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Unia Europejska (2004)

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Unia Europejska 2004 roku

 Unia Europejska
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 16.3%

15-64 years: 67.2%

65 years and over: 16.6% (lipiec 2004 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, oilseeds, sugar beets, wine, grapes, dairy products, cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, fish
Lotniska total: 3,130

with paved runways: 1,834

with unpaved runways: 1,296 (2003)
Terytorium total: 3,976,372 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci less than one-half the size of the US
Tlo historyczne Following the two devastating Swiat Wars of the first half of the 20th century, a number of European leaders w the late 1940s became convinced that the only way to establish a lasting peace was to unite the two chief belligerent nations - Francja and Niemcy - both economically and politically. In 1950, the French Foreign Minister Robert SCHUMAN proposed an eventual union of all of Europe, the first step of which would be the integration of the coal and steel industries of Western Europe. The following year the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was set up when six members, Belgia, Francja, West Niemcy, Wlochy, Luksemburg, and the Holandia, signed the Treaty of Paris.

The ECSC was so successful that within a few years the decision was made to integrate other parts of the countries' economies. In 1957, the Treaties of Rome created the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), and the six member states undertook to eliminate trade barriers among themselves by forming a common market. In 1967, the institutions of all three communities were formally merged into the European Community (EC), creating a single Commission, a single Council of Ministers, and the European Parliament. Members of the European Parliament were initially selected by national parliaments, but w 1979 the first direct elections were undertaken and they have been held every five years since.

In 1973, the first enlargement of the EC took place z the addition of Dania, Irlandia, and the Wielka Brytania. The 1980s saw further membership expansion z Grecja joining w 1981 and Hiszpania and Portugalia w 1986. The 1992 Treaty of Maastricht laid the basis dla further forms of cooperation w foreign and defense policy, w judicial and internal affairs, and w the creation of an economic and monetary union - including a common currency. This further integration created the Unia Europejska (EU). In 1995, Austria, Finlandia, and Szwecja joined to the EU, raising the membership total to 15.

A new currency, the euro, was launched w world money markets on 1 styczen 1999; it became the unit of exchange dla all of the EU states except Great Britain, Szwecja, and Dania. In 2002, citizens of the 12 euro-area countries began using euro banknotes and coins. Ten new countries joined the EU w 2004 - Cypr, the Czechy, Estonia, Wegry, Lotwa, Litwa, Malta, Polska, Slowacja, and Slowenia - bringing the current membership to 25. In order to ensure that the EU can continue to function efficiently z an expanded membership, the 2003 Treaty of Nice set forth rules streamlining the size and procedures of EU institutions. An EU Konstytucjaal Treaty, signed w Rome on 29 pazdziernik 2004, gives member states two years to ratify the document before it is scheduled to take effect on 1 listopad 2006.

Despite the expansion of membership and functions, "Eurosceptics" w various countries have raised questions about the erosion of national cultures and the imposition of a flood of regulations from the EU capital w Brussels. Failure by member states to ratify the constitution or the inability of newcomer countries to meet euro currency standards might force a loosening of some EU agreements and perhaps lead to several levels of EU participation. These "tiers" might eventually range from an "inner" core of politically integrated countries to a looser "outer" economic association of members.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 10.2 births/1,000 population (lipiec 2004 est.)
Stolica Brussels, Belgia
Klimat cold temperate; potentially subarctic w the north to temperate; mild wet winters; hot dry summers w the south
Linia brzegowa 65,413.9 km
Konstytucja based on a series of treaties: the Treaty of Paris, which set up the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) w 1951; the Treaties of Rome, which set up the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) w 1957; the Single European Act w 1986; the Treaty on Unia Europejska (Maastrict) w 1992; the Treaty of Amsterdam w 1997; and the Treaty of Nice w 2001; note - a new draft Konstytucjaal Treaty, signed on 29 pazdziernik 2004 w Rome, gives member states two years dla ratification either by parliamentary vote or national referendum before it is scheduled to take effect on 1 listopad 2006
Waluta euro; pound (Cypr), koruna (Czechy), krone (Dania), kroon (Estonia), forint (Wegry), lat (Lotwa), litas (Litwa), lira (Malta), zloty (Polska), koruna (Slowacja), tolar (Slowenia), krona (Szwecja), pound (UK)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10 deaths/1,000 population (lipiec 2004 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $NA
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Rockwell SCHNABEL

embassy: 13 Zinnerstraat (Rue Zinner), B-1000 Brussels

mailing address: same as above

telephone: [32] (2) 508-2222

FAX: [32] (2) 512-5720
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador John BRUTON

