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Wielka Brytania (2006)

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Wielka Brytania 2006 roku

 Wielka Brytania
Podzial administracyjny England: 47 boroughs, 36 counties, 29 London boroughs, 12 cities and boroughs, 10 districts, 12 cities, 3 royal boroughs

boroughs: Barnsley, Blackburn z Darwen, Blackpool, Bolton, Bournemouth, Bracknell Forest, Brighton and Hove, Bury, Calderdale, Darlington, Doncaster, Dudley, Gateshead, Halton, Hartlepool, Kirklees, Knowsley, Luton, Medway, Middlesbrough, Milton Keynes, North Tyneside, Oldham, Poole, Reading, Redcar and Cleveland, Rochdale, Rotherham, Sandwell, Sefton, Slough, Solihull, Southend-on-Sea, South Tyneside, St. Helens, Stockport, Stockton-on-Tees, Swindon, Tameside, Thurrock, Torbay, Trafford, Walsall, Warrington, Wigan, Wirral, Wolverhampton

counties (or unitary authorities): Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derbyshire, Devon, Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, North Yorkshire, Northamptonshire, Northumberland, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Shropshire, Somerset, Staffordshire, Suffolk, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Sussex, Wiltshire, Worcestershire

London boroughs: Barking and Dagenham, Barnet, Bexley, Brent, Bromley, Camden, Croydon, Ealing, Enfield, Greenwich, Hackney, Hammersmith and Fulham, Haringey, Harrow, Havering, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Islington, Lambeth, Lewisham, Merton, Newham, Redbridge, Richmond upon Thames, Southwark, Sutton, Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest, Wandsworth

cities and boroughs: Birmingham, Bradford, Coventry, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, Salford, Sheffield, Sunderland, Wakefield, Westminster

districts: Bath and North East Somerset, East Riding of Yorkshire, North East Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire, North Somerset, Rutland, South Gloucestershire, Telford and Wrekin, West Berkshire, Wokingham

cities: City of Bristol, Derby, City of Kingston upon Hull, Leicester, City of London, Nottingham, Peterborough, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Southampton, Stoke-on-Trent, York

royal boroughs: Kensington and Chelsea, Kingston upon Thames, Windsor and Maidenhead

Northern Irlandia: 24 districts, 2 cities, 6 counties

districts: Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Craigavon, Down, Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh, Strabane

cities: Belfast, Londonderry (Derry)

counties: County Antrim, County Armagh, County Down, County Fermanagh, County Londonderry, County Tyrone

Scotland: 32 council areas: Aberdeen City, Aberdeenshire, Angus, Argyll and Bute, Clackmannanshire, Dumfries and Galloway, Dundee City, East Ayrshire, East Dunbartonshire, East Lothian, East Renfrewshire, City of Edinburgh, Eilean Siar (Western Isles), Falkirk, Fife, Glasgow City, Highland, Inverclyde, Midlothian, Moray, North Ayrshire, North Lanarkshire, Orkney Islands, Perth and Kinross, Renfrewshire, Shetland Islands, South Ayrshire, South Lanarkshire, Stirling, The Scottish Borders, West Dunbartonshire, West Lothian;

Wales: 11 county boroughs, 9 counties, 2 cities and counties

county boroughs: Blaenau Gwent, Bridgend, Caerphilly, Conwy, Gwynedd, Merthyr Tydfil, Neath Port Talbot, Newport, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Torfaen, Wrexham

counties: Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion, Denbighshire, Flintshire, Isle of Anglesey, Monmouthshire, Pembrokeshire, Powys, The Vale of Glamorgan

cities and counties: Cardiff, Swansea
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 17.5% (male 5,417,663/female 5,161,714)

15-64 years: 66.8% (male 20,476,571/female 19,988,959)

