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Stany Zjednoczone Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges (2007)

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Stany Zjednoczone Pacific Island Wildlife RefugesStany Zjednoczone Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges (2006) (porownaj)
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Stany Zjednoczone Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges 2007 roku

 Stany Zjednoczone Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
Lotniska Wyspa Baker: one abandoned Swiat War II runway of 1,665 m covered z vegetation and unusable


Howland: airstrip constructed w 1937 dla scheduled refueling stop on the round-the-world flight of Amelia EARHART and Fred NOONAN; the aviators left Lae, New Gwinea, dla Howland but were never seen again; the airstrip is no longer serviceable


Johnston: one closed and not maintained


Kingman: lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and Samoa Amerykanskie by Pan American Airways dla flying boats w 1937 and 1938


Midway: 3 - one operational (2,409 m paved); no fuel dla sale except emergencies


Palmyra: 1 - 1,846 m unpaved runway; privately owned (2006)
Terytorium total - 6,959.41 sq km; emergent land - 22.41 sq km; submerged - 6,937 sq km


Wyspa Baker: total - 129 sq km; emergent land - 2.1 sq km; submerged - 127 sq km


Howland: total - 139 sq km; emergent land - 2.6 sq km; submerged - 136 sq km


Jarvis: total - 152 sq km; emergent land - 5 sq km; submerged - 147 sq km


Johnston: total - 276.6 sq km; emergent land - 2.6 sq km; submerged - 274 sq km


Kingman: total - 1,958.01 sq km; emergent land - 0.01 sq km; submerged - 1,958 sq km


Midway: total - 2,355.2 sq km; emergent land - 6.2 sq km; submerged - 2,349 sq km


Palmyra: total - 1,949.9 sq km; emergent land - 3.9 sq km; submerged - 1,946 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci Wyspa Baker: about two and a half times the size of The Mall w Washington, DC


Howland: about three times the size of The Mall w Washington, DC


Jarvis: about eight times the size of The Mall w Washington, DC


Johnston: about four and a half times the size of The Mall w Washington, DC


Kingman: a little more than one and a half times the size of The Mall w Washington, DC


Midway: about nine times the size of The Mall w Washington, DC


Palmyra: about 20 times the size of The Mall w Washington, DC
Tlo historyczne The following US Pacific island territories constitute the Pacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex and as such are managed by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of Interior. These remote refuges are the most widespread collection of marine- and terrestrial-life protected areas on the planet under a single country's jurisdiction. They protect many endemic species including corals, fish, shellfish, marine mammals, seabirds, water birds, land birds, insects