amik SHERCHAN, chairman]; Rastriya Janashakti Party or RJP [Surya Bahadur THAPA, chairman]; note - split from RPP w marzec 2005; Samyukta Janmorcha Nepal [leader NA]; note - merged z People's Front Nepal or PFN w 2002
Holandia Holandia Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Jan Peter BALKENENDE]; Christian Union Party [Andre ROUVOET]; Democrats 66 or D66 [Alexander PECHTOLD]; Green Left Party [Femke HALSEMA]; Labor Party or PvdA [Wouter BOS]; Party dla Freedom or PVV [Geert WILDERS]; Party dla the Animals or PvdD [Marianne THIEME]; People's Party dla Freedom and Democracy (Liberal) or VVD [Mark RUTTE]; Reformed Political Party of SGP [Bas VAN DER VLIES]; Socialist Party [Jan MARIJNISSEN]; plus a few minor parties Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Ernst Hirsch BALLIN]; Christian Union Party [Andre ROUVOET]; Democrats 66 or D66 [Lousewies VAN DER LAAN]; Green Party [Femke HALSEMA]; Labor Party or PvdA [Wouter BOS]; List Pim Fortuyn [Ton VAN DILLEN]; Party dla Freedom [Geert WILDERS]; People's Party dla Freedom and Democracy (Liberal) or VVD [Pieter WINSEMIUS]; Socialist Party [Jan MARIJNISSEN]; plus a few minor parties
Antyle Holenderskie Antyle Holenderskie Bonaire: Democratic Party of Bonaire or PDB [Jopi ABRAHAM]; Patriotic Union of Bonaire or UPB [Ramonsito BOOI]


Curacao: Ban Vota [Norbert GEORGE]; C-93 [Stanley BROWN]; Democratic Party of Curacao or DP [Errol HERNANDEZ]; E majoria [Aurelio PEDRO]; Forsa Korsou [Nelson NAVARRO]; Liste Ni'un Paso Atras [Nelson PIERRE]; Movemiento Patriotiko Korsou [Reginald LAK]; New Antilles Movement or MAN [Charles COOPER]; Partido Akshon Pa Prosperidat I Seguridat [Sonja BERKEMEYER]; Partido Laboral Krusada Popular or PLKP [Errol COVA]; Party dla the Restructured Antilles or PAR [Emily de JONGH-ELHAGE]; People's National Party or PNP [Ersilia DE LANNOOY]; Pidjin [Jasmin PINEDO]; Pueblo Soberano [Herman WIELS]; Workers' Liberation Front or FOL [Anthony GODETT]


Saba: Saba Labor Party [Akilah LEVENSTONE]; Windward Islands People's Movement or WIPM [Ray HASSELL]


Sint Eustatius: Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius or DP-St. E [Julian WOODLEY]; Progressive Labor Party [Clyde VAN PUTTEN]; St. Eustatius Alliance [Ingrid HOUTMAN-WHITFIELD]


Sint Maarten: Democratic Party of Sint Maarten or DP-St. M [Sarah WESCOTT-WILLIAMS]; Freedom Slate of National Democratic Party [Theophilus PRIEST]; National Alliance or NA [William MARLIN]; People's Progressive Alliance or PPA [Gracita ARRINDELL]; St. Maarten People's Party [Johan LEONARD]; United People's Labor Party [Bienvenido RICHARDSON]


note: political parties are indigenous to each island
Bonaire: Democratic Party of Bonaire or PDB [Jopi ABRAHAM]; Patriotic Union of Bonaire or UPB [Ramonsito BOOI]


Curacao: Ban Vota [Norbert GEORGE]; C-93 [Stanley BROWN]; Democratic Party of Curacao or DP [Errol HERNANDEZ]; E majoria [Aurelio PEDRO]; Forsa Korsou [Nelson NAVARRO]; Liste Ni'un Paso Atras [Nelson PIERRE]; Movemiento Patriotiko Korsou [Reginald LAK]; New Antilles Movement or MAN [Charles COOPER]; Partido Akshon Pa Prosperidat I Seguridat [Sonja BERKEMEYER]; Partido Laboral Krusada Popular or PLKP [Errol COVA]; Party dla the Restructured Antilles or PAR [Emily de JONGH-ELHAGE]; People's National Party or PNP [Ersilia DE LANNOOY]; Pidjin [Jasmin PINEDO]; Pueblo Soberano [Herman WIELS]; Workers' Liberation Front or FOL [Anthony GODETT]


Saba: Saba Labor Party [Akilah LEVENSTONE]; Windward Islands People's Movement or WIPM [Ray HASSELL]


Sint Eustatius: Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius or DP-St. E [Julian WOODLEY]; Progressive Labor Party [Clyde VAN PUTTEN]; St. Eustatius Alliance [Ingrid HOUTMAN-WHITFIELD]


Sint Maarten: Democratic Party of Sint Maarten or DP-St. M [Sarah WESCOTT-WILLIAMS]; Freedom Slate of National Democratic Party [Theophilus PRIEST]; National Alliance or NA [William MARLIN]; People's Progressive Alliance or PPA [Gracita ARRINDELL]; St. Maarten People's Party [Johan LEONARD]; United People's Labor Party [Bienvenido RICHARDSON]


