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Trinidad and Tobago (2005)

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 Trinidad and Tobago
Administrative divisions 9 regional corporations, 2 city corporations, 3 borough corporations, and 1 ward

regional corporations: Couva/Tabaquite/Talparo, Diego Martin, Mayaro/Rio Claro, Penal/Debe, Princes Town, Sangre Grande, San Juan/Laventille, Siparia, Tunapuna/Piarco

city corporations: Port-of-Spain, San Fernando;

borough corporations: Arima, Point Fortin, Chaguanas

ward: Tobago
Age structure 0-14 years: 20.7% (male 115,594/female 109,665)

15-64 years: 71% (male 403,301/female 369,664)

65 years and over: 8.3% (male 40,638/female 49,782) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products cocoa, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry
Airports 6 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Area total: 5,128 sq km

land: 5,128 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Delaware
Background The islands came under British control in the 19th century; independence was granted in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing.
Birth rate 12.81 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $3.25 billion

expenditures: $3.193 billion, including capital expenditures of $117.3 million (2004 est.)
Capital Port-of-Spain
Climate tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Coastline 362 km
Constitution 1 August 1976
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago
Death rate 9.37 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $2.94 billion (2004 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Roy L. AUSTIN

embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain

mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain

telephone: [1] (868) 622-6372 through 6376, 622-6176

FAX: [1] (868) 628-5462
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Marina Annette VALERE

chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490

FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130

consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
Disputes - international Barbados will assert its claim before UNCLOS that the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's maritime boundary with Venezuela extends into its waters; Guyana has also expressed its intention to challenge this boundary as it may extend into its waters as well
Economic aid - recipient $24 million (1999 est.)
Economy - overview Trinidad and Tobago, the leading Caribbean producer of oil and gas, has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international businesses. Tourism is a growing sector, although not proportionately as important as in many other Caribbean islands. The economy benefits from low inflation and a growing trade surplus. Prospects for growth in 2004 are good as prices for oil, petrochemicals, and liquified natural gas are expected to remain high, and foreign direct investment continues to grow to support expanded capacity in the energy sector. The government is coping with a rise in violent crime.
Electricity - consumption 5.341 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 5.743 billion kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m
Environment - current issues water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Indian (South Asian) 40%, African 37.5%, mixed 20.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.8% (2000 census)
Exchange rates Trinidad and Tobago dollars per US dollar - 6.299 (2004), 6.2951 (2003), 6.2487 (2002), 6.2332 (2001), 6.2998 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: President George Maxwell RICHARDS (since 17 March 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Patrick MANNING (since 24 December 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament

elections: president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, for a five-year term; election last held 14 February 2003 (next to be held in 2008); the president usually appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives

election results: George Maxwell RICHARDS elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 43%
Exports 0 kWh (2002)
Exports $6.671 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports 11.79 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Exports NA
Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, steel products, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, flowers
Exports - partners US 67.1%, Jamaica 5.7%, France 3.5% (2004)
Fiscal year 1 October - 30 September
Flag description red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side to the lower fly side
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2.7%

industry: 47%

services: 50.3% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $10,500 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.7% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 11 00 N, 61 00 W
Geography - note Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt
Highways total: 8,320 km

paved: 4,252 km

unpaved: 4,068 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Illicit drugs transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis
Imports 0 kWh (2002)
Imports $4.65 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, live animals
Imports - partners US 23.9%, Venezuela 11.5%, Germany 11.2%, Brazil 10.7%, Spain 6.4%, Italy 5.1% (2004)
Independence 31 August 1962 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 7.2% (2004 est.)
Industries petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles
Infant mortality rate total: 24.31 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 26.23 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 22.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.3% (2004 est.)
International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 30 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Judicature (comprised of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeals; the chief justice is appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission); High Court of Justice; Court of Appeals; the highest court of appeal is the Privy Council in London
Labor force 590,000 (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 9.5%, manufacturing, mining, and quarrying 14%, construction and utilities 12.4%, services 64.1% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 14.62%

permanent crops: 9.16%

other: 76.22% (2001)
Languages English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish, Chinese
Legal system based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (31 seats; 16 members appointed by the ruling party, 9 by the President, 6 by the opposition party for a maximum term of five years) and the House of Representatives (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Representatives - last held 7 October 2002 (next to be held by October 2007)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - PNM 55.5%, UNC 44.5%; seats by party - PNM 20, UNC 16

note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly with 12 members serving four-year terms
Life expectancy at birth total population: 66.73 years

male: 65.6 years

female: 67.91 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.6%

male: 99.1%

female: 98% (2003 est.)
Location Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 7,178 GRT/3,633 DWT

by type: passenger 2, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 1

foreign-owned: 1 (United States 1)

registered in other countries: 4 (2005)
Military branches Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force: Ground Force, Coast Guard (includes Air Wing) (2004)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $66.7 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.6% (2003)
National holiday Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Nationality noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)

adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Natural hazards outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Net migration rate -10.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Pipelines condensate 253 km; gas 1,117 km; oil 478 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [Lennox SANKERSINGH]; People's National Movement or PNM [Patrick MANNING]; Team Unity or TU [Ramesh MAHARAJ]; United National Congress or UNC [Basdeo PANDAY]; Democratic Action Committee or DAC [Hochoy CHARLES], note - only active in Tobago
Political pressure groups and leaders Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin BAKR]
Population 1,088,644 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line 21% (1992 est.)
Population growth rate -0.74% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Pointe-a-Pierre, Point Lisas, Port-of-Spain
Radio broadcast stations AM 4, FM 18, shortwave 0 (2004)
Religions Roman Catholic 26%, Hindu 22.5%, Anglican 7.8%, Baptist 7.2%, Pentecostal 6.8%, Seventh Day Adventist 4%, other Christian 5.8%, Muslim 5.8%, other 10.8%, unspecified 1.4%, none 1.9% (2000 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: excellent international service; good local service

domestic: NA

international: country code - 1-868; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana
Telephones - main lines in use 325,100 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 361,900 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 4 (2004)
Terrain mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Total fertility rate 1.75 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 10.4% (2004 est.)
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