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Turcja (2008)

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Turcja 2008 roku

Podzial administracyjny 81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel (Mersin), Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 24.9% (male 9,034,731/female 8,703,624)

15-64 years: 68.1% (male 24,627,270/female 23,857,507)

65 years and over: 6.9% (male 2,253,383/female 2,682,132) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock
Lotniska 117 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 90

over 3,047 m: 15

2,438 to 3,047 m: 33

1,524 to 2,437 m: 19

914 to 1,523 m: 19

under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 27

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 17 (2007)
Terytorium total: 780,580 sq km

land: 770,760 sq km

water: 9,820 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than Texas
Tlo historyczne Modern Turcja was founded w 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored z the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment z multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which w each case eventually resulted w a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turcja intervened militarily on Cypr w 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cypr," which only Turcja recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun w 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader w 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turcja mainly to northern Irak. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turcja joined the UN w 1945 and w 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turcja became an associate member of the European Community; over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy enabling it to begin accession membership talks z the Unia Europejska.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 16.4 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $137.8 billion

expenditures: $151.9 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Ankara

geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat temperate; hot, dry summers z mild, wet winters; harsher w interior
Linia brzegowa 7,200 km
Konstytucja 7 listopad 1982
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Turcja

conventional short form: Turcja

local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti

local short form: Turkiye
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $226.4 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ross WILSON

embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara

mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823

telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555

FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019

consulate(s) general: Istanbul

consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular Agent w Izmir
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Nabi SENSOY

chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700

FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes z Grecja w the Aegean Sea; status of north Cypr question remains; Syria and Irak protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turcja has expressed concern over the status of Kurds w Irak; border z Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie ODA, $464 million (2005)
Ekonomia Turcja's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along z a traditional agriculture sector that still accounts dla more than 35% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role w basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts dla one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition w international markets z the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electronics industries, are rising w importance within Turcja's export mix. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% w many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines w output w 1994, 1999, and 2001. The economy is turning around z the implementation of economic reforms, and 2004 Produkt krajowy brutto growth reached 9%, followed by roughly 5% annual growth from 2005-07. Inflation fell to 7.7% w 2005 - a 30-year low but climbed back to 8.5% w 2007. Despite the strong economic gains from 2002-07, which were largely due to renewed investor interest w emerging markets, IMF backing, and tighter fiscal policy, the economy is still burdened by a high current account deficit and high external debt. Further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost foreign direct investment. The stock value of FDI currently stands at about $85 billion. Privatization sales are currently approaching $21 billion. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan pipeline w maj 2006, marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market. In 2007, Turkish financial markets weathered significant domestic political turmoil, including turbulence sparked by controversy over the selection of former Foreign Minister Abdullah GUL as Turcja's 11th president. Economic fundamentals are sound, marked by strong economic growth and foreign direct investment. Turcja's high current account deficit leaves the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts w investor confidence, however.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 129 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 1.798 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 636 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 154.2 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly w urban areas; deforestation; concern dla oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)
Kurs waluty Turkish liras per US dollar - 1.319 (2007), 1.4286 (2006), 1.3436 (2005), 1.4255 (2004), 1.5009 (2003)

note: on 1 styczen 2005 the old Turkish lira (TRL) was converted to new Turkish lira (TRY) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 new Turkish lira
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Abdullah GUL (since 28 sierpien 2007)

head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 marzec 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Cemil CICEK (since 29 sierpien 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Hayati YAZICI (since 29 sierpien 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Nazim EKREN (since 29 sierpien 2007)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister

elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a maximum of two five-year terms; prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament

election results: Abdullah GUL received 339 votes w the third round of voting on 28 sierpien 2007, after failing to garner the two thirds vote required by law w the first two rounds

note: president-elect must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot
Eksport 1.798 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $110.5 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 112,600 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Eksport - partnerzy Niemcy 11.3%, UK 8%, Wlochy 7.9%, US 6%, Francja 5.4%, Hiszpania 4.4% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 8.9%

industry: 30.8%

services: 59.3% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.1% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 39 00 N, 35 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is w the far eastern portion of the country
Ladowiska helikopterow 18 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 34.1% (2003)
Narkotyki key transit route dla Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist w remote regions of Turcja and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls
Import 636 million kWh (2005)
Import $156.9 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 25.48 billion cu m (2005)
Import 724,400 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Import - partnerzy Rosja 12.8%, Niemcy 10.6%, Chiny 6.9%, Wlochy 6.2%, Francja 5.2%, US 4.5%, Iran 4% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 29 pazdziernik 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 4.5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 38.33 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 41.85 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 34.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 8.5% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB (nonregional members), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 52,150 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
Sila robocza 25.27 million