note: political parties are indigenous to each island
Nowa Kaledonia Nowa Kaledonia Alliance pour la Caledonie or APLC [Didier LE ROUX]; Caledonian Union or UC; Federation des Comites de Coordination des Independantistes or FCCI [Francois BURCK]; Front National or FN [Guy GEORGE]; Front Uni de Liberation Kanak or FULK [Ernest UNE]; Kanak Socialist Front dla National Liberation or FLNKS (includes PALIKA, UNI, UC, and UPM); Parti de Liberation Kanak or PALIKA [Paul NEAOUTYINE and Elie POIGOUNE]; Rally dla Caledonia w the Republic (anti independence) or RPCR-UMP [Jacques LAFLEUR]; The Future Together or AE [Harold MARTIN]; Union Nationale pour l'Independance or UNI [Paul NEAOUTYINE]; note - may no longer exist, but Paul NEAOUTYINE has since become a president of Parti de Liberation Kanak or PALIKA; Union Progressiste Melanesienne or UPM [Victor TUTUGORO] Alliance pour la Caledonie or APLC [Didier LE ROUX]; Caledonian Union or UC; Federation des Comites de Coordination des Independantistes or FCCI [Francois BURCK]; Front National or FN [Guy GEORGE]; Front Uni de Liberation Kanak or FULK [Ernest UNE]; Kanak Socialist Front dla National Liberation or FLNKS [leader NA] (includes PALIKA, UNI, UC, and UPM); Parti de Liberation Kanak or PALIKA [Paul NEAOUTYINE and Elie POIGOUNE]; Rally dla Caledonia w the Republic (anti independent) or RPCR-UMP [Jacques LAFLEUR]; The Future Together or AE [Harold MARTIN]; Union Nationale pour l'Independance or UNI [Paul NEAOUTYINE]; note - may no longer exist, but Paul NEAOUTYINE has since become a president of Parti de Liberation Kanak or PALIKA; Union Progressiste Melanesienne or UPM [Victor TUTUGORO]
Nowa Zelandia Nowa Zelandia ACT Nowa Zelandia [Rodney HIDE]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS]; Maori Party [Whatarangi WINIATA]; National Party or NP [John KEY]; Nowa Zelandia First Party or NZFP [Winston PETERS]; Nowa Zelandia Labor Party or NZLP [Helen CLARK]; Progressive Party [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; United Future or UF [Peter DUNNE] ACT Nowa Zelandia [Rodney HIDE]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS]; Maori Party [Whatarangi WINIATA]; National Party or NP [Don BRASH]; Nowa Zelandia First Party or NZFP [Winston PETERS]; Nowa Zelandia Labor Party or NZLP [Helen CLARK]; Progressive Party [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; United Future or UF [Peter DUNNE]
Nikaragua Nikaragua Alliance dla the Republic or APRE [Miguel LOPEZ Baldizon]; Alternative dla Change or AC [Orlando TARDENCILLA Espinoza]; Central American Unionist Party or PUCA [Blanca ROJAS]; Conservative Party or PC [Azalia AVILES Salmeron]; Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Anibal MARTINEZ Nunez, Pedro REYES Vallejos]; Independent Liberal Party dla National Unity or PLIUN [Carlos GUERRA Gallardo]; Liberal Konstytucjaalist Party or PLC [Jorge CASTILLO Quant]; Liberal Salvation Movement or MSL [Eliseo NUNEZ Hernandez]; New Liberal Party or PALI [Adolfo GARCIA Esquivel]; Nikaraguan Liberal Alliance or ALN [Eduardo MONTEALEGRE]; Nikaraguan Resistance Party or PRN [Salvador TALAVERA]; Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra]; Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [Dora Maria TELLEZ] Alliance dla the Republic or APRE [Miguel LOPEZ Baldizon]; Central American Unionist Party or PUCA [Blanca ROJAS]; Christian Alternative Party or AC [Orlando TARDENCILLA Espinoza]; Conservative Party or PC [Mario Sebastian RAPPACCIOLI]; Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Anibal MARTINEZ Nunez, Pedro REYES Vallejos]; Independent Liberal Party dla National Unity or PLIUN [Carlos GUERRA Gallardo]; Liberal Konstytucjaal Party or PLC [Jorge CASTILLO Quant]; Liberal Salvation Movement or MSL [Eliseo NUNEZ Hernandez]; New Liberal Party or PALI [Adolfo GARCIA Esquivel]; Nikaraguan Liberal Alliance or ALN [Eduardo MONTEALEGRE]; Nikaraguan Party of the Christian Path or PCCN [Guillermo OSORNO Molina]; Nikaraguan Resistance Party or PRN [Salvador TALAVERA]; Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra]; Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [Dora Maria TELLEZ]; Unity Alliance or AU
Niger Niger Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE]; National Movement dla a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Hama AMADOU]; Niger Social Democratic Party or PSDN; Nigerien Alliance dla Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Party dla Autonomy or PNA-Alouma'a [Sanousi JACKOU]; Nigerien Party dla Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Issifou MAHAMADOU]; Nigerien Progressive Party or PPN-RDA [Abdoulaye DIORI]; Rally dla Democracy and Progress or RDP-jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]; Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Cheiffou AMADOU] Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE]; National Movement dla a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Hama AMADOU]; Niger Social Democratic Party or PSDN; Nigerien Alliance dla Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Party dla Autonomy or PNA-Alouma'a [Sanousi JACKOU]; Nigerien Party dla Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Issifou MAHAMADOU]; Nigerien Progressive Party or PPN-RDA [Abdoulaye DIORI]; Rally dla Democracy and Progress or RDP-jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]; Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Cheiffou AMADOU]
Nigeria Nigeria Accord Party [Ikra Aliyu BILBIS]; Action Congress or AC [Hassan ZUMI]; Alliance dla Democracy or AD [Mojisoluwa AKINFENWA]; All Nigeria Peoples' Party or ANPP [Edwin UME-EZEOKE]; All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]; Democratic People's Party or DPP [Jeremiah USENI]; Fresh Democratic Party [Chris OKOTIE]; Labor Party [Dan NWANYANWU]; Movement dla the Restoration and Defense of Democracy or MRDD [Mohammed Gambo JIMETA]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Aliyu Habu FARI]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [vacant]; Peoples Progressive Alliance [Clement EBRI]; Peoples Redemption Party or PRP [Abdulkadir Balarabe MUSA]; Peoples Salvation Party or PSP [Lawal MAITURARE]; United Nigeria Peoples Party or UNPP [Mallam Selah JAMBO] Alliance dla Democracy or AD [Mojisoluwa AKINFENWA]; All Nigeria Peoples' Party or ANPP [Don ETIEBET]; All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [disputed leadership]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Aliyu Habu FARI]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Dr. Ahmadu ALI]; Peoples Redemption Party or PRP [Abdulkadir Balarabe MUSA]; Peoples Salvation Party or PSP [Lawal MAITURARE]; United Nigeria Peoples Party or UNPP [disputed leadership]
Niue Niue Alliance of Independents or AI; Niue People's Action Party or NPP [Young VIVIAN] Alliance of Independents or AI; Niue People's Action Party or NPP [Young VIVIAN]
Wyspa Norfolk Wyspa Norfolk none none
Mariany Polnocne Mariany Polnocne Covenant Party [Benigno R. FITIAL]; Democratic Party [Dr. Carlos S. CAMACHO]; Republican Party [Juan S. REYES] Covenant Party [Benigno R. FITIAL]; Democratic Party [Dr. Carlos S. CAMACHO]; Republican Party [Juan S. REYES]
Norwegia Norwegia Center Party [Aslaug Marie HAGA]; Christian People's Party [Dagfinn HOYBRATEN]; Conservative Party [Erna SOLBERG]; Labor Party [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Progress Party [Siv JENSEN]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN] Center Party [Aslaug Marie HAGA]; Christian People's Party [Dagfinn HOYBRATEN]; Coastal Party [Roy WAAGE]; Conservative Party [Erna SOLBERG]; Labor Party [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Progress Party [Siv JENSEN]; Red Electoral Alliance [Torstein DAHLE]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN]
Oman Oman none none
Pakistan Pakistan Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party/Hayee Group or BNP/H [Dr. Hayee BALUCH]; Baluch National Party/Awami or BNP/A [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Baluch National Party-Mengal or BNP/M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami ul-HAQ faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement, or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI] (merged z PML); Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; note - as of maj 2004, the PML/Q changed its name to PML and absorbed the PML/J, PML/Z, and NA; Pakistan People's Party or PPP/S [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali ZARDANI, co-chairman]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i-Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]


note: political alliances w Pakistan can shift frequently
Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party/Hayee Group or BNP/H [Dr. Hayee BALUCH]; Baluch National Party/Awami or BNP/Awami [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Baluch National Party-Mengal or BNP/M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami ul-HAQ faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal Pakistan or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement, Altaf faction or MQM/A [Altaf HUSSAIN]; Muttahida Quami Movement, Haqiqi faction or MQM/H [Afaq AHMAD]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI]; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakhtun Quami Party or PQP [Mohammed Afzal KHAN]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; note - as of maj 2004, the PML/Q changed its name to PML and absorbed the PML/J, PML/Z, and NA; Pakistan National Party or PNP [Hasil BIZENJO]; Pakistan People's Party or PPP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan People's Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i-Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]


note: political alliances w Pakistan can shift frequently
Palau Palau none none
Panama Panama Democratic Change or CD [Ricardo MARTINELLI]; Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Hugo GUIRAUD]; Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Gisela CHUNG]; Panamenista Party or PA [Juan Carlos VARELA] (formerly the Arnulfista Party); Patriotic Union Party or PU (combination of the Liberal National Party or PLN and the Solidarity Party or PS)[Jose Raul MULINO and Anibal GALINDO]; Popular Party or PP [Rene ORILLAC] (formerly Christian Democratic Party or PDC) Democratic Change or CD [Ricardo MARTINELLI]; Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Hugo GUIRAUD]; National Liberal Party or PLN [Anibal GALINDO]; Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Jesus ROSAS]; Panamenista Party or PA (formerly the Arnulfista Party) [Marco AMEGLIO]; Popular Party or PP (formerly Christian Democratic Party or PDC) [Ricardo ARIAS Calderon]; Solidarity Party or PS [Jose Raul MULINO]
Papua-Nowa Gwinea Papua-Nowa Gwinea National Alliance Party or NA [Michael SOMARE]; Papua and Niugini Union Party or PANGU PATI [Andrew KUMBAKOR]; Papua-Nowa Gwinea Party or PNGP [Sir Mekere MORAUTA]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Michael OGIO]; People's Action Party or PAP [Gabriel KAPRIS]; United Resources Party or URP [William DUMA] (2007) Christian Democratic Party [Dr. Banare BUN]; Melanesian Alliance Party or MAP [Sir Moi AVEL]; National Alliance Party or NA [Michael SOMARE]; National Party [Melcher PEP]; Papua and Niugini Union Party or PANGU [Rabbie NAMALIU]; Papua-Nowa Gwinea First Party [Cecilking DORUBA]; Papua-Nowa Gwinea Labor Party [Bob DANAYA]; Papua-Nowa Gwinea Party or PNGP (was People's Democratic Movement or PDM) [Sir Mekere MORAUTA]; People's Action Party or PAP [Moses MALADINA]; People's Labor Party or PLP [Ekis ROPENU]; People's National Congress or PNC [Peter O'NEILL]; People's Progress Party or PPP [Byron CHAN]; Pipol First Party [Luther WENGE]; United Party [Bire KIMASOPA]; United Resources Party or URP [Tim NEVILLE] (2005)
Paragwaj Paragwaj Asociacion Nacional Republicana - Colorado Party or ANR [Jose A. ALDERETE]; Movimiento Union Nacional de Ciudadanos Eticos or UNACE [Enrique GONZALEZ Quintana]; Patria Querida (Beloved Fatherland Party) or PQ [Pedro Nicolas Maraa FADUL Niella]; Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Luis TORALES Kennedy]; Partido Liberal Radical Autentico or PLRA [Blas LLANO]; Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares]


note: Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS on leave as party leader of the Colorado Party or ANR while serving as President of Paragwaj
Asociacion Nacional Republicana - Colorado Party or ANR [Herminio CACERES, interim president]; Movimiento Union Nacional de Ciudadanos Eticos or UNACE [Enrique GONZALEZ Quintana, acting chairman]; Patria Querida (Beloved Fatherland Party) or PQ [Pedro Nicolas Maraa FADUL Niella]; Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Luis TORALES Kennedy]; Partido Liberal Radical Autentico or PLRA [Blas LLANO]; Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares]


