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Turcja (2001)

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Turcja 2001 roku

 Turcja
Podzial administracyjny 80 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak; note - there may be another province called Duzce
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years:
28.42% (male 9,620,291; female 9,276,347)

15-64 years:
65.45% (male 22,116,599; female 21,401,165)

65 years and over:
6.13% (male 1,878,571; female 2,200,997) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock
Lotniska 121 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total:
86

over 3,047 m:
16

2,438 to 3,047 m:
29

1,524 to 2,437 m:
19

914 to 1,523 m:
16

under 914 m:
6 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total:
35

1,524 to 2,437 m:
1

914 to 1,523 m:
8

under 914 m:
26 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total:
780,580 sq km

land:
770,760 sq km

water:
9,820 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than Texas
Tlo historyczne Turcja was created w 1923 from the Turkish remnants of the Ottoman Empire. Soon thereafter the country instituted secular laws to replace traditional religious fiats. In 1945 Turcja joined the UN and w 1952 it became a member of NATO. Turcja occupied the northern portion of Cypr w 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island; relations between the two countries remain strained. Periodic military offensives against Kurdish separatists have dislocated part of the population w southeast Turcja and have drawn international condemnation.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 18.31 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues:
$54.5 billion

expenditures:
$75.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.3 billion (2000)
Stolica Ankara
Klimat temperate; hot, dry summers z mild, wet winters; harsher w interior
Linia brzegowa 7,200 km
Konstytucja 7 listopad 1982
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form:
Republic of Turcja

conventional short form:
Turcja

local long form:
Turkiye Cumhuriyeti

local short form:
Turkiye
Waluta Turkish lira (TRL)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.95 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $109 billion (2000 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert PEARSON

embassy:
Ataturk Bulvarii 110, Ankara

mailing address:
PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823

telephone:
[90] (312) 468-6110

FAX:
[90] (312) 467-0019

consulate(s) general:
Istanbul (closed as of grudzien 2000 dla security review)

consulate(s):
Adana (closed as of grudzien 2000 dla security review)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Baki ILKIN

chancery:
2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:
[1] (202) 612-6700

FAX:
[1] (202) 612-6744

consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes z Grecja w Aegean Sea; Cypr question z Grecja; dispute z downstream riparian states (Syria and Irak) over water development plans dla the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; traditional demands regarding former Armenian lands w Turcja have subsided
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie ODA, $195 million (1993)
Ekonomia Turcja's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along z traditional agriculture that still accounts dla nearly 40% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role w basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The most important industry - and largest exporter - is textiles and clothing, which is almost entirely w private hands. In recent years the economic situation has been marked by erratic economic growth and serious imbalances. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% w most years, but this strong expansion was interrupted by sharp declines w output w 1994 and 1999. Meanwhile the public sector fiscal deficit has regularly exceeded 10% of Produkt krajowy brutto - due w large part to the huge burden of interest payments, which now account dla more than 40% of central government spending - while inflation has remained w the high double digit range. Perhaps because of these problems, foreign direct investment w Turcja remains low - less than $1 billion annually. Prospects dla the future are improving, however, because the ECEVIT government since czerwiec 1999 has been implementing an IMF-backed reform program, including a tighter budget, social security reform, banking reorganization, and accelerated privatization. As a result, the fiscal situation is greatly improved and inflation has dropped below 40% - the lowest rate since 1987. The country experienced a financial crisis w late 2000, including sharp drops w the stock market and foreign exchange reserves, but is recovering rapidly, thanks to additional IMF support and the government's commitment to a specific timetable of economic reforms.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 119.5 billion kWh (2000 est.)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 350 million kWh (2000 est.)
Elektrycznosc - import 3.35 billion kWh (2000 est.)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 125.3 billion kWh (2000 est.)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel:
71%

hydro:
29%

nuclear:
0%

other:
0% (2000 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point:
Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point:
Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly w urban areas; deforestation; concern dla oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to:
Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20%
Kurs waluty Turkish liras per US dollar - 677,621 (grudzien 2000), 625,219 (2000), 418,783 (1999), 260,724 (1998), 151,865 (1997), 81,405 (1996)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state:
President Ahmed Necdet SEZER (since 16 maj 2000)

head of government:
Prime Minister Bulent ECEVIT (since 11 styczen 1999)

cabinet:
Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister

note:
there is also a National Security Council that serves as an advisory body to the president and the cabinet

elections:
president elected by the National Assembly dla a seven-year term; election last held 5 maj 2000 (next scheduled to be held NA maj 2007); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
Ahmed Necdet SEZER elected president on the third ballot; percent of National Assembly vote - 60%

note:
president must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot
Eksport 350 million kWh (2000 est.)
Eksport $26.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Eksport - towary apparel 25.6%, foodstuffs 15.4%, textiles 12.3%, metal manufactures 8.6%, transport equipment 8.1% (1998)
Eksport - partnerzy Niemcy 18.7%, US 11.4%, UK 7.4%, Wlochy 6.3%, Francja 6.0% (2000 est.)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $444 billion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture:
15%

