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Wielka Brytania (2001)

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Wielka Brytania 2001 roku

 Wielka Brytania
Podzial administracyjny England - 47 boroughs, 36 counties*, 29 London boroughs**, 12 cities and boroughs***, 10 districts****, 12 cities*****, 3 royal boroughs******; Barking and Dagenham**, Barnet**, Barnsley, Bath and North East Somerset****, Bedfordshire*, Bexley**, Birmingham***, Blackburn z Darwen, Blackpool, Bolton, Bournemouth, Bracknell Forest, Bradford***, Brent**, Brighton and Hove, City of Bristol*****, Bromley**, Buckinghamshire*, Bury, Calderdale, Cambridgeshire*, Camden**, Cheshire*, Cornwall*, Coventry***, Croydon**, Cumbria*, Darlington, Derby*****, Derbyshire*, Devon*, Doncaster, Dorset*, Dudley, Durham*, Ealing**, East Riding of Yorkshire****, East Sussex*, Enfield**, Essex*, Gateshead, Gloucestershire*, Greenwich**, Hackney**, Halton, Hammersmith and Fulham**, Hampshire*, Haringey**, Harrow**, Hartlepool, Havering**, Herefordshire*, Hertfordshire*, Hillingdon**, Hounslow**, Isle of Wight*, Islington**, Kensington and Chelsea******, Kent*, City of Kingston upon Hull*****, Kingston upon Thames******, Kirklees, Knowsley, Lambeth**, Lancashire*, Leeds***, Leicester*****, Leicestershire*, Lewisham**, Lincolnshire*, Liverpool***, City of London*****, Luton, Manchester***, Medway, Merton**, Middlesbrough, Milton Keynes, Newcastle upon Tyne***, Newham**, Norfolk*, Northamptonshire*, North East Lincolnshire****, North Lincolnshire****, North Somerset****, North Tyneside, Northumberland*, North Yorkshire*, Nottingham*****, Nottinghamshire*, Oldham, Oxfordshire*, Peterborough*****, Plymouth*****, Poole, Portsmouth*****, Reading, Redbridge**, Redcar and Cleveland, Richmond upon Thames**, Rochdale, Rotherham, Rutland****, Salford***, Shropshire*, Sandwell, Sefton, Sheffield***, Slough, Solihull, Somerset*, Southampton*****, Southend-on-Sea, South Gloucestershire****, South Tyneside, Southwark**, Staffordshire*, St. Helens, Stockport, Stockton-on-Tees, Stoke-on-Trent*****, Suffolk*, Sunderland***, Surrey*, Sutton**, Swindon, Tameside, Telford and Wrekin****, Thurrock, Torbay, Tower Hamlets**, Trafford, Wakefield***, Walsall, Waltham Forest**, Wandsworth**, Warrington, Warwickshire*, West Berkshire****, Westminster***, West Sussex*, Wigan, Wiltshire*, Windsor and Maidenhead******, Wirral, Wokingham****, Wolverhampton, Worcestershire*, York*****; Northern Irlandia - 24 districts, 2 cities*; Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge, Belfast*, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Craigavon, Down, Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, Derry*, Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh, Strabane; Scotland - 32 council areas; Aberdeen City, Aberdeenshire, Angus, Argyll and Bute, The Scottish Borders, Clackmannanshire, Dumfries and Galloway, Dundee City, East Ayrshire, East Dunbartonshire, East Lothian, East Renfrewshire, City of Edinburgh, Falkirk, Fife, Glasgow City, Highland, Inverclyde, Midlothian, Moray, North Ayrshire, North Lanarkshire, Orkney Islands, Perth and Kinross, Renfrewshire, Shetland Islands, South Ayrshire, South Lanarkshire, Stirling, West Dunbartonshire, Eilean Siar (Western Isles), West Lothian; Wales - 11 county boroughs, 9 counties*, 2 cities and counties**; Isle of Anglesey*, Blaenau Gwent, Bridgend, Caerphilly, Cardiff**, Ceredigion*, Carmarthenshire*, Conwy, Denbighshire*, Flintshire*, Gwynedd, Merthyr Tydfil, Monmouthshire*, Neath Port Talbot, Newport, Pembrokeshire*, Powys*, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Swansea**, Torfaen, The Vale of Glamorgan*, Wrexham
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years:
18.89% (male 5,778,415; female 5,486,114)