note: Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS on leave as party leader of the Colorado Party or ANR while serving as President of Paragwaj; Lino Cesar OVIEDO Silva, leader of UNACE, is currently serving a ten-year prison term
Peru Peru Alliance For Progress (Alianza Para El Progreso) [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]; Alliance For The Future (Alianza Por El Futuro) or AF (a coalition of pro-FUJIMORI parties including Cambio 90, Nueva majoria, and Si Cumple); Centrist Front (Frente Del Centro) or FC (a coalition of Accion Popular, Somos Peru, and Coordinadora Nacional de Independientes); Independent Moralizing Front (Frente Independiente Moralizador) or FIM; National Renovation Party (Partido Renovacion Nacional) [Rafael REY]; National Restoration (Restauracion Nacional) or RN [Humberto LAY Sun]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN (a coalition of Partido Popular Cristiano and Partido Solidaridad Nacional) [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Possible (Peru Posible) or PP [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA); Peruvian Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista Peruano) or PNP [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]; Union dla Peru (Union por el Peru) or UPP [Aldo ESTRADA Choque] Alliance For Progress (Alianza Para El Progreso) [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]; Alliance For The Future (Alianza Por El Futuro) or AF - a coalition of pro-FUJIMORI parties including Cambio 90, Nueva majoria, and Si Cumple [Martha CHAVEZ Cossio]; Centrist Front (Frente Del Centro) or FC - a coalition of Accion Popular, Somos Peru, and Coordinadora Nacional de Independientes [Valentin PANIAGUA Corazoa]; Independent Moralizing Front (Frente Independiente Moralizador) or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; Nationalist Party Uniting Peru (Partido Nacionalista Uniendo al Peru) or UPP - a coalition of Union dla Peru (UPP) and Peruvian Nationalist Party (PNP) [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]; National Restoration (Restauracion Nacional) or RN [Humberto LAY Sun]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Possible (Peru Posible) or PP [David WAISMAN]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP - also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA [Alan GARCIA]
Filipiny Filipiny Genuine Opposition or GO (coalition of oppositon parties formed to contest the 2007 elections); Kabalikat Ng Malayang Pilipino or Kampi [Ronaldo PUNO]; Laban Ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]; Lakas Ng Edsa (National Union of Christian Democrats) or Lakas [Jose DE VENECIA]; Liberal Party or LP [Manuel ROXAS]; Nacionalista [Manuel VILLAR]; National People's Coalition or NPC [Frisco SAN JUAN]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL]; People's Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO]; PROMDI [Emilio OSMENA]; Pwersa Ng Masang Pilipino (Party of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA]; Reporma [Renato DE VILLA] Kabalikat Ng Malayang Pilipino (Kampi) [Ronaldo PUNO]; Laban Ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]; Lakas Ng Edsa (National Union of Christian Democrats) or Lakas [Jose DE VENECIA]; Liberal Party or LP [Franklin DRILON/Eli QUINTO]; Nacionalista [Manuel VILLAR]; National People's Coalition or NPC [Frisco SAN JUAN]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL]; People's Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO]; PROMDI [Emilio OSMENA]; Pwersa Ng Masang Pilipino (Party of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA]; Reporma [Renato DE VILLA]
Pitcairn Pitcairn none none
Polska Polska Civic Platform or PO [Donald TUSK]; Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Wojciech OLEJNICZAK]; Democratic Party or PD [Janusz ONYSZKIEWICZ]; German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Henryk KROLL]; Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI]; League of Polish Families or LPR [Roman GIERTYCH]; Left and Democrats (LiD) (a coalition formed by the SLD, PD, SDPL, and UP) [Wojciech OLEJNICZAK]; Polish People's Party or PSL [Waldemar PAWLAK]; Samoobrona or SO [Andrzej LEPPER]; Social Democratic Party of Polska or SDPL [Marek BOROWSKI]; Union of Labor or UP [Andrzej SPYCHALSKI] Catholic-National Movement or RKN [Antoni MACIEREWICZ]; Civic Platform or PO [Donald TUSK]; Conservative Peasants Party or SKL [Artur BALASZ]; Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Wojciech OLEJNICZAK]; Democratic Party or PD [Wladyslaw FRASYNIUK]; Dom Ojczysty (Fatherland Home); German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Henryk KROLL]; Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI]; League of Polish Families or LPR [Marek KOTLINOWSKI]; Peasant-Democratic Party or PLD [Roman JAGIELINSKI]; Polish Accord or PP [Jan LOPUSZANSKI]; Polish Peasant Party or PSL [Waldemar PAWLAK]; Ruch Patriotyczny or RP [Jan OLSZEWSKI]; Samoobrona or SO [Andrzej LEPPER]; Social Democratic Party of Polska or SDPL [Marek BOROWSKI]; Social Movement or RS [Krzysztof PIESIEWICZ]; Union of Labor or UP [Andrzej SPYCHALSKI]
Portugalia Portugalia Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Green Ecologist Party or PEV [leadership commission elected by members]; Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Luis Filipe MENEZES]; The Left Bloc or BE [Franciso Anacleto LOUCA]; Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes PEV and PCP) Green Ecologist Party or PEV [Heloisa APOLONIA]; Popular Party or PP [Jose Ribeiro e CASTRO]; Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Jeronimo de SOUSA]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Luis Marques MENDES]; The Left Bloc or BE [Franciso Anacleto LOUCA]; Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU (includes PEV and PCP) [Jeronimo de SOUSA]
Portoryko Portoryko National Democratic Party [Roberto PRATS]; National Republican Party of Portoryko [Dr. Tiody FERRE]; New Progressive Party or PNP [Pedro ROSSELLO] (pro-US statehood); Popular Democratic Party or PPD [Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA] (pro-commonwealth); Puerto Rican Niepodleglosc Party or PIP [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez] (pro-independence) National Democratic Party [Roberto PRATS]; National Republican Party of Portoryko [Dr. Tiody FERRE]; New Progressive Party or PNP (pro-US statehood) [Pedro ROSSELLO]; Popular Democratic Party or PPD (pro-commonwealth) [Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA]; Puerto Rican Niepodleglosc Party or PIP (pro-independence) [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez]
Katar Katar none none
Reunion Reunion - Communist Party of Reunion or PCR [Elie HOARAU]; Rally dla the Republic or RPR [Andre Maurice PIHOUEE]; Socialist Party or PS [Michel VERGOZ]; Union dla French Democracy or UDF [Gilbert GERARD]; Union dla a Popular Movement or UMP
Rumunia Rumunia Conservative Party or PC [Daniela POPA] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR); Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Emil BOC]; Democratic Union of Hungarians w Rumunia or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Calin POPESCU-TARICEANU]; Rumunia Mare Party (Greater Rumunia Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Mircea Dan GEOANA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy w Rumunia or PDSR) Conservative Party or PC [Dan VOICULESCU], formerly Humanist Party or PUR; Democratic Party or PD [Emil BOC]; Democratic Union of Hungarians w Rumunia or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Calin Popescu-TARICEANU]; Rumunia Mare Party (Greater Rumunian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Mircea Dan GEOANA], formerly Party of Social Democracy w Rumunia or PDSR
Rosja Rosja Agrarian Party [Vladimir PLOTNIKOV]; A Just Rosja or JR [Sergey MIRONOV] (formed from the merger of three small political parties: Rodina (Motherland), Pensioners Party, and Party of Life); Civic Force [Mikhail BARSHCHEVSKIY]; Communist Party of the Rosjan Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy Andreyevich ZYUGANOV]; Democratic Party [Andrey BOGDANOV]; Green Party [Anatoliy PANFILOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Rosja or LDPR [Vladimir Volfovich ZHIRINOVSKIY]; Party of Rosja's Rebirth [Gennadiy SELEZNEV]; Patriots of Rosja [Gennadiy SEMIGIN]; Peace and Unity Party [Sazhi UMALATOVA]; People's Union [Sergey BABURIN]; Social Justice Party [Arkadiy GAYDAMAK]; Union of Right Forces or SPS [Nikita BELYKH]; United Rosja or UR [Boris Vyacheslavovich GRYZLOV]; Yabloko Party [Grigoriy Alekseyevich YAVLINSKIY] A Just Rosja or JR [Sergei MIRONOV] (formed from the merger of three small political parties: Motherland Party (Rodina), Pensioner's Party, and Party of Life); Communist Party of the Rosjan Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy Andreyevich ZYUGANOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Rosja or LDPR [Vladimir Volfovich ZHIRINOVSKIY]; People's Party [Gennady RAIKOV]; Union of Right Forces or SPS [Nikita BELYKH]; United Rosja or UR [Boris Vyacheslavovich GRYZLOV]; Yabloko Party [Grigoriy Alekseyevich YAVLINSKIY]
