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Trinidad and Tobago (2001)

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 Trinidad and Tobago
Administrative divisions 8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**; Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria
Age structure 0-14 years:
24.1% (male 143,730; female 138,160)

15-64 years:
69.2% (male 415,898; female 393,551)

65 years and over:
6.7% (male 34,785; female 43,558) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products cocoa, sugarcane, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry
Airports 6 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
2 (2000 est.)
Area total:
5,128 sq km

5,128 sq km

0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Delaware
Background The islands came under British control in the 19th century; independence was granted in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing.
Birth rate 13.73 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$1.54 billion

$1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $117.3 million (1998)
Capital Port-of-Spain
Climate tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Coastline 362 km
Constitution 1 August 1976
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

conventional short form:
Trinidad and Tobago
Currency Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TTD)
Death rate 8.82 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $2.8 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Edward E. SHUMAKER, III (until April, 2001)

15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain

mailing address:
P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain

[1] (868) 622-6371 through 6376, 6176

[1] (868) 628-5462
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador (vacant)

1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

[1] (202) 467-6490

[1] (202) 785-3130

consulate(s) general:
Miami and New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $121.4 million (1995)
Economy - overview Trinidad and Tobago has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international businesses. Successful economic reforms were implemented in 1995, and foreign investment and trade are flourishing. Persistently high unemployment remains one of the chief challenges of the government. The petrochemical sector has spurred growth in other related sectors, reinforcing the government's commitment to economic diversification. Tourism is growing, especially in the pleasure boat sector. New investment and construction also will continue to drive the economy.
Electricity - consumption 4.557 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 4.9 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0.41% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:
El Cerro del Aripo 940 m
Environment - current issues water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups black 39.5%, East Indian (a local term - primarily immigrants from northern India) 40.3%, mixed 18.4%, white 0.6%, Chinese and other 1.2%
Exchange rates Trinidad and Tobago dollars per US dollar - 6.2688 (January 2001), 6.2998 (2000), 6.2989 (1999), 6.2983 (1998), 6.2517 (1997), 6.0051 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON (since 19 March 1997)

head of government:
Prime Minister Basdeo PANDAY (since 9 November 1995)

Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament

president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, for a five-year term; election last held 11 December 2000 (next to be held by NA 2005); prime minister appointed from among the members of Parliament; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives is usually appointed prime minister

election results:
Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 69%
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $3.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, steel products, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, flowers
Exports - partners US 39.3%, Caricom countries 26.1%, Latin America 9.5%, EU 5.7% (1999)
Fiscal year 1 October - 30 September
Flag description red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side
GDP purchasing power parity - $11.2 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


54% (1998 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $9,500 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 11 00 N, 61 00 W
Highways total:
8,320 km

4,252 km

4,068 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Illicit drugs transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, live animals
Imports - partners US 39.8%, Venezuela 11.9%, EU 11%, Caricom 4.8% (1999)
Independence 31 August 1962 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 3.8% (2000)
Industries petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles
Infant mortality rate 24.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.2% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 17 (2000)
Irrigated land 220 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Judicature (comprised of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeals; the chief justice is appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission); High Court of Justice; Court of Appeals; The Majistracy (hears minor civil cases and summary criminal cases)
Labor force 558,700 (1998)
Labor force - by occupation construction and utilities 12.4%, manufacturing, mining, and quarrying 14%, agriculture 9.5%, services 64.1% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

28% (1993 est.)
Languages English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish, Chinese
Legal system based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (31 seats; members appointed by the president for a maximum term of five years) and the House of Representatives (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

House of Representatives - last held 11 December 2000 (next to be held by December 2005)

election results:
House of Representatives - percent of vote - UNC 58.1%, PNM 40.8%, NAR 1.1%; seats by party - UNC 19, PNM 16, NAR 1

Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly, with 15 members serving four-year terms
Life expectancy at birth total population:
68.27 years

65.74 years

70.92 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


97% (1995 est.)
Location Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
24 NM

continental shelf:
200 NM or to the outer edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,439 GRT/4,040 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (includes Ground Forces, Coast Guard, and Air Wing), Trinidad and Tobago Police Service
Military expenditures - dollar figure $83 million (FY94)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
346,043 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
247,297 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Nationality noun:
Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)

Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Natural hazards outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Net migration rate -9.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 1,032 km; petroleum products 19 km; natural gas 904 km
Political parties and leaders National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [Hochay CHARLES]; People's Empowerment Party or PEP [leader NA]; People's National Movement or PNM [Patrick MANNING]; United National Congress or UNC [Basdeo PANDAY]
Political pressure groups and leaders Jamaat Al Musilmeen [Abu BAKR]
Population 1,169,682 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 21% (1992 est.)
Population growth rate -0.51% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Pointe-a-Pierre, Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port-of-Spain, Scarborough, Tembladora
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 680,000 (1997)
Railways minimal agricultural railroad system near San Fernando; railway service was discontinued in 1968
Religions Roman Catholic 29.4%, Hindu 23.8%, Anglican 10.9%, Muslim 5.8%, Presbyterian 3.4%, other 26.7%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.06 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.8 male(s)/female

total population:
1.03 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
excellent international service; good local service


satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana
Telephones - main lines in use 243,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 17,411 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 4 (1997)
Terrain mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Total fertility rate 1.81 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 12.8% (2000)
Waterways none
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