15-64 years:
65.41% (male 19,712,932; female 19,304,771)

65 years and over:
15.7% (male 3,895,921; female 5,469,637) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish
Lotniska 489 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total:
349

over 3,047 m:
10

2,438 to 3,047 m:
33

1,524 to 2,437 m:
162

914 to 1,523 m:
89

under 914 m:
55 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total:
140

1,524 to 2,437 m:
1

914 to 1,523 m:
23

under 914 m:
116 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total:
244,820 sq km

land:
241,590 sq km

water:
3,230 sq km

note:
includes Rockall and Shetland Islands
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Oregon
Tlo historyczne Great Britain, the dominant industrial and maritime power of the 19th century, played a leading role w developing parliamentary democracy and w advancing literature and science. At its zenith, the British Empire stretched over one-fourth of the earth's surface. The first half of the 20th century saw the UK's strength seriously depleted w two Swiat Wars. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the UK rebuilding itself into a modern and prosperous European nation. As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council, a founding member of NATO, and of the Commonwealth, the UK pursues a global approach to foreign policy; it currently is weighing the degree of its integration z continental Europe. A member of the EU, it chose to remain outside of the European Monetary Union dla the time being. Konstytucjaal reform is also a significant issue w the UK. Regional assemblies z varying degrees of power opened w Scotland, Wales, and Northern Irlandia w 1999.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 11.54 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues:
$555.2 billion

expenditures:
$510.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $37.7 billion (FY00)
Stolica London
Klimat temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast
Linia brzegowa 12,429 km
Konstytucja unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form:
Wielka Brytania of Great Britain and Northern Irlandia

conventional short form:
Wielka Brytania

abbreviation:
UK
Waluta British pound (GBP)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10.35 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $NA
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Philip LADER

embassy:
24/31 Grosvenor Square, London, W1A1AE

mailing address:
PSC 801, Box 40, FPO AE 09498-4040

telephone:
[44] (0) 207499-9000 (switchboard)

FAX:
[44] (171) 409-1637

consulate(s) general:
Belfast, Edinburgh
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Sir Christopher J. R. MEYER

chancery:
3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:
[1] (202) 588-6500

FAX:
[1] (202) 588-7870

consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco

consulate(s):
Dallas, Denver, Miami, Orlando (reports to Atlanta), San Juan, and Seattle
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Northern Irlandia issue z Irlandia (historic peace agreement signed 10 kwiecien 1998); Gibraltar issue z Hiszpania; Argentyna claims Falklandy; Argentyna claims Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy; Mauritius and the Seszele claim Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego); Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Dania and Islandia; territorial claim w Antarktyda (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; disputes z Islandia, Dania, and Irlandia over the Wyspy Owcze continental shelf boundary outside 200 NM
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $3.4 billion (1997)
Ekonomia The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, deploys an essentially capitalistic economy, one of the quartet of trillion dollar economies of Western Europe. Over the past two decades the government has greatly reduced public ownership and contained the growth of social welfare programs. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs z only 1% of the labor force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy production accounts dla 10% of Produkt krajowy brutto, one of the highest shares of any industrial nation. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, account by far dla the largest proportion of Produkt krajowy brutto while industry continues to decline w importance. The economy has grown steadily, at just above or below 3%, dla the last several years. The BLAIR government has put off the question of participation w the euro system until after the next election, w czerwiec of 2001; Chancellor of the Exchequer BROWN has identified some key economic tests to determine whether the UK should join the common currency system, but it will largely be a political decision. A serious short-term problem is foot-and-mouth disease, which by early 2001 had broken out w nearly 600 farms and slaughterhouses and had resulted w the killing of 400,000 animals.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 333.012 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 265 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - import 14.5 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 342.771 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel:
69.38%