Ruanda Ruanda Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Alfred MUKEZAMFURA]; Democratic Popular Union of Ruanda or UDPR [Adrien RANGIRA]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Celestin KABANDA] (officially banned); Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Andre BUMAYA]; Liberal Party or PL [Protais MITALI]; Party dla Democratic Renewal (officially banned); Ruandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA] Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Alfred MUKEZAMFURA]; Democratic Popular Union of Ruanda or UDPR [Adrien RANGIRA]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Celestin KABANDA] (officially banned); Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Andre BUMAYA]; Liberal Party or PL [Prosper HIGIRO]; Party dla Democratic Renewal (officially banned); Ruandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]
Saint-Barthelemy Saint-Barthelemy Action-Equilibre-Transparence [Maxime DESOUCHES]; Ensemble pour Saint-Barthelemy [Benoit CHAUVIN]; Saint-Barth d'Abord! or SBA [Bruno MAGRAS]; Tous Unis pour Saint-Barthelemy [Karine MIOT-RICHARD] -
Swieta Helena Swieta Helena none none
Saint Kitts i Nevis Saint Kitts i Nevis Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Vance AMORY]; Nevis Reformation Party or NRP [Joseph PARRY]; People's Action Movement or PAM [Lindsay GRANT]; Saint Kitts i Nevis Labor Party or SKNLP [Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS] Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Vance AMORY]; Nevis Reformation Party or NRP [Joseph PARRY]; People's Action Movement or PAM [Lindsey GRANT]; Saint Kitts i Nevis Labor Party or SKNLP [Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS]
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia National Alliance or NA [George ODLUM]; Saint Lucia Freedom Party or SFP [Martinus FRANCOIS]; Saint Lucia Labor Party or SLP [Kenneth ANTHONY]; Sou Tout Apwe Fete Fini or STAFF [Christopher HUNTE]; United Workers Party or UWP [Sir John COMPTON] National Alliance or NA [George ODLUM]; Saint Lucia Freedom Party or SFP [Martinus FRANCOIS]; Saint Lucia Labor Party or SLP [Kenneth ANTHONY]; Sou Tout Apwe Fete Fini or STAFF [Christopher HUNTE]; United Workers Party or UWP [Sir John COMPTON]
Saint Martin Saint Martin Union Pour le Progres or UPP [Louis Constant FLEMING]; Rassemblement Responsabilite Reussite or RRR [Alain RICHARDSON]; Reussir Saint-Martin [Jean-Luc HAMLET] -
Saint-Pierre i Miquelon Saint-Pierre i Miquelon Archipelago Tomorrow or AD affiliated z UDF/RPR list; Cap sur l'Avenir affiliated z PRG; Left Radical Party or PRG; Rassemblement pour la Republique or RPR (now UMP); Saint-Pierre i Miquelon 2000/Avenir Miquelon or SPM 2000/AM; Socialist Party or PS; Union pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF Left Radical Party or PRG; Rassemblement pour la Republique or RPR (now UMP); Socialist Party or PS; Union pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF
Saint Vincent i Grenadyny Saint Vincent i Grenadyny New Democratic Party or NDP [Arnhim EUSTACE]; Unity Labor Party or ULP [Ralph GONSALVES] (formed by the coalition of Saint Vincent Labor Party or SVLP and the Movement dla National Unity or MNU) New Democratic Party or NDP [Arnhim EUSTACE]; Unity Labor Party or ULP [Ralph GONSALVES] (formed by the coalition of Saint Vincent Labor Party or SVLP and the Movement dla National Unity or MNU)
Samoa Samoa Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA]; Samoa Christian Party or TCP [Tuala Tiresa MALIETOA]; Samoa Democratic United Party or SDUP [LE MAMEA Ropati]; Samoa Party or SP [Su'a Rimoni Ah CHONG]; Samoa Progressive Political Party or SPPP [Toeolesulusulu SIUEVA] Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA]; Samoa Christian Party or TCP [Tuala Tiresa MALIETOA]; Samoa Democratic United Party or SDUP [LE MAMEA Ropati]; Samoa Party or SP [Su'a Rimoni Ah CHONG]; Samoa Progressive Political Party or SPPP [Toeolesulusulu SIUEVA]
San Marino San Marino Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Ideas w Movement or IM [Alessandro ROSSI]; National Alliance or AN [Glauco SANSOVINI]; New Socialist Party [Augusto CASALI]; Party of Socialists and Democrats [Claudio FELICI]; San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Pier Marino MENICUCCI]; San Marino Popular Alliance of Democrats or AP [Roberto GIORGETTI]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Alberto CECCHETTI]; Socialists dla Reform or SR [Renzo GIARDI]; United Left Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Ideas w Movement or IM [Alessandro ROSSI]; National Alliance or AN; New Socialist Party; Party of Socialists and Democrats [Claudio FELICI]; San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Giovanni LONFERNINI]; San Marino Popular Alliance of Democrats or APDS [Roberto GIORGETTI]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Alberto CECCHETTI]; Socialists dla Reform or SR [Renzo GIARDI]; United Left
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca Force dla Change Democratic Movement or MDFM [Tome Soares da VERA CRUZ]; Independent Democratic Action or ADI [[Patrice TROVOADA]; Movement dla the Liberation of Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Rafael BRANCO]; New Way Movement or NR; Party dla Democratic Convergence or PCD [Delfim NEVES]; Ue-Kedadji coalition; other small parties Democratic Renovation Party [Armindo GRACA]; Force dla Change Democratic Movement or MDFM; Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Carlos NEVES]; Movement dla the Liberation of Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Manuel Pinto Da COSTA]; Party dla Democratic Convergence or PCD [Aldo BANDEIRA]; Ue-Kedadji coalition; other small parties
Arabia Saudyjska Arabia Saudyjska none none
Senegal Senegal African Party of Niepodleglosc [Majhemout DIOP]; And-Jef/African Party dla Democracy and Socialism or (AJ/PADS) [Landing SAVANE]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front dla Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Niepodleglosc and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]; People's Labor Party or PTP [Elhadji DIOUF]; Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]; SOPI Coalition [Abdoulaye WADE] (a coalition led by the PDS); Union dla Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA] African Party dla Democracy and Socialism or And Jef (also known as PADS/AJ) [Landing SAVANE, secretary general]; African Party of Niepodleglosc [Majhemout DIOP]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; Democratic and Patriotic Convention or CDP (also known as Garab-Gi) [Dr. Iba Der THIAM]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front dla Socialism and Democracy or FSD [Cheikh Abdoulaye DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Niepodleglosc and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madier DIOUF]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]; SOPI Coalition [Abdoulaye WADE] (a coalition led by the PDS); Union dla Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]; other small parties
Serbia Serbia Coalition dla Sandzak or KZS [Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Ragmi MUSTAFA]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; Democratic Union of the Valley or BDL [Skender DESTANI]; Force of Serbia Movement or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]; G17 Plus [Mladjan DINKIC]; League of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASTOR]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; Movement dla Democratic Progress of LPD [Jonuz MUSLIU]; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Party of Democratic Action or PVD [Riza HALIMI]; Roma Party or RP [Srdjan SAJN]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ (currently on trial at The Hague), but Tomislav NIKOLIC is acting leader]; Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]; Union of Roma of Serbia or URS [Rajko DJURIC] Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; G17 Plus [Mladjan DINKIC is acting leader]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ, but Tomislav NIKOLIC is acting leader]; Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [vacant, but Ivica DACIC is head of the SPS Main Board]; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]
Seszele Seszele Democratic Party or DP [James MANCHAM, Paul CHOW]; Seszele National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] (formerly the United Opposition or UO); Seszele People's Progressive Front or SPPF [Francja Albert RENE, James MICHEL] (the governing party) Democratic Party or DP [James MANCHAM, Daniel BELLE]; Mouvement Seychellois pour la Democratie [Jacques HODOUL]; Seszele National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] (formerly the United Opposition or UO); Seszele People's Progressive Front or SPPF [Francja Albert RENE, James MICHEL] (the governing party)
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone All People's Congress or APC [Ernest Bai KOROMA]; Peace and Liberation Party or PLP [Darlington MORRISON]; People's Movement dla Democratic Change or PMDC [Charles MARGAI]; Sierra Leone People's Party or SLPP [Solomon BEREWA]; numerous others All People's Congress or APC [Ben KANU]; Peace and Liberation Party or PLP [Darlington MORRISON, interim chairman]; Sierra Leone People's Party or SLPP [Sama BANYA]; numerous others
Singapur Singapur People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]; Singapur Democratic Alliance or SDA [CHIAM See Tong]; Singapur Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]; Workers' Party or WP [Sylvia LIM Swee Lian]