note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 35.9%

industry: 22.8%

services: 41.2% (3rd quarter, 2004)
Granica total: 2,648 km

border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbejdzan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Grecja 206 km, Iran 499 km, Irak 352 km, Syria 822 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 29.81%

permanent crops: 3.39%

other: 66.8% (2005)
Jezyki Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli (or Zaza), Azeri, Kabardian

note: there is also a substantial Gagauz population w the European part of Turcja
System prawny civil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turcja claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turcja or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 22 lipiec 2007 (next to be held on listopad 2012)

election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 46.7%, CHP 20.8%, MHP 14.3%, independents 5.2%, and other 13.0%; seats by party - AKP 341, CHP 112, MHP 71, independents 26; note - seats by party as of 17 grudzien 2007 - AKP 340, CHP 87, MHP 70, DTP 20, DSP 13, independents 6, other 12, vacant 2 (DTP entered parliament as independents; DSP entered parliament on CHP's party list); only parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats
Zywotnosc total population: 72.88 years

male: 70.43 years

female: 75.46 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 87.4%

male: 95.3%

female: 79.6% (2004 est.)
Lokalizacja Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turcja west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Grecja and Syria
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 6 nm w the Aegean Sea; 12 nm w Black Sea and w Mediterranean Sea

exclusive economic zone: w Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon z the former USSR
Flota handlowa total: 565 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,663,353 GRT/7,039,492 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 96, cargo 262, chemical tanker 58, combination ore/oil 1, container 30, liquefied gas 7, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 48, petroleum tanker 32, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 25, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: 8 (Chiny 1, Cypr 2, Niemcy 1, Wlochy 3, UAE 1)

registered w other countries: 470 (Albania 1, Antigua i Barbuda 7, Bahamas 5, Belize 11, Kambodza 20, Komory 8, Cypr 1, Dominika 9, Georgia 23, Wyspa Man 2, Wlochy 1, Kiribati 1, North Korea 1, Liberia 7, Malta 143, Wyspy Marshalla 41, Antyle Holenderskie 12, Panama 53, Rosja 70, Sierra Leone 7, Slowacja 11, St Kitts and Nevis 13, St Vincent and The Grenadines 20, Tuvalu 1, UK 2, unknown 3) (2007)
Wojsko - uwagi in the early 1990s, the Turkish Land Force was a large but badly equipped infantry force; there were 14 infantry divisions, but only one was mechanized, and out of 16 infantry brigades, only six were mechanized; a subsequent overhaul has produced highly mobile forces z greatly enhanced firepower w accordance z NATO's new strategic concept (2005)
Wojsko Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Land Forces, Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri, TDK; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Force (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri, THK) (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 5.3% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Republic Day, 29 pazdziernik (1923)
Narodowosc noun: Turk(s)

adjective: Turkish
Naturalne zagrozenia severe earthquakes, especially w northern Turcja, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Surowce naturalne coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 7,511 km; oil 3,636 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party) or Anavatan [Erkan MUMCU]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Mehmet Zeki SEZER]; Democratic Society Party or DTP [Nurettin DEMIRTAS]; Felicity Party or SP [Recai KUTAN] (sometimes translated as Contentment Party); Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI] (sometimes translated as Nationalist Movement Party); People's Rise Party (Halkin Yukselisi Partisi) or HYP [Yasar Nuri OZTURK]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Deniz BAYKAL]; Social Democratic People's Party or SHP [Murat KARAYALCIN]; True Path Party or DYP [Mehmet AGAR] (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party); Young Party or GP [Cem Cengiz UZAN]

note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Turcja had on 1 grudzien 2004
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Ismail Hakki TOMBUL]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer BOLAT]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugurl KUDATGOBILIK]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Salih KILIC]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Omer SABANCI]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
Ludnosc 71,158,647 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 20% (2002)
Przyrost naturalny 1.04% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 16, FM 107, shortwave 6 (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 8,697 km

standard gauge: 8,697 km 1.435-m gauge (1,920 km electrified) (2006)
Religie Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.038 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.032 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female

total population: 1.019 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion especially z cellular telephones

domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase w subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly

international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables w the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turcja z Wlochy, Grecja, Izrael, Bulgaria, Rumunia, and Rosja; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 w the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 18.978 million (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 52.663 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 635 (plus 2,934 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.89 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.7% plus underemployment of 4% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 1,200 km (2005)
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