hydro:
1.55%

nuclear:
26.68%

other:
2.39% (1999)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point:
Fenland -4 m

highest point:
Ben Nevis 1,343 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy continues to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (has meet Kyoto Protocol target of a 12.5% reduction from 1990 levels and hopes to reduce even more); small particulate emissions, largely from vehicular traffic, remain a problem; solid waste continues to rise and recycling is very limited
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh 1.9%, Ulster 1.8%, West Indien, Indien, Pakistani, and other 2.8%
Kurs waluty British pounds per US dollar - 0.6764 (styczen 2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997), 0.6403 (1996)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 listopad 1948)

head of government:
Prime Minister Anthony C. L. (Tony) BLAIR (since 2 maj 1997)

cabinet:
Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections:
none; the monarch is hereditary; the prime minister is the leader of the majority party w the House of Commons (assuming there is no majority party, a prime minister would have a majority coalition or at least a coalition that was not rejected by the majority)
Eksport 265 million kWh (1999)
Eksport $282 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Eksport - towary manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco
Eksport - partnerzy EU 58% (Niemcy 12%, Francja 10%, Holandia 8%), US 15% (1999)
Rok podatkowy 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec
Opis flagi blue z the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged w white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Irlandia) and which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); known as the Union Flag or Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis dla a number of other flags including other Commonwealth countries and their constituent states or provinces, as well as British overseas territories
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $1.36 trillion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture:
1.7%

industry:
24.9%

services:
73.4% (1999)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $22,800 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 54 00 N, 2 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from Francja and now linked by tunnel under the English Channel; because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters
Ladowiska helikopterow 11 (2000 est.)
Autostrady total:
371,603 km

paved:
371,603 km (including 3,303 km of expressways)

unpaved:
0 km (1998 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%:
2.6%

highest 10%:
27.3% (1991)
Narkotyki gateway country dla Latin American cocaine entering the European market; major consumer of synthetic drugs, producer of limited amounts of synthetic drugs and synthetic precursor chemicals; major consumer of Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering center
Import 14.5 billion kWh (1999)
Import $324 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Import - towary manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs
Import - partnerzy EU 53% (Niemcy 14%, Francja 9%, Holandia 7%), US 13%, Japonia 5% (1999)
Niepodleglosc England has existed as a unified entity since the 10th century; the union between England and Wales was enacted under the Statute of Rhuddlan w 1284; w the Act of Union of 1707, England and Scotland agreed to permanent union as Great Britain; the legislative union of Great Britain and Irlandia was implemented w 1801, z the adoption of the name the Wielka Brytania of Great Britain and Irlandia; the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921 formalized a partition of Irlandia; six northern Irish counties remained part of the Wielka Brytania as Northern Irlandia and the current name of the country, the Wielka Brytania of Great Britain and Northern Irlandia, was adopted w 1927
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 2% (2000)
Przemysl machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other consumer goods
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 5.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 2.4% (2000 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Dostawcy internetu 245 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 1,080 sq km (1993 est.)
Sadownictwo House of Lords (highest court of appeal; several Lords of Appeal w Ordinary are appointed by the monarch dla life); Supreme Courts of England, Wales, and Northern Irlandia (comprising the Courts of Appeal, the High Courts of Justice, and the Crown Courts); Scotland's Court of Session and Court of the Justiciary
Sila robocza 29.2 million (1999)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 1%, industry 19%, services 80% (1996 est.)
Granica total:
360 km

border countries:
Irlandia 360 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land:
25%