note: SDA includes Singapur Justice Party or SJP, Singapur National Malay Organization or PKMS, Singapur People's Party or SPP
People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]; Singapur Democratic Alliance or SDA [CHIAM See Tong]; Singapur Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]; Workers' Party or WP [Sylvia LIM Swee Lian]


note: SDA includes National Solidarity Party or NSP, Singapur Justice Party or SJP, Singapur National Malay Organization or PKMS, Singapur People's Party or SPP
Slowacja Slowacja Parties w the Parliament: Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Pal CSAKY]; People's Party - Movement dla a Democratic Slowacja or LS-HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU-DS [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Jan SLOTA]; Parties outside the Parliament: Agrarian Party of the Provinces or ASV [Jozef VASKEBA]; Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Peter TATAR]; Free Forum [Zuzana MARTINAKOVA]; Hope or NADEJ [Alexandra NOVOTNA]; Left-wing Bloc or LB [Jozef KALMAN]; Mission 21 - New Christian Democracy or MISIA 21 [Ivan SIMKO]; Movement dla Democracy or HZD [Jozef GRAPA]; New Citizens Alliance or ANO [Pavol RUSKO]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Ladislav KOZMON]; Prosperita Slovenska or PS [Frantisek A. ZVRSKOVEC]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [Vladimir DADO]; Slovak National Coalition or SLNKO [Vitazoslav MORIC]; Slovak People's Party or SLS [Jozef SASIK]; Union of the Workers of Slowacja or ZRS [Jan LUPTAK] Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]; Free Forum [Zuzana MARTINAKOVA]; Movement dla Democracy or HZD [Jozef GRAPA]; People's Party - Movement dla a Democratic Slowacja or LS-HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; New Citizens Alliance or ANO [Pavol RUSKO]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Bela BUGAR]; People's Union or LU [Gustav KRAJCI]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [Vladimir DADO]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Jan SLOTA]
Slowenia Slowenia Liberal Democracy of Slowenia or LDS [Katarina KRESAL]; New Slowenia or NSi [Andrej BAJUK]; Slowenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]; Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slowenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Janez PODOBNIK]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Darko KRANJC]; Social Democrats or SD [Borut PAHOR] (formerly ZLSD); ZARES [Gregor Golobic] Democratic Party of Retired (Persons) of Slowenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Jelko KACIN]; New Slowenia or NSi [Andrej BAJUK]; Slowenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Janez PODOBNIK]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Darko KRANJC]; Social Democrats or SD [Borut PAHOR]
Wyspy Salomona Wyspy Salomona Association of Independent Members or AIM [Thomas CHAN]; Christian Alliance Wyspy Salomona or CASI [Edward RONIA]; LAFARI Party [John GARO]; National Party [Francis HILLY]; People's Alliance Party or PAP [Sir Allan KEMAKEZA]; Social Credit Party or SOCRED [Manasseh Damukana SOGAVARE]; Solomon First Party [David QUAN]; Wyspy Salomona Democratic Party [Gabriel SURI]; Wyspy Salomona Labor Party or SILP [Joses TUHANUKU]; Wyspy Salomona Liberal Party [Bartholomew ULUFA'ALU]; Wyspy Salomona Party dla Rural Advancement or SIPRA [Job D. TAUSINGA]; United Party [Sir Peter KENILOREA]