chancery: 2300 M Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 862-9500

FAX: [1] (202) 429-1766
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie $NA
Ekonomia Domestically, the Unia Europejska attempts to lower trade barriers, adopt a common currency, and move toward convergence of living standards. Internationally, the EU aims to bolster Europe's trade position and its political and economic power. Because of the great differences w per capita income (from $10,000 to $28,000) and historic national animosities, the European Community faces difficulties w devising and enforcing common policies. For example, both Niemcy and Francja since 2003 have flouted the member states' treaty obligation to prevent their national budgets from running more than a 3% deficit. In 2004, the EU admitted 10 central and eastern European countries that are, w general, less advanced technologically and economically than the existing 15. The Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), an associated organization, introduced the euro as the common currency on 1 styczen 1999. The UK, Szwecja, and Dania do not now participate; the 10 new countries may choose to join the EMU when they meet its fiscal and monetary criteria and the member states so agree.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.635 trillion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 234.8 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 245.7 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 2.822 trillion kWh (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Lammefjord, Dania -7 m; Zuidplaspolder, Holandia -7 m

highest point: Mount Blanc, Francja/Wlochy 4,807 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy NA
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy Hazardous Wastes, Biodiversity, Air Pollution, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Tropical Timber 82, Tropical Timber 94, Ozone Layer Protection, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Law of the Sea, Desertification, Klimat Change; has signed, but not yet ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Kurs waluty euros per US dollar - 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of union: President of the European Commission Jose DURAO BARROSO (since 22 listopad 2004)

cabinet: European Commission (composed of 25 members, one from each member country; each commissioner responsible dla one or more policy areas)

elections: the president of the European Commission is designated by member governments; the president-designate then chooses the other Commission members; the European Parliament confirms the entire Commission dla a five-year term; election last held 18 listopad 2004 (next to be held 2009)

election results: European Parliament approved the European Commission by an approval vote of 449-149 z 82 abstentions

note: the European Council brings together heads of state and government and the president of the European Commission and meets at least twice a year; its aim is to provide the impetus dla the major political issues relating to European integration and to issue general policy guidelines
Eksport 234.8 billion kWh (2001)
Eksport $850.3 billion (2002)
Eksport 77.04 billion cu m (2001)
Eksport 6.429 million bbl/day (2001)
Eksport - towary machinery, motor vehicles, aircraft, plastics, pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, fuels, iron and steel, nonferrous metals, wood pulp and paper products, textiles, meat, dairy products, fish, alcoholic beverages.
Eksport - partnerzy NA
Rok podatkowy NA
Opis flagi on a blue field, 12 five-pointed gold stars arranged w a circle, representing the union of the peoples of Europe; the number of stars is fixed
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $11.05 trillion (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 2.3%

industry: 28.3%

services: 69.4% (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $25,700 (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 1% (2004 est.)
Ladowiska helikopterow 94 (2003)
Autostrady total: 4,634,810 km (including 56,704 km of expressways)

paved: 4,161,318 km

unpaved: 473,492 km (1999-2000)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.9%

highest 10%: 25.2% (1995 est.)
Import 245.7 billion kWh (2001)
Import $887.1 billion (2002)
Import 292.2 billion cu m (2001)
Import 16.97 million bbl/day (2001)
Import - towary machinery, vehicles, aircraft, plastics, crude oil, chemicals, textiles, metals, foodstuffs, clothing
Import - partnerzy NA
Niepodleglosc 7 luty 1992 (Maastricht Treaty signed establishing the EU); 1 listopad 1993 (Maastricht Treaty entered into force)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 0.8% (2004 est.)
Przemysl among the world's largest and most technologically advanced industries, including iron and steel, aluminum, petroleum, coal, cement, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, automobiles, aircraft, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, electrical power equipment, machine tools, electronics, telecommunications equipment, fishing, food processing, furniture, paper, textiles and clothing, tourism
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (lipiec 2004 est.)
Inflacja 2% (2004 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji Unia Europejska: ASEAN (dialogue member), ARF (dialogue member), EBRD, IDA, OAS (observer), OECD, WTO

European Commission: Australian Group, CBSS, CERN, FAO, G-10, NSG (observer), UN (observer)

European Central Bank: BIS

European Investment Bank: WADB (nonregional member)
Nawadniane tereny 115,807 sq km
Sadownictwo European Court of Justice (ensures that the treaties are interpreted and applied correctly) - 25 Justices (one from each member state) appointed dla a six-year term; note - dla the sake of efficiency, the court can sit z 11 justices known as the "Grand Chamber"; Court of First Instance - 25 justices appointed dla a six-year term
Sila robocza 211.1 million
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 4.3%, industry 29%, services 66.8% (2000)
Granica total: 11,214.8 km

border countries: Albania 282 km, Andora 120.3 km, Bialorus 1,050 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Chorwacja 999 km, Holy See 3.2 km, Liechtenstein 34.9 km, Macedonia 246 km, Monako 4.4 km, Norwegia 2,348 km, Rumunia 443 km, Rosja 2,257 km, San Marino 39 km, Federalna Republika Jugoslawii 151 km, Szwajcaria 1,811 km, Turcja 206 km, Ukraina 726 km

note: data dla European Continent only
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: NA