65 years and over: 15.8% (male 4,087,020/female 5,477,226) (2006 est.)
Rolinictwo cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish
Lotniska 471 (2006)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 334

over 3,047 m: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 33

1,524 to 2,437 m: 149

914 to 1,523 m: 86

under 914 m: 58 (2006)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 137

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 23

under 914 m: 112 (2006)
Terytorium total: 244,820 sq km

land: 241,590 sq km

water: 3,230 sq km

note: includes Rockall and Shetland Islands
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Oregon
Tlo historyczne As the dominant industrial and maritime power of the 19th century, the Wielka Brytania of Great Britain and Irlandia played a leading role w developing parliamentary democracy and w advancing literature and science. At its zenith, the British Empire stretched over one-fourth of the earth's surface. The first half of the 20th century saw the UK's strength seriously depleted w two Swiat Wars and the Irish republic withdraw from the union. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the UK rebuilding itself into a modern and prosperous European nation. As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council, a founding member of NATO, and of the Commonwealth, the UK pursues a global approach to foreign policy; it currently is weighing the degree of its integration z continental Europe. A member of the EU, it chose to remain outside the Economic and Monetary Union dla the time being. Konstytucjaal reform is also a significant issue w the UK. The Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly dla Wales, and the Northern Irlandia Assembly were established w 1999, but the latter is suspended due to wrangling over the peace process.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 10.71 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budzet revenues: $881.4 billion

expenditures: $951 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Stolica name: London

geographic coordinates: 51 30 N, 0 10 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast
Linia brzegowa 12,429 km
Konstytucja unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Wielka Brytania of Great Britain and Northern Irlandia; note - Great Britain includes England, Scotland, and Wales

conventional short form: Wielka Brytania

abbreviation: UK
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10.13 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $7.107 trillion (30 czerwiec 2005)
Zalezne tereny Anguilla, Bermudy, Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego, Brytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze, Kajmany, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Pitcairn, Swieta Helena and Ascension, Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy, Turks i Caicos
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Robert Holmes TUTTLE

embassy: 24 Grosvenor Square, London, W1A 1AE

mailing address: PSC 801, Box 40, FPO AE 09498-4040

telephone: [44] (0) 20 7499-9000

FAX: [44] (0) 20 7629-9124

consulate(s) general: Belfast, Edinburgh
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador David G. MANNING

chancery: 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 588-6500

FAX: [1] (202) 588-7870

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

consulate(s): Dallas, Denver, Miami, Orlando
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement between the UK and Hiszpania; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation w talks between the two countries; Hiszpania disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Mauritius and Seszele claim the Chagos Archipelago (Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego), and its former inhabitants since their eviction w 1965; most Chagossians reside w Mauritius, and w 2001 were granted UK citizenship but no right to patriation w the UK; UK rejects sovereignty talks requested by Argentyna, which still claims the Falklandy and Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy; territorial claim w Antarktyda (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; Islandia, the UK, and Irlandia dispute Dania's claim that the Wyspy Owcze' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $7.9 billion (2004)
Ekonomia The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is one of the quintet of trillion dollar economies of Western Europe. Over the past two decades, the government has greatly reduced public ownership and contained the growth of social welfare programs. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs z less than 2% of the labor force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy production accounts dla 10% of Produkt krajowy brutto, one of the highest shares of any industrial nation. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, account by far dla the largest proportion of Produkt krajowy brutto while industry continues to decline w importance. Produkt krajowy brutto growth slipped w 2001-03 as the global downturn, the high value of the pound, and the bursting of the "new economy" bubble hurt manufacturing and exports. Output recovered w 2004, to 3.2% growth, but fell w 2005, to 1.7%. Despite slower growth, the economy is one of the strongest w Europe; inflation, interest rates, and unemployment remain low. The relatively good economic performance has complicated the BLAIR government's efforts to make a case dla Britain to join the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Critics point out that the economy is doing well outside of EMU, and public opinion polls show a majority of Britons are opposed to the euro. Meantime, the government has been speeding up the improvement of education, transport, and health services, at a cost w higher taxes and a widening public deficit.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 346.1 billion kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 3 billion kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - import 5.1 billion kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 369.9 billion kWh (2003)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: The Fens -4 m

highest point: Ben Nevis 1,343 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy continues to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (has met Kyoto Protocol target of a 12.5% reduction from 1990 levels and intends to meet the legally binding target and move toward a domestic goal of a 20% cut w emissions by 2010); by 2005 the government aims to reduce the amount of industrial and commercial waste disposed of w landfill sites to 85% of 1998 levels and to recycle or compost at least 25% of household waste, increasing to 33% by 2015; between 1998-99 and 1999-2000, household recycling increased from 8.8% to 10.3%
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Grupy etniczne white (of which English 83.6%, Scottish 8.6%, Welsh 4.9%, Northern Irish 2.9%) 92.1%, black 2%, Indien 1.8%, Pakistani 1.3%, mixed 1.2%, other 1.6% (2001 census)
Kurs waluty British pounds per US dollar - 0.55 (2005), 0.5462 (2004), 0.6125 (2003), 0.6672 (2002), 0.6947 (2001)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 listopad 1948)