note: w general, Wyspy Salomona politics is characterized by fluid coalitions
Association of Independent Members or AIM [Thomas CHAN]; Christian Alliance Wyspy Salomona or CASI [Edward RONIA]; LAFARI Party [John GARO]; National Party [Francis HILLY]; People's Alliance Party or PAP [Sir Allan KEMAKEZA]; Social Credit Party or SOCRED [Manasseh Damukana SOGAVARE]; Solomon First Party [David QUAN]; Wyspy Salomona Democratic Party [Gabriel SURI]; Wyspy Salomona Labor Party or SILP [Joses TUHANUKU]; Wyspy Salomona Liberal Party [Bartholomew ULUFA'ALU]; Wyspy Salomona Party dla Rural Advancement or SIPRA [Job D. TAUSINGA]; United Party [Sir Peter KENILOREA]


note: w general, Wyspy Salomona politics is characterized by fluid coalitions
Somalia Somalia none none
Republika Poludniowej Afryki Republika Poludniowej Afryki African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE]; African National Congress or ANC [Jacob ZUMA]; Democratic Alliance or DA [Helen ZILLE]; Freedom Front Plus or FF+ [Pieter MULDER]; Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI]; New National Party or NNP; Pan-Africanist Congress or PAC [Motsoko PHEKO]; United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA] African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE, president]; African National Congress or ANC [Thabo MBEKI, president]; Democratic Alliance or DA [Anthony LEON] (formed from the merger of the Democratic Party or DP and the Freedom Alliance or FA); Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI, president]; Pan-Africanist Congress or PAC [Stanley MOGOBA, president]; New National Party or NNP; United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]
Hiszpania Hiszpania Aragonese Party or CHA [Bizen FUSTER]; Basque Nationalist Party or PNV [Inigo URKULLU]; Basque Solidarity or EA [Begona ERRAZTI]; Canarian Coalition or CC [Jose Torres STINGA] (a coalition of five parties); Convergence and Union or CiU [Artur MAS i Gavarro] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Artur MAS i Gavarro] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN i LLEIDA]); Entesa Catalonia de Progress (a Senate coalition grouping four Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA); Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Anxo Manuel QUINTANA Gonzalez]; Initiative dla Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan SAURA i Laporta]; Navarra yes or Na Bai [Uxue BARKOS Berruezo] (a coalition of four Navarran parties); Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]; Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Josep-Lluis CAROD-ROVIRA]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO]; United Left or IU [Gaspar LLAMAZARES Trigo] (a coalition of parties including the PCE and other small parties) Basque Nationalist Party or PNV [Josu Jon IMAZ]; Canarian Coalition or CC (a coalition of five parties) [Paulino RIVERO Baute]; Convergence and Union or CiU [Artur MAS i Gavarro] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Artur MAS i Gavarro] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN y LLEIDA]); Entesa Catalonia de Progress (a Senate coalition grouping four Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA); Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Anxo Manuel QUINTANA]; Party of Independents from Lanzarote or PIL [Dimas MARTIN Martin]; Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY]; Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Joan Puigcercos BOIXASSA]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO]; United Left or IU (a coalition of parties including the PCE and other small parties) [Gaspar LLAMAZARES]
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka All Ceylon Tamil Congress or ACTC [G.PONNAMBALAM]; Ceylon Workers Congress or CWC [Arumugam THONDAMAN]; Communist Party or CP [D. GUNASEKERA]; Eelam People's Democratic Party or EPDP [Douglas DEVANANDA]; Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front or EPRLF [Suresh PREMACHANDRAN]; Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna or JVP [Somawansa AMARASINGHE]; Lanka Sama Samaja Party or LSSP [Tissa VITHARANA]; Mahajana Eksath Peramuna (People's United Front) or MEP [D. GUNAWARDENE]; National Heritage Party or JHU [Ellawala METHANANDA]; National Unity Alliance or NUA [Ferial ASHRAFF]; People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam or PLOTE [D. SIDHARTHAN]; Sri Lanka Freedom Party or SLFP [Mahinda RAJAPAKSA]; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress or SLMC [Rauff HAKEEM]; Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization or TELO [Selvam ADAIKALANATHAN]; Tamil National Alliance or TNA [R. SAMPANTHAN]; Tamil United Liberation Front or TULF [V. ANANDASANGAREE]; United National Party or UNP [Ranil WICKREMASINGHE]; Up-country People's Front or UPF [P. CHANDRASEKARAN] All Ceylon Tamil Congress or ACTC [KUMARGURUPARAM]; Ceylon Workers Congress or CWC [Arumugam THONDAMAN]; Communist Party or CP [D. GUNASEKERA]; Democratic United National (Lalith) Front or DUNLF [Shrimani ATULATHMUDALI]; Eelam People's Democratic Party or EPDP [Douglas DEVANANDA]; Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front or EPRLF [Suresh PREMACHANDRAN]; Janatha Vimukthi Perumuna or JVP [Somawansa AMARASINGHE]; Lanka Sama Samaja Party or LSSP; Mahajana Eksath Peramuna (People's United Front) or MEP [D. GUNAWARDENE]; National Heritage Party or JHU [Tilak KARUNARATNE]; National Unity Alliance or NUA [Ferial ASHRAFF]; People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam or PLOTE [D. SIDHARTHAN]; Sihala Urumaya or SU; Sri Lanka Freedom Party or SLFP [Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA]; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress or SLMC [Rauff HAKEEM]; Sri Lanka Progressive Front or SLPF [P. Nelson PERERA]; Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization or TELO [SABARATNAM]; Tamil National Alliance or TNA [R. SAMPANTHAN]; Tamil United Liberation Front or TULF [V. ANANDASANGAREE]; United National Party or UNP [Ranil WICKREMASINGHE]; Up-country People's Front or UPF [P. CHANDRASEKARAN]; several ethnic Tamil and Muslim parties, represented w either Parliament or provincial councils
Sudan Sudan National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva majardit KIIR]; and elements of the National Democratic Alliance or NDA including factions of the Democratic Union Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI] and Umma Party [SADIQ Siddiq al-Mahdi]; note - all political parties listed above w the Government of National Unity political parties w the Government of National Unity include: National Congress Party or NCP [Ibrahim Ahmed OMAR]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva majardit KIIR]; and elements of the National Democratic Alliance or NDA including factions of the Democratic Union Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI] and Umma Party [SADIQ Siddiq al-Mahdi]
Surinam Surinam Alternative-1 or A-1 (a coalition of Amazone Party of Surinam or APS [Kenneth VAN GENDEREN], Democrats of the 21st Century or D-21 [Soewarto MOESTADJA], Nieuw Surinam or NS [Radjen Nanan PANDAY], Political Wing of the FAL or PVF [Jiwan SITAL], Trefpunt 2000 or T-2000 [Arti JESSURUN]); General Interior Development Party or ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Desire BOUTERSE]; New Front dla Democracy and Development or NF (a coalition which includes A-Combination or A-Com, Democratic Alternative 1991 or DA-91, an independent, business-oriented party [Winston JESSURUN], National Party Surinam or NPS [Ronald VENETIAAN], United Reform Party or VHP [Ramdien SARDJOE], Pertjaja Luhur or PL [Salam Paul SOMOHARDJO], Surinamse Labor Party or SPA [Siegfried GILDS]); Party dla Democracy and Development w Unity or DOE [Marten SCHALKWIJK]; People's Alliance dla Progress or VVV (a coalition of Democratic National Platform 2000 or DNP-2000 [Jules WIJDENBOSCH], Grassroots Party dla Renewal and Democracy or BVD [Tjan GOBARDHAN], Party dla National Unity and Solidarity of the Highest Order or KTPI [Willy SOEMITA], Party dla Progression, Justice, and Perseverance or PPRS [Renee KAIMAN], Pendawalima or PL [Raymond SAPOEN]); Progressive Laborers and Farmers Union or PALU [Jim HOK]; Progressive Political Party or PPP [Surinder MUNGRA]; Seeka [Paul ABENA]; Union of Progressive Surinamrs or UPS [Sheoradj PANDAY] Alternative-1 or A-1 (a coalition of Amazone Party of Surinam or APS [Kenneth VAN GENDEREN], Democrats of the 21st Century or D-21 [Soewarto MOESTADJA], Nieuw Surinam or NS [Radjen Nanan PANDAY], Political Wing of the FAL or PVF [Jiwan SITAL], Trefpunt 2000 or T-2000 [Arti JESSURUN]); General Interior Development Party or ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Desire BOUTERSE]; New Front dla Democracy and Development or NF (a coalition which includes A-Combination or A-Com [leader NA], Democratic Alternative 1991 or DA-91 which split from the A-1 before the elections of maj 2005 and are an independent, business-oriented party [Winston JESSURUN], National Party Surinam or NPS [Ronald VENETIAAN], United Reform Party or VHP [Ram SARDJOE], Pertjaja Luhur or PL [Salam Paul SOMOHARDJO], Surinamse Labor Party or SPA [Siegfried GILDS]); Party dla Democracy and Development w Unity or DOE [Marten SCHALKWIJK]; People's Alliance dla Progress or VVV (a coalition of Democratic National Platform 2000 or DNP-2000 [Jules WIJDENBOSCH], Grassroots Party dla Renewal and Democracy or BVD [Tjan GOBARDHAN], Party dla National Unity and Solidarity of the Highest Order or KTPI [Willy SOEMITA], Party dla Progression, Justice, and Perseverance or PPRS [Renee KAIMAN], Pendawalima or PL [Raymond SAPOEN]); Progressive Laborers and Farmers Union or PALU [Jim HOK]; Progressive Political Party or PPP [Surinder MUNGRA]; Seeka [Paul ABENA]; Union of Progressive Surinamrs or UPS [Sheoradj PANDAY]
Suazi Suazi the status of political parties, previously banned, is unclear under the new (2006) Konstytucja and currently being debated - the following are considered political associations; African United Democratic Party or AUDP [Stanley MAUNDZISA, president]; Imbokodvo National Movement or INM; Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC [Obed DLAMINI, president]; People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU, president] political parties are banned by the government under an emergency decree that will be revoked when the new constitution takes effect (styczen 2006)- the following are considered political associations; Imbokodvo National Movement or INM; Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC [Obed DLAMINI, president]; People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU, president]
Szwecja Szwecja Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian Democratic Party [Goran HAGGLUND]; Environment Party the Greens [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or V (formerly Communist) [Lars OHLY]; Liberal People's Party [Jan BJORKLUND]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Fredrik REINFELDT]; Social Democratic Party [Mona SAHLIN] Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian Democratic Party [Goran HAGGLUND]; Environment Party the Greens [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or V (formerly Communist) [Lars OHLY]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Fredrik REINFELDT]; People's Party [Lars LEIJONBORG]; Social Democratic Party [Goran PERSSON]
Szwajcaria Szwajcaria Green Party (Gruene Partei der Schweiz or Gruene, Parti Ecologiste Suisse or Les Verts, Partito Ecologista Svizzero or I Verdi, Partida Ecologica Svizra or La Verda) [Ruth GENNER]; Christian Democratic People's Party (Christlichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz or CVP, Parti Democrate-Chretien Suisse or PDC, Partito Democratico-Cristiano Popolare Svizzero or PDC, Partida Cristiandemocratica dalla Svizra or PCD) [Christophe DARBELLAY]; Radical Free Democratic Party (Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz or FDP, Parti Radical-Democratique Suisse or PRD, Partitio Liberal-Radicale Svizzero or PLR) [Fulvio PELLI]; Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz or SPS, Parti Socialist Suisse or PSS, Partito Socialista Svizzero or PSS, Partida Socialdemocratica de la Svizra or PSS) [Hans-Juerg FEHR]; Swiss People's Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei or SVP, Union Democratique du Centre or UDC, Unione Democratica de Centro or UDC, Uniun Democratica dal Center or UDC) [Ueli MAURER]; and other minor parties Green Party (Grune Partei der Schweiz or Grune, Parti Ecologiste Suisse or Les Verts, Partito Ecologista Svizzero or I Verdi, Partida Ecologica Svizra or La Verda) [Ruth GENNER]; Christian Democratic People's Party (Christichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz or CVP, Parti Democrate-Chretien Suisse or PDC, Partito Democratico-Cristiano Popolare Svizzero or PDC, Partida Cristiandemocratica dalla Svizra or PCD) [Doris LEUTHARD, president]; Radical Free Democratic Party (Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz or FDP, Parti Radical-Democratique Suisse or PRD, Partitio Liberal-Radicale Svizzero or PLR) [Marianne KLEINER-SCHLAEPFER, president]; Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz or SPS, Parti Socialist Suisse or PSS, Partito Socialista Svizzero or PSS, Partida Socialdemocratica de la Svizra or PSS) [Hans-Juerg FEHR, president]; Swiss People's Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei or SVP, Union Democratique du Centre or UDC, Unione Democratica de Centro or UDC, Uniun Democratica dal Center or UDC) [Ueli MAURER, president]; and other minor parties
Syria Syria legal parties: National Progressive Front or NPF [President Bashar al-ASAD, Dr. Suleiman QADDAH] (includes Arab Socialist Renaissance (Ba'th) Party [President Bashar al-ASAD]; Socialist Unionist Democratic Party [Fadlallah Nasr Al-DIN]; Syrian Arab Socialist Union or ASU [Safwan QUDSI]; Syrian Communist Party (two branches) [Wissal Farha BAKDASH, Yusuf Rashid FAYSAL]; Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Ali QANSU]; Unionist Socialist Party [Fayez ISMAIL])