permanent crops: NA
Jezyki Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Lotwan, Litwan, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish; note - only official languages are listed
Wladza ustawodawcza Council of the Unia Europejska (25 member-state ministers having 321 votes; the number of votes is roughly proportional to member-states' population); note - the Council is the main decision-making body of the EU; European Parliament (732 seats; seats allocated among member states by proportion to population); members elected by direct universal suffrage dla a five-year term

elections: last held 10-13 czerwiec 2004 (next to be held czerwiec 2009)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats by party - EPP-ED 268, PES 202, ALDE 88, Greens/EFA 42, EUL/NGL 41, IND/DEM 36, UEN 27, independents 28
Zywotnosc total population: 78.1 years

male: 74.9 years

female: 81.4 years (lipiec 2004 est.)
Lokalizacja Europe between Eastern Europe and the North Ocean Atlantycki
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary NA
Wojsko - uwagi In pazdziernik 2004, the Unia Europejska heads of government signed a "constitutional treaty" that offers possibilities - z some limits - dla increased defense and security cooperation. If ratified, w a process that may take some two years, this treaty will w effect make operational the European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) approved w the 2000 Nice Treaty. Despite limits of cooperation dla some EU members, development of a European military planning unit is likely to continue. So is creation of a rapid-reaction military force and a humanitarian aid system, which the planning unit will support. Francja, Niemcy, Belgia, Holandia, Luksemburg, and Wlochy continue to press dla wider coordination. The five-nation Eurocorps - created w 1992 by Francja, Niemcy, Belgia, Hiszpania, and Luksemburg - has already deployed troops and police on peacekeeping missions to Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, and the Democratic Republic of Congo and assumed command of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) w Afganistan w sierpien 2004. Eurocorps directly commands the 5,000-man Franco-German Brigade and the Multinational Command Support Brigade and will command EUFOR, which will take over from SFOR w Bosnia w grudzien 2004. Other troop contributions are under national command - committments to provide 67,100 troops were made at the Helsinki EU session w 2000. Some 56,000 EU troops were actually deployed w 2003. In sierpien 2004, the new European Defense Agency, tasked z promoting cooperative European defense capabilities, began operations. As of listopad 2004, Niemcy, the Wielka Brytania, and Francja had proposed creation of three 1,500-man rapid-reaction "battle groups."
Swieto narodowe Europe Day 9 maj (1950); note - a Union-wide holiday, the day that Robert Schuman proposed the creation of an organized Europe
Naturalne zagrozenia flooding along coasts; avalanches w mountainous area; earthquakes w the south; volcanic eruptions w Wlochy; periodic droughts w Hiszpania; ice floes w the Baltic
Surowce naturalne iron ore, arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, lead, zinc, hydropower, uranium, potash, fish
Wspolczynnik migracji 1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (lipiec 2004 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats dla Europe or ALDE [Graham R. WATSON]; Niepodleglosc/Democracy Group or IND/DEM [Jens-Peter BONDE and Nigel FARAGE]; Group of Greens/European Free Alliance or Greens/EFA [Monica FRASSONI and Daniel Marc COHN-BENDIT]; Socialist Group w the European Parliament or PES [Martin SCHULZ]; Confederal Group of the European United Left-Nordic Green Left or EUL/NGL [Francis WURTZ]; European People's Party-European Democrats or EPP-ED [Hans-Gert POETTERING]; Union dla Europe of the Nations Group or UEN [Brian CROWLEY and Cristiana MUSCARDINI]
Ludnosc 456,285,839 (lipiec 2004 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA
Przyrost naturalny 0.17% (lipiec 2004 est.)
Porty i stocznie Antwerp (Belgia), Barcelona (Hiszpania), Bremen (Niemcy), Copenhagen (Dania), Gdansk (Polska), Hamburg (Niemcy), Helsinki (Finlandia), Las Palmas (Canary Islands, Hiszpania), Le Havre (Francja), Lisbon (Portugalia), London (UK), Marseille (Francja), Naples (Wlochy), Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Grecja), Riga (Lotwa), Rotterdam (Holandia), Stockholm (Szwecja), Talinn (Estonia)
Stacje radiowe AM 866, FM 13,396, shortwave 73 (1998); note - sum of individual country radio broadcast stations; there is also a European-wide station (Euroradio)
Linie kolejowe total: 222,293 km

broad gauge: 28,438 km

standard gauge: 186,405 km

narrow gauge: 7,427 km

other: 23 km (2003)
Religie Roman Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, Muslim, Jewish
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: NA

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and older: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (lipiec 2004 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny note - see individual country entries of member states
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 238,763,162 (2002)
Telefony komorkowe 314,644,700 (2002)
Stacje telewizyjne 2,791 (1995); note - does not include repeaters; sum of indiviual country television broadcast stations; there is also a European-wide station (Eurovision)
Uksztaltowanie terenu fairly flat along the Baltic and Atlantic coast; mountainous w the central and southern areas
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.48 children born/woman (lipiec 2004 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.1% (2004 est.)
Drogi wodne 53,512 km
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