head of government: Prime Minister Anthony (Tony) BLAIR (since 2 maj 1997)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually the prime minister
Eksport 3 billion kWh (2003)
Eksport $372.7 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Eksport 15.75 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport 1.498 million bbl/day (2001)
Eksport - towary manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco
Eksport - partnerzy US 15.1%, Niemcy 10.5%, Francja 8.9%, Irlandia 7.3%, Holandia 5.5%, Belgia 5%, Hiszpania 4.4% (2005)
Rok podatkowy 6 kwiecien - 5 kwiecien
Opis flagi blue field z the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged w white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Irlandia), which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); properly known as the Union Flag, but commonly called the Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis dla a number of other flags including other Commonwealth countries and their constituent states or provinces, and British overseas territories
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 0.5%

industry: 23.7%

services: 75.8% (2005 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 1.9% (2005 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 54 00 N, 2 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from Francja and linked by tunnel under the English Channel; because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters
Ladowiska helikopterow 11 (2006)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.1%

highest 10%: 28.5% (1999)
Narkotyki producer of limited amounts of synthetic drugs and synthetic precursor chemicals; major consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and synthetic drugs; money-laundering center
Import 5.1 billion kWh (2003)
Import $483.7 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Import 2.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Import 1.084 million bbl/day (2003)
Import - towary manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs
Import - partnerzy Niemcy 12.8%, US 8.7%, Francja 7.1%, Holandia 6.6%, Chiny 5%, Norwegia 4.7%, Belgia 4.6%, Wlochy 4% (2005)
Niepodleglosc England has existed as a unified entity since the 10th century; the union between England and Wales, begun w 1284 z the Statute of Rhuddlan, was not formalized until 1536 z an Act of Union; w another Act of Union w 1707, England and Scotland agreed to permanently join as Great Britain; the legislative union of Great Britain and Irlandia was implemented w 1801, z the adoption of the name the Wielka Brytania of Great Britain and Irlandia; the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921 formalized a partition of Irlandia; six northern Irish counties remained part of the Wielka Brytania as Northern Irlandia and the current name of the country, the Wielka Brytania of Great Britain and Northern Irlandia, was adopted w 1927
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle -1.9% (2005 est.)
Przemysl machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, other consumer goods
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 5.08 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.67 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflacja 2.1% (2005 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, Arctic Council (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CBSS (observer), CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SECI (observer), UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, WToO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 1,700 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo House of Lords (highest court of appeal; several Lords of Appeal w Ordinary are appointed by the monarch dla life); Supreme Courts of England, Wales, and Northern Irlandia (comprising the Courts of Appeal, the High Courts of Justice, and the Crown Courts); Scotland's Court of Session and Court of the Justiciary
Sila robocza 30.07 million (2005 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 1.5%

industry: 19.1%

services: 79.5% (2004)
Granica total: 360 km

border countries: Irlandia 360 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 23.23%

permanent crops: 0.2%

other: 76.57% (2005)
Jezyki English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 w Scotland)
System prawny common law tradition z early Roman and modern continental influences; has nonbinding judicial review of Acts of Parliament under the Human Rights Act of 1998; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament comprised of House of Lords (consists of approximately 500 life peers, 92 hereditary peers and 26 clergy) and House of Commons (646 seats since 2005 elections; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms unless the House is dissolved earlier)

elections: House of Lords - no elections (note - w 1999, as provided by the House of Lords Act, elections were held w the House of Lords to determine the 92 hereditary peers who would remain there; elections are held only as vacancies w the hereditary peerage arise); House of Commons - last held 5 maj 2005 (next to be held by maj 2010)

election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Labor 35.2%, Conservative 32.3%, Liberal Democrats 22%, other 10.5%; seats by party - Labor 356, Conservative 197, Liberal Democrat 62, other 31; note - as of 10 luty 2006 party by seat w the House of Commons: Labor 353, Conservative 196, Liberal Democrat 63, Scottish National Party/Plaid Cymru 9, Democratic Unionist 9, Sinn Fein 5 (but cannot vote), other 11