opposition parties not legally recognized:: Arab Democratic Socialist Union Party [Hasan Abdul AZIM]; Arab Socialist Movement; Democratic Ba'th Party [Ibrahim MAHKOS]; People's Democratic Party [Riad al TURK]; Revolutionary Workers' Party [Abdul Hafeez al HAFEZ]


Kurdish parties (considered illegal): Kurdish Democratic Front [Abdul Hamid DARWISH] (includes four parties); Kurdish Coordination [Abdul Hakim BASHAR] (includes Azadi Party [Kheirudin MURAD], Future Party [Masha'l TAMMO], Yekity Party [Hasam SALE])


other parties: Nahda Party [Abdul Aziz al MISLET]; Syrian Democratic Party [Mustafa QALAAJI]
Arab Socialist Unionist Movement [Ahmed al-AHMED]; National Progressive Front or NPF (includes Arab Socialist Renaissance (Ba'th) Party; the governing party) [President Bashar al-ASAD, secretary general]; Socialist Unionist Democratic Party [Fadlallal Nasr Al-DIN]; Syrian Arab Socialist Party or ASP [Safwan QUDSI]; Syrian Communist Party (two branches) [Wissal Farha BAKDASH, Yuusuf Rashid FAYSAL]; Syrian Social National Party [Jubran URAYJI]; Unionist Socialist Party [Fayez ISMAIL]
Tajwan Tajwan Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Frank HSIEH or HSIEH Chang-ting] (acting); Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist Party) [WU Po-hsiung]; Non-Partisan Solidarity Union or NPSU [CHANG Po-ya]; People First Party or PFP [James SOONG] Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [YU Shyi-kun]; Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist Party) [MA Ying-jeou]; People First Party or PFP [James SOONG (SOONG Chu-yu)]; Tajwan Solidarity Union or TSU [SU Chin-chiang]; other minor parties including the Chinese New Party or NP
Tadzykistan Tadzykistan Agrarian Party of Tadzykistan or APT [Amir KARAKULOV]; Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV (imprisoned pazdziernik 2005); Rahmatullo VALIYEV, deputy]; Islamic Revival Party [Muhiddin KABIRI]; Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimzon BOBOYEV]; People's Democratic Party of Tadzykistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Abdualim GHAFFOROV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV] Agrarian Party of Tadzykistan or APT [Amir KARAKULOV]; Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV]; Islamic Revival Party [Said Abdullo NURI]; Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimjon BOBOYEV]; People's Democratic Party of Tadzykistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Abdualim GHAFFOROV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
Tanzania Tanzania Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and Development) or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Jakaya Mrisho KIKWETE]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]; Democratic Party [Christopher MTIKLA] (unregistered); Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREME]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO] Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and Development) or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Jakaya Mrisho KIKWETE]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]; Democratic Party [Christopher MTIKLA] (unregistered); Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREME]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO]
Tajlandia Tajlandia Democrat Party or DP (Prachathipat Party) [ABHISIT Wetchachiwa] (ABHISIT Vejjajiva); Matchima Thippatai (Middle Way Party) [ANONGWAN Therpsuthin]; Motherland Party (Peua Pandin Party) [SUWIT Khunkitti]; People Power Party (Palang Prachachon Party) or PPP [SAMAK Sunthorawet] (SAMAK Sundaravej); Royalist People's Party (Pracharaj) [SANOH Thienthong]; Ruam Jai Thai Party (Thai Unity Party) [CHETTA Thanacharo]; Thai Nation Party or TNP (Chat Thai Party) [BARNHARN SILPA-ARCHA] Democrat Party or DP (Prachathipat Party) [ABHISIT Wetchachiwa]; People's Party or PP (Mahachon Party) [ANEK Laothamatas]; Thai Nation Party or TNP (Chat Thai Party) [BARNHARN SILPA-ARCHA]; Thai Rak Thai Party or TRT [CHATURON Chaisang]
Timor Wschodni Timor Wschodni Democratic Party or PD [Fernando de ARAUJO]; National Congress dla Timorese Reconstruction or CNRT [Xanana GUSMAO]; National Democratic Union of Timorese Resistance or UNDERTIM [Cornelio DA Conceicao GAMA]; National Unity Party or PUN [Fernanda BORGES]; People's Party of Timor or PPT [Jacob XAVIER]; Revolutionary Front of Independent Timor Wschodni or FRETILIN [Mari ALKATIRI]; Social Democratic Association of Timor or ASDT [Francisco Xavier do AMARAL]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Mario CARRASCALAO]; Sons of the Mountain Warriors or KOTA [Manuel TILMAN] (also known as Association of Timorese Heroes) -
Togo Togo Action Committee dla Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party dla Renewal or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP; Rally dla the Support dla Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Socialist Pact dla Renewal or PSR; Union dla Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces dla a Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO] Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; Rally dla the Support dla Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Union dla Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]
Tokelau Tokelau none none
Tonga Tonga People's Democratic Party [Tesina FUKO] People's Democratic Party [Tesina FUKO]
Trynidad i Tobago Trynidad i Tobago Congress of the People [Winston DOOKERAN]; Democratic Action Congress or DAC [Hochoy CHARLES] (only active w Tobago); Democratic National Alliance or DNA [Gerald YETMING] (coalition of NAR, DDPT, MND); Movement dla National Development or MND [Garvin NICHOLAS]; National Alliance dla Reconstruction or NAR [Dr. Carson CHARLES]; People's National Movement or PNM [Patrick MANNING]; United National Congress or UNC [Basdeo PANDAY] National Alliance dla Reconstruction or NAR [Lennox SANKERSINGH]; People's National Movement or PNM [Patrick MANNING]; Team Unity or TU [Ramesh MAHARAJ]; United National Congress or UNC [Basdeo PANDAY]; Democratic Action Committee or DAC [Hochoy CHARLES], note - only active w Tobago
Tunezja Tunezja Al-Tajdid Movement [Ahmed IBRAHIM]; Konstytucjaal Democratic Rally Party (Rassemblement Konstytucjanel Democratique) or RCD (official ruling party) [President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI]; Democratic Forum dla Labor and Liberties or FDTL [Mustapha Ben JAFAAR]; Green Party dla Progress or PVP [Mongi KHAMASSI]; Liberal Social Party or PSL [Mondher THABET]; Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ismail BOULAHYA]; Popular Unity Party or PUP [Mohamed BOUCHIHA]; Progressive Democratic Party [Maya JERIBI]; Unionist Democratic Union or UDU [Ahmed INOUBLI] Al-Tajdid Movement [Ali HALOUANI]; Konstytucjaal Democratic Rally Party (Rassemblement Konstytucjanel Democratique) or RCD [President Zine El Abidine BEN ALI (official ruling party)]; Liberal Social Party or PSL [Mounir BEJI]; Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ismail BOULAHYA]; Popular Unity Party or PUP [Mohamed BOUCHIHA]; Progressive Democratic Party [Nejib CHEBBI]; Unionist Democratic Union or UDU [Ahmed INOUBLI]
Turcja Turcja Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party) or Anavatan [Erkan MUMCU]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Mehmet Zeki SEZER]; Democratic Society Party or DTP [Nurettin DEMIRTAS]; Felicity Party or SP [Recai KUTAN] (sometimes translated as Contentment Party); Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI] (sometimes translated as Nationalist Movement Party); People's Rise Party (Halkin Yukselisi Partisi) or HYP [Yasar Nuri OZTURK]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Deniz BAYKAL]; Social Democratic People's Party or SHP [Murat KARAYALCIN]; True Path Party or DYP [Mehmet AGAR] (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party); Young Party or GP [Cem Cengiz UZAN]


note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Turcja had on 1 grudzien 2004
Anavatan Partisi (once was Motherland Party) or ANAVATAN [Erkan MUMCU]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Mehmet Zeki SEZER]; Democratic People's Party or DEHAP [Tuncer BAKIRHAN]; Felicity Party (sometimes translated as Contentment Party) or SP [Necmettin ERBAKAN]; Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; People's Rise Party (Halkin Yukselisi Partisi) or HYP [Yasr Nuri OZTURK]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Deniz BAYKAL]; Social Democratic People's Party or SHP [Murat KARAYALCIN]; True Path Party (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party) or DYP [Mehmet AGAR]


note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Turcja had on 1 grudzien 2004
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT


note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small opposition movements exist underground or w foreign countries; the two most prominent opposition groups-in-exile have been National Democratic Movement of Turkmenistan (NDMT) and the United Democratic Party of Turkmenistan (UDPT); NDMT was led by former Foreign Minister Boris SHIKHMURADOV until his arrest and imprisonment w the wake of the 25 listopad 2002 assassination attempt on President NYYAZOW
Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Saparmurat NIYAZOV]


note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small opposition movements exist underground or w foreign countries; the two most prominent opposition groups-in-exile have been National Democratic Movement of Turkmenistan (NDMT) and the United Democratic Party of Turkmenistan (UDPT); NDMT was led by former Foreign Minister Boris SHIKHMURADOV until his arrest and imprisonment w the wake of the 25 listopad 2002 assassination attempt on President NIYAZOV; UDPT is led by former Foreign Minister Abdy KULIEV and is based out of Moscow
Turks i Caicos Turks i Caicos People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Floyd SEYMOUR]; Progressive National Party or PNP [Michael Eugene MISICK] People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Derek H. TAYLOR]; Progressive National Party or PNP [Michael Eugene MISICK]
Tuvalu Tuvalu there are no political parties but members of Parliament usually align themselves w informal groupings there are no political parties but members of Parliament usually align themselves w informal groupings
Uganda Uganda Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]; Democratic Party or DP [Kizito SSEBAANA]; Forum dla Democratic Change or FDC [Kizza BESIGYE]; Justice Forum or JEEMA [Muhammad Kibirige MAYANJA]; National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]; Peoples Progressive Party or PPP [Bidandi SSALI]; Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Miria OBOTE]


note: a national referendum w lipiec 2005 opened the way dla Uganda's transition to a multi-party political system
Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]; Democratic Party or DP [Kizito SSEBAANA]; Forum dla Democratic Change or FDC [Kizza BESIGYE]; Justice Forum or JEEMA [Muhammad Kibirige MAYANJA]; National Democrats Forum [Chapaa KARUHANGA]; National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]; Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Miria OBOTE]