permanent crops:
0%

permanent pastures:
46%

forests and woodland:
10%

other:
19% (1993 est.)
Jezyki English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 w Scotland)
System prawny common law tradition z early Roman and modern continental influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations; British courts and legislation are increasingly subject to review by Unia Europejska courts
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament comprised of House of Lords (consists of approximately 500 life peers, 92 hereditary peers and 26 clergy) and House of Commons (659 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms unless the House is dissolved earlier)

elections:
House of Lords - no elections (some proposals dla further reform include elections); House of Commons - last held 7 czerwiec 2001 (next to be held by NA maj 2006)

election results:
House of Commons - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Labor 412, Conservative and Unionist 166, Liberal Democrat 52, other 29

note:
in 1998 elections were held dla a Northern Irlandia Parliament (because of unresolved disputes among existing parties, the transfer of power from London to Northern Irlandia came only at the end of 1999 and was rescinded w luty 2000); w 1999 there were elections dla a new Scottish Parliament and a new Welsh Assembly
Zywotnosc total population:
77.82 years

male:
75.13 years

female:
80.66 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition:
age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling

total population:
99% (1978 est.)

male:
NA%

female:
NA%
Lokalizacja Western Europe, islands including the northern one-sixth of the island of Irlandia between the North Ocean Atlantycki and the North Sea, northwest of Francja
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary continental shelf:
as defined w continental shelf orders or w accordance z agreed upon boundaries

exclusive fishing zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Flota handlowa total:
200 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,934,776 GRT/3,760,240 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 4, cargo 31, chemical tanker 11, combination ore/oil 1, container 47, liquefied gas 3, passenger 14, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 52, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 19, short-sea passenger 10, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 2

note:
includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Dania 1 (2000 est.)
Wojsko Army, Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Royal Air Force
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $36.884 billion (FY97)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.7% (FY97)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49:
14,599,199 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49:
12,139,930 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II, celebrated on the second Saturday w czerwiec (1926)
Narodowosc noun:
Briton(s), British (collective plural)

adjective:
British
Naturalne zagrozenia NA
Surowce naturalne coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji 1.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil (almost all insignificant) 933 km; petroleum products 2,993 km; natural gas 12,800 km
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Conservative and Unionist Party [William HAGUE]; Democratic Unionist Party (Northern Irlandia) [Rev. Ian PAISLEY]; Labor Party [Anthony (Tony) Blair]; Liberal Democrats [Charles KENNEDY]; Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Ieuan Wyn JONES]; Scottish National Party or SNP [John SWINNEY]; Sinn Fein (Northern Irlandia) [Gerry ADAMS]; Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Irlandia) [John HUME]; Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Irlandia) [David TRIMBLE]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Campaign dla Nuclear Disarmament; Confederation of British Industry; National Farmers' Union; Trades Union Congress
Ludnosc 59,647,790 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 17%
Przyrost naturalny 0.23% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie Aberdeen, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Dover, Falmouth, Felixstowe, Glasgow, Grangemouth, Hull, Leith, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Peterhead, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Scapa Flow, Southampton, Sullom Voe, Tees, Tyne
Stacje radiowe AM 219, FM 431, shortwave 3 (1998)
Radia 84.5 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total:
16,878 km

broad gauge:
342 km 1.600-m gauge (190 km double track); note - all 1.600-m gauge track, of which 342 km is w common carrier use, and is w Northern Irlandia

standard gauge:
16,536 km 1.435-m gauge (4,928 km electrified; 12,591 km double or multiple track) (1996)
Religie Anglican 27 million, Roman Catholic 9 million, Muslim 1 million, Presbyterian 800,000, Methodist 760,000, Sikh 400,000, Hindu 350,000, Jewish 300,000 (1991 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.71 male(s)/female

total population:
0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment:
technologically advanced domestic and international system

domestic:
equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems

international:
40 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Ocean Atlantycki and 3 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 34.878 million (1997)
Telefony komorkowe 13 million (yearend 1998)
Stacje telewizyjne 228 (plus 3,523 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains w east and southeast
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.73 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 5.5% (2000 est.)
Drogi wodne 3,200 km
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