note: w 1998 elections were held dla a Northern Irlandia Assembly (because of unresolved disputes among existing parties, the transfer of power from London to Northern Irlandia came only at the end of 1999 and has been suspended four times the latest occurring w pazdziernik 2002); w 1999 there were elections dla a new Scottish Parliament and a new Welsh Assembly
Zywotnosc total population: 78.54 years

male: 76.09 years

female: 81.13 years (2006 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Western Europe, islands including the northern one-sixth of the island of Irlandia between the North Ocean Atlantycki and the North Sea, northwest of Francja
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: as defined w continental shelf orders or w accordance z agreed upon boundaries
Flota handlowa total: 449 ships (1000 GRT or over) 11,049,317 GRT/11,731,680 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 24, cargo 54, chemical tanker 50, container 146, liquefied gas 17, passenger 9, passenger/cargo 65, petroleum tanker 33, refrigerated cargo 17, roll on/roll off 26, vehicle carrier 8

foreign-owned: 215 (Australia 3, Dania 46, Finlandia 1, Francja 4, Niemcy 76, Grecja 7, Irlandia 1, Wlochy 4, Holandia 3, Norwegia 36, NZ 1, Republika Poludniowej Afryki 5, Hiszpania 1, Szwecja 15, Szwajcaria 3, Tajwan 1, Turcja 2, US 6)

registered w other countries: 368 (Algieria 13, Antigua i Barbuda 7, Argentyna 4, Australia 2, Bahamas 69, Barbados 5, Belgia 2, Bermudy 9, Brazylia 1, Brunei 8, Republika Zielonego Przyladka 1, Kajmany 10, Cypr 6, Dania 1, Finlandia 1, Francuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i Antarktyczne 1, Georgia 4, Gibraltar 4, Grecja 9, Hong Kong 43, Indie 1, Indonezja 2, Wlochy 3, South Korea 2, Liberia 41, Malta 8, Wyspy Marshalla 12, Maroko 1, Holandia 19, Antyle Holenderskie 3, Norwegia 6, Panama 37, Papua-Nowa Gwinea 6, Saint Vincent i Grenadyny 13, Singapur 9, Slowacja 1, Hiszpania 1, Tajlandia 2, Tonga 1) (2006)
Wojsko Army, Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Royal Air Force
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $42,836.5 million (2003)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.4% (2003)
Swieto narodowe the UK does not celebrate one particular national holiday
Narodowosc noun: Briton(s), British (collective plural)

adjective: British
Naturalne zagrozenia winter windstorms; floods
Surowce naturalne coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, lead, zinc, gold, tin, limestone, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, potash, silica sand, slate, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji 2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Rurociagi condensate 565 km; condensate/gas 6 km; gas 21,575 km; liquid petroleum gas 59 km; oil 5,094 km; oil/gas/water 161 km; refined products 4,444 km (2006)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Conservative and Unionist Party [David CAMERON]; Democratic Unionist Party (Northern Irlandia) [Rev. Ian PAISLEY]; Labor Party [Anthony (Tony) BLAIR]; Liberal Democrats [Sir Menzies CAMPBELL]; Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Dafydd IWAN]; Scottish National Party or SNP [Alex SALMOND]; Sinn Fein (Northern Irlandia) [Gerry ADAMS]; Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Irlandia) [Mark DURKAN]; Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Irlandia) [Sir Reg EMPEY]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Campaign dla Nuclear Disarmament; Confederation of British Industry; National Farmers' Union; Trades Union Congress
Ludnosc 60,609,153 (lipiec 2006 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 17% (2002 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.28% (2006 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 219, FM 431, shortwave 3 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 17,156 km

standard gauge: 16,814 km 1.435-m gauge (5,384 km electrified)

broad gauge: 342 km 1.600-m gauge (in Northern Irlandia) (2005)
Religie Christian (Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist) 71.6%, Muslim 2.7%, Hindu 1%, other 1.6%, unspecified or none 23.1% (2001 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: technologically advanced domestic and international system

domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems

international: country code - 44; 40 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Ocean Atlantycki and 3 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 32.943 million (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 61.091 million (2004)
Stacje telewizyjne 228 (plus 3,523 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains w east and southeast
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.66 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 4.7% (2005 est.)
Drogi wodne 3,200 km (620 km used dla commerce) (2003)
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