note: a national referendum w lipiec 2005 opened the way dla Uganda's transition to a multi-party political system
Ukraina Ukraina Christian Democratic Union [Volodymyr STRETOVYCH]; Communist Party of Ukraina or CPU [Petro SYMONENKO]; European Party of Ukraina [Mykola KATERYNCHUK]; Fatherland Party (Batkivshchyna) [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]; Forward Ukraina! [Viktor MUSIYAKA]; Labor Party of Ukraina [Mykola SYROTA]; People's Union Our Ukraina [Vyacheslav KYRYLENKO]; Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs [Anatoliy KINAKH]; Party of the Defenders of the Fatherland [Yuriy Karmazin]; People's Movement of Ukraina (Rukh) [Borys TARASYUK]; People's Party [Volodymyr LYTVYN]; PORA! (It's Time!) party [Vladyslav KASKIV]; Progressive Socialist Party [Natalya VITRENKO]; Reforms and Order Party [Viktor PYNZENYK]; Party of Regions [Viktor YANUKOVYCH]; Republican Party [Yuriy BOYKO]; Sobor [Anatoliy MATVIYENKO]; Social Democratic Party [Yevhen KORNICHUK]; Social Democratic Party (United) or SDPU(o) [Yuriy ZAHORODNIY]; Socialist Party of Ukraina or SPU [Oleksandr MOROZ]; Ukrainian People's Party [Yuriy KOSTENKO]; Viche [Inna BOHOSLOVSKA] Communist Party of Ukraina or CPU [Petro SYMONENKO]; Fatherland Party (Batkivshchyna) [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]; Lytyvn-led People's Bloc group [Ihor SHAROV]; Our Ukraina [Viktor YUSHCHENKO]; Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs [Anatoliy KINAKH]; People's Movement of Ukraina (Rukh) [Borys TARASYUK]; People's Party [Volodymyr LYTVYN]; People's Trust group [Anton KISSE]; PORA! (It's Time!) party [Vladyslav KASKIV]; Progressive Socialist Party [Natalya VITRENKO]; Reforms and Order Party [Viktor PYNZENYK]; Party of Regions [Viktor YANUKOVYCH]; Republican Party [Yuriy BOYKO]; Social Democratic Party (United) or SDPU(o) [Viktor MEDVEDCHUK]; Socialist Party of Ukraina or SPU [Oleksandr MOROZ, chairman]; Ukrainian People's Party [Yuriy KOSTENKO]; United Ukraina [Bohdan HUBSKYY]; Vidrodzhennya (Revival) [Anton KISSE]
Zjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie Zjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie none none
Wielka Brytania Wielka Brytania Conservative [David CAMERON]; Democratic Unionist Party (Northern Irlandia) [Rev. Ian PAISLEY]; Labor Party [Gordon BROWN]; Liberal Democrats [Nick CLEGG]; Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Ieuan Wyn JONES]; Scottish National Party or SNP [Alex SALMOND]; Sinn Fein (Northern Irlandia) [Gerry ADAMS]; Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Irlandia) [Mark DURKAN]; Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Irlandia) [Sir Reg EMPEY] Conservative and Unionist Party [David CAMERON]; Democratic Unionist Party (Northern Irlandia) [Rev. Ian PAISLEY]; Labor Party [Anthony (Tony) BLAIR]; Liberal Democrats [Sir Menzies CAMPBELL]; Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Dafydd IWAN]; Scottish National Party or SNP [Alex SALMOND]; Sinn Fein (Northern Irlandia) [Gerry ADAMS]; Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Irlandia) [Mark DURKAN]; Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Irlandia) [Sir Reg EMPEY]
Stany Zjednoczone Stany Zjednoczone Democratic Party [Howard DEAN]; Green Party; Libertarian Party [William (Bill) REDPATH]; Republican Party [Robert M. (Mike) DUNCAN] Democratic Party [Howard DEAN]; Green Party; Libertarian Party [Steve DAMERELL]; Republican Party [Ken MEHLMAN]
Urugwaj Urugwaj Broad Front Coalition (Frente Amplio) (formerly known as the Progressive Encounter/Broad Front Coalition or EP-FA); Colorado Party [Julio Maria SANGUINETTI]; Independent Party (Partido Independiente) [Pablo MIERES]; Movement of Popular Participation or MPP [Jose MUJICA]; National Party or Blanco [Jorge LARRANAGA]; New Sector/Space Coalition (Nuevo Espacio) [Rafael MICHELINI]; Urugwajan Assembly or Asamblea Urugwaj [Danilo ASTORI] Colorado Party [Julio Maria SANGUINETTI]; Independent Party (Partido Independiente) [Pablo MIERES]; Movement of Popular Participation or MPP [Jose MUJICA]; National Party or Blanco [Jorge LARRANAGA]; New Sector/Space Coalition (Nuevo Espacio) [Rafael MICHELINI]; Progressive Encounter/Broad Front Coalition (Encuentro Progresista/Frente Amplio) or EP-FA [Tabare VAZQUEZ]; Socialist Party of Urugwaj or Socialists [Reinaldo GARGANO]; Urugwajan Assembly or Asamblea Urugwaj [Danilo ASTORI]
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Dilorom TASHMUHAMMEDOVA]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Hurshid DOSMUHAMMEDOV]; Fidokorlar National Democratic Party (Self-Sacrificers) [Ahtam TURSUNOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Adham SHADMANOV; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Asliddin RUSTAMOV] Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Dilorom TOSHMUHAMMADOVA, chairman]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Xurshid DOSTMUHAMMADOV, chief]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Adham SHODMONOV, chairman]; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Asliddin RUSTAMOV, first secretary]; Self-Sacrificers Party or Fidokorlar National Democratic Party [Ahtam TURSUNOV, chief]; note - Fatherland Progress Party merged z Self-Sacrificers Party
Vanuatu Vanuatu Jon Frum Movement [Song KEASPAI]; Melanesian Progressive Party or MPP [Barak SOPE]; National United Party or NUP [Hem LINI]; Union of Moderate Parties or UMP [Serge VOHOR]; Vanua'aku Pati (Our Land Party) or VP [Edward NATAPEI]; Vanuatu Greens Party or VGP [Moana CARCASSES]; Vanuatu Republican Party or VRP [Maxime Carlot KORMAN] Jon Frum Movement [Song KEASPAI]; Melanesian Progressive Party or MPP [Barak SOPE]; National United Party or NUP [Hem LINI]; Union of Moderate Parties or UMP [Serge VOHOR]; Vanua'aku Pati (Our Land Party) or VP [Edward NATAPEI]; Vanuatu Greens Party or VGP [Moana CARCASSES]; Vanuatu Republican Party or VRP [Maxime Carlot KORMAN]
Wenezuela Wenezuela A New Time or UNT [Manuel ROSALES]; Christian Democrats or COPEI [Cesar PEREZ Vivas]; Communist Party of Wenezuela or PCV [Jeronimo CARRERA]; Democratic Action or AD [Henry RAMOS Allup]; Fatherland dla All or PPT [Jose ALBORNOZ]; Justice First [Julio BORGES]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Hector MUJICA]; United Socialist Party of Wenezuela or PSUV [Hugo CHAVEZ]; Wenezuela Project or PV [Henrique SALAS Romer]; We Can or PODEMOS [Ismael GARCIA] Christian Democrats or COPEI [Eduardo FERNANDEZ]; Democratic Action or AD [Jesus MENDEZ Quijada]; Fatherland dla All or PPT [Jose ALBORNOZ]; Fifth Republic Movement or MVR [Hugo CHAVEZ]; Justice First [Julio BORGES]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Hector MUJICA]; Wenezuela Project or PV [Henrique SALAS Romer]; We Can or PODEMOS [Ismael GARCIA]
Wietnam Wietnam Communist Party of Wietnam or CPV [Nong Duc MANH]; other parties proscribed only party - Communist Party of Wietnam or CPV [Nong Duc MANH]
Wyspy Dziewicze Wyspy Dziewicze Democratic Party [Arturo WATLINGTON]; Independent Citizens' Movement or ICM [Usie RICHARDS]; Republican Party [Gary SPRAUVE] Democratic Party [Arturo WATLINGTON]; Independent Citizens' Movement or ICM [Usie RICHARDS]; Republican Party [Gary SPRAUVE]
Wallis i Futuna Wallis i Futuna Lua Kae Tahi (Giscardians); Mouvement des Radicaux de Gauche or MRG; Rally dla the Republic or RPR (UMP) [Clovis LOGOLOGOFOLAU]; Socialist Party or PS; Taumu'a Lelei [Soane Muni UHILA]; Union Populaire Locale or UPL [Falakiko GATA]; Union Pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF Lua Kae Tahi (Giscardians); Mouvement des Radicaux de Gauche or MRG; Rally dla the Republic or RPR (UMP) [Clovis LOGOLOGOFOLAU]; Socialist Party or PS; Taumu'a Lelei [Soane Muni UHILA]; Union Populaire Locale or UPL [Falakiko GATA]; Union Pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF
Jemen Jemen General People's Congress or GPC [Abdul-Kader BAJAMMAL]; Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah [Mohammed Abdullah AL-YADOUMI (acting)]; Nasserite Unionist Party [Abdal Malik al-MAKHLAFI]; National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party [Dr. Qasim SALAM]; Jemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Ali Salih MUQBIL]; note - there are at least seven more active political parties there are more than 12 political parties active w Jemen, some of the more prominent are: General People's Congress or GPC [President Ali Abdallah SALIH]; Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah [Shaykh Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR]; Nasserite Unionist Party [Abdal Malik al-MAKHLAFI]; National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party [Dr. Qasim SALAM]; Jemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Ali Salih MUQBIL]
Zambia Zambia All Peoples Congress Party [Winright NGONDO]; Forum dla Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]; Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]; Liberal Progressive Front or LPF [Roger CHONGWE]; Movement dla Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Levy MWANAWASA]; National Democratic Focus or NDF; Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]; Party of Unity dla Democracy and Development or PUDD [Dan PULE]; Reform Party [Nevers MUMBA]; United Democratic Alliance or UDA; United Liberal Party or ULP [Sakwiba SIKOTA]; United National Niepodleglosc Party or UNIP [Tilyenji KAUNDA]; United Party dla National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]; Zambia Democratic Congress or ZADECO [Langton SICHONE]; Zambian Republican Party or ZRP [Benjamin MWILA] Agenda dla Zambia or AZ [Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA]; Forum dla Democracy and Development or FDD [Christon TEMBO]; Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]; Liberal Progressive Front or LPF [Roger CHONGWE, president]; Movement dla Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Levy MWANAWASA, acting president]; National Leadership dla Development or NLD [Yobert SHAMAPANDE]; National Party or NP [Dr. Sam CHIPUNGU]; Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Gwendoline KONIE]; United National Niepodleglosc Party or UNIP [Francis NKHOMA, president]; United Party dla National Development or UPND [Anderson MAZOKA]; Zambian Republican Party or ZRP [Benjamin MWILA]
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe African National Party or ANP [Egipt DZINEMUNHENZVA]; Movement dla Democratic Change or MDC [Morgan TSVANGIRAI, anti-Senate faction; Arthur MUTAMBARA, pro-Senate faction]; Peace Action is Freedom dla All or PAFA; United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]; United People's Party or UPP [Daniel SHUMBA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [Wilson KUMBULA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE]; Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Agrippa MADLELA]; Zimbabwe Youth w Alliance or ZIYA African National Party or ANP; Movement dla Democratic Change or MDC [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]; Peace Action is Freedom dla All or PAFA; United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]; United People's Party [Daniel SHUMBA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [Wilson KUMBULA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE]; Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Agrippa MADLELA]; Zimbabwe Youth w Alliance or ZIYA
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