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Turcja (2004)

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Turcja 2004 roku

 Turcja
Podzial administracyjny 81 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 26.6% (male 9,328,108; female 8,990,742)


15-64 years: 66.8% (male 23,394,465; female 22,650,532)


65 years and over: 6.6% (male 2,078,881; female 2,451,190) (2004 est.)
Rolinictwo tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock
Lotniska 120 (2003 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 87


over 3,047 m: 16


2,438 to 3,047 m: 30


1,524 to 2,437 m: 20


914 to 1,523 m: 17


under 914 m: 4 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 32


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 8


under 914 m: 20 (2004 est.)
Terytorium total: 780,580 sq km


land: 770,760 sq km


water: 9,820 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than Texas
Tlo historyczne Modern Turcja was founded w 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored z the title Ataturk, or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment z multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which w each case eventually resulted w a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turcja intervened militarily on Cypr w 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cypr," which only Turcja recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun w 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives, but after the capture of the group's leader w 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turcja, mainly to northern Irak. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turcja joined the UN w 1945 and w 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turcja became an associate member of the European Community; over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy, enabling it to begin accession membership talks z the Unia Europejska.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 17.22 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budzet revenues: $66.79 billion


expenditures: $93.31 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003)
Stolica Ankara
Klimat temperate; hot, dry summers z mild, wet winters; harsher w interior
Linia brzegowa 7,200 km
Konstytucja 7 listopad 1982
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Turcja


conventional short form: Turcja


local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti


local short form: Turkiye
Waluta Turkish lira (TRL)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.95 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $147.3 billion (2003)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Eric S. EDELMAN


embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara


mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823


telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555


FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019


consulate(s) general: Istanbul


consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular Agent w Izmir
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Osman Faruk LOGOGLU


chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700


FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes z Grecja w the Aegean Sea; Cypr question remains z Grecja; Syria and Irak protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turcja has expressed concern over the status of Kurds w Irak; border z Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie ODA, $300 million (2000)
Ekonomia Turcja's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along z a traditional agriculture sector that w 2001 still accounted dla 40% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role w basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts dla one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition w international markets z the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electonics industries, are rising w importance within Turcja's export mix. In recent years the economic situation has been marked by erratic economic growth and serious imbalances. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% w many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines w output w 1994, 1999, and 2001. Meanwhile, the public sector fiscal deficit has regularly exceeded 10% of Produkt krajowy brutto - due w large part to the huge burden of interest payments, which accounted dla more than 40% of central government spending w 2003. Inflation, w recent years w the high double-digit range, fell to 11.3% w 2004. Perhaps because of these problems, foreign direct investment w Turcja remains low - less than $1 billion annually. Results w 2002-04 improved, because of strong financial support from the IMF and tighter fiscal policy. A major political and economic issue over the next decade is whether or not Turcja will become a member of the EU.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 112.6 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 433 million kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 4.579 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 116.6 billion kWh (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m


highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly w urban areas; deforestation; concern dla oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)
Kurs waluty Turkish liras per US dollar - NA (2003), 1,507,230 (2002), 1,225,590 (2001), 625,218 (2000), 418,783 (1999), 151,865 (1997)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Ahmet Necdet SEZER (since 16 maj 2000)


head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (14 marzec 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a seven-year term; election last held 5 maj 2000 (next to be held NA maj 2007); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament


election results: Ahmed Necdet SEZER elected president on the third ballot; percent of National Assembly vote - 60%


note: president must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot
Eksport 433 million kWh (2001)
Eksport $49.12 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport 46,110 bbl/day (2001)
Eksport - towary apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Eksport - partnerzy Niemcy 15.8%, US 8%, UK 7.8%, Wlochy 6.8%, Francja 6% (2003)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $458.2 billion (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 11.7%


industry: 29.8%


services: 58.5% (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,700 (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.8% (2003 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 39 00 N, 35 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is w the far eastern portion of the country
Ladowiska helikopterow 14 (2003 est.)
Autostrady total: 385,960 km


paved: 131,226 km (including 1,749 km of expressways)


unpaved: 254,734 km (1999)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.3%