industry:
29%

services:
56% (1999)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,800 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 39 00 N, 35 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2000 est.)
Autostrady total:
382,059 km

paved:
106,976 km (including 1,726 km of expressways)

unpaved:
275,083 km (1999 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%:
2.3%

highest 10%:
32.3% (1994)
Narkotyki key transit route dla Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and - to a far lesser extent the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin are w remote regions of Turcja as well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate
Import 3.35 billion kWh (2000 est.)
Import $55.7 billion (c.i.f., 2000 est.)
Import - towary machinery 28.3%, chemicals 15.2%, semi-finished goods 14.5%, fuels 11%, transport equipment 9.5% (1999)
Import - partnerzy Niemcy 13.1%, Wlochy 7.9%, US 7.2%, Rosja 7.0%, Francja 6.6%, UK 5.0% (2000 est.)
Niepodleglosc 29 pazdziernik 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 6.2% (2000 est.)
Przemysl textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 47.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 39% (2000 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTAET, UPU, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu 22 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 36,740 sq km (1993 est.)
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court (judges are appointed by the president); Court of Appeals (judges are elected by the Supreme Council of Judges and Prosecutors)
Sila robocza 23 million (2000 est.)

note:
about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (1999)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 38%, services 38%, industry 24% (2000)
Granica total:
2,627 km

border countries:
Armenia 268 km, Azerbejdzan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Grecja 206 km, Iran 499 km, Irak 331 km, Syria 822 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land:
32%

permanent crops:
4%

permanent pastures:
16%

forests and woodland:
26%

other:
22% (1993 est.)
Jezyki Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek
System prawny derived from various European continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turcja or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections:
last held 18 kwiecien 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - DSP 136, MHP 130, FP 110, DYP 86, ANAP 88; note - as of 7 marzec 2000 seating was DSP 136, MHP 127, FP 103, DYP 85, ANAP 88 independents 6, vacancies 5
Zywotnosc total population:
71.24 years

male:
68.89 years

female:
73.71 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:
85%

male:
94%

female:
77% (2000)
Lokalizacja southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia (that portion of Turcja west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Grecja and Syria
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary exclusive economic zone:
in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon z the former USSR

territorial sea:
6 NM w the Aegean Sea; 12 NM w Black Sea and w Mediterranean Sea
Flota handlowa total:
548 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,617,302 GRT/9,088,451 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 140, cargo 242, chemical tanker 41, combination bulk 5, combination ore/oil 6, container 21, liquefied gas 6, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 43, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 25, short-sea passenger 10, specialized tanker 5 (2000 est.)
Wojsko Land Force, Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force, Coast Guard, Gendarmerie
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $10.6 billion (FY99)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 5.6% (FY99)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49:
18,882,272 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49:
11,432,438 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 20 years of age
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males:
674,805 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 29 pazdziernik (1923)
Narodowosc noun:
Turk(s)

adjective:
Turkish
Naturalne zagrozenia very severe earthquakes, especially w northern Turcja, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Surowce naturalne antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulfur, iron ore, arable land, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 1,738 km; petroleum products 2,321 km; natural gas 708 km
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Democratic Left Party or DSP [Bulent ECEVIT]; Motherland Party or ANAP [Mesut YILMAZ]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; True Path Party or DYP [Tansu CILLER]; Virtue Party or FP [Recai KUTAN]; note - w czerwiec 2001, Turcja's Konstytucjaal Court banned the party; its representatives (except dla two) can stay on w the Grand National Assembly as independents

note:
Welfare Party or RP [Necmettin ERBAKAN] was officially outlawed on 22 luty 1998
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Ridvan BUDAK]; Independent Industrialists and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Erol YARAR]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Muharrem KAYHAN]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Refik BAYDUR]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Bayram MERAL]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [Fuat MIRAS]
Ludnosc 66,493,970 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 1.24% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Icel (Mersin), Samsun, Trabzon
Stacje radiowe AM 16, FM 72, shortwave 6 (1998)
Radia 11.3 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total:
8,607 km

standard gauge:
8,607 km 1.435-m gauge (1,524 km electrified) (1999)
Religie Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (Christian and Jews)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.85 male(s)/female

total population:
1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment:
undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially cellular telephones

domestic:
additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase w subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly

international:
international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables w the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turcja z Wlochy, Grecja, Izrael, Bulgaria, Rumunia, and Rosja, by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals w the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 19.5 million (1999)
Telefony komorkowe 12.1 million (1999)
Stacje telewizyjne 635 (plus 2,934 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.12 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 5.6% (plus underemployment of 5.6%) (2000 est.)
Drogi wodne 1,200 km (approximately)
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