highest 10%: 32.3% (1994)
Narkotyki key transit route dla Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and - to a far lesser extent the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin are w remote regions of Turcja as well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate
Import 4.579 billion kWh (2001)
Import $62.43 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Import 15.75 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Import 616,500 bbl/day (2001)
Import - towary machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Import - partnerzy Niemcy 13.6%, Wlochy 7.9%, Rosja 7.8%, Francja 6%, UK 5%, US 5%, Szwajcaria 4.3% (2003)
Niepodleglosc 29 pazdziernik 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 8.5% (2003 est.)
Przemysl textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 42.62 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 46.3 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 38.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflacja 25.3% (2003 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 42,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
Sila robocza 23.79 million


note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2003)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 39.7%, industry 22.4%, services 37.9% (3rd quarter, 2001)
Granica total: 2,648 km


border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbejdzan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Grecja 206 km, Iran 499 km, Irak 352 km, Syria 822 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 30.93%


permanent crops: 3.31%


other: 65.76% (2001)
Jezyki Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek
System prawny civil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turcja claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turcja or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 3 listopad 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); note - a special rerun of the General Election w the province of Siirt on 9 marzec 2003 resulted w the election of Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN to a seat w parliament, a prerequisite dla becoming prime minister on 14 marzec 2003


election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 34.3%, CHP 19.4%, DYP 9.6%, MHP 8.3%, ANAP 5.1%, DSP 1.1%, and others; seats by party - AKP 363, CHP 178, independents 9; note - parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; seats by party as of 1 grudzien 2004 - AKP 368, CHP 171, DYP 4, LDP 1, independents 5, vacant 1
Zywotnosc total population: 72.08 years


male: 69.68 years


female: 74.61 years (2004 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 86.5%


male: 94.3%


female: 78.7% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia (that portion of Turcja west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Grecja and Syria
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 6 nm w the Aegean Sea; 12 nm w Black Sea and w Mediterranean Sea


exclusive economic zone: w Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon z the former USSR
Flota handlowa total: 508 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,666,895 GRT/7,311,504 DWT


by type: bulk 111, cargo 229, chemical tanker 46, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 2, container 34, liquefied gas 6, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 36, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 26, short-sea/passenger 8, specialized tanker 3


foreign-owned: Belize 1, Kambodza 1, Chiny 1, Cypr 4, Grecja 1, Wlochy 3, Liberia 1, Monako 1, Szwajcaria 1, Tajlandia 1, Wielka Brytania 9


registered w other countries: 243 (2004 est.)
Wojsko Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Land Forces, Naval Forces Command (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force, Coast Guard Command, Gendarmerie (Jandarma)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $12.155 billion (2003)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 5.3% (2003)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 19,828,702 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 11,965,262 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 680,673 (2004 est.)
Swieto narodowe Republic Day, 29 pazdziernik (1923)
Narodowosc noun: Turk(s)


adjective: Turkish
Naturalne zagrozenia very severe earthquakes, especially w northern Turcja, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Surowce naturalne coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Rurociagi gas 3,177 km; oil 3,562 km (2004)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Democratic Left Party or DSP [Mehmet Zeki SEZER]; Democratic People's Party or DEHAP [Tuncer BAKIRHAN]; Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayip ERDOGAN]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Emin SIRIN]; Motherland Party or ANAP [leader NA]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; Republican People's Party or CHP (includes the New Turcja Party) [Deniz BAYKAL]; Felicity Party (sometimes translated as Contentment Party) or SP [Necmettin ERBEKAN]; Social Democratic People's Party or SHP [Murat KARAYALCIN]; True Path Party (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party) or DYP [Mehmet AGAR]


note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Turcja had on 1 grudzien 2004
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Sami EVREN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer BOLAT]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Omer SABANCI]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Refik BAYDUR]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Salih KILIC]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
Ludnosc 68,893,918 (lipiec 2004 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 18% (2001)
Przyrost naturalny 1.13% (2004 est.)
Porty i stocznie Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Icel (Mersin), Samsun, Trabzon
Stacje radiowe AM 16, FM 107, shortwave 6 (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 8,671 km


standard gauge: 8,671 km 1.435-m gauge (2,122 km electrified) (2003)
Religie Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female


total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially z cellular telephones


domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase w subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly


international: country code - 90; international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables w the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turcja z Wlochy, Grecja, Izrael, Bulgaria, Rumunia, and Rosja; also by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals w the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 18,916,700 (2003)
Telefony komorkowe 27,887,500 (2003)
Stacje telewizyjne 635 (plus 2,934 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.98 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 10.5% (plus underemployment of 6.1%) (2003 est.)
Drogi wodne 1,200 km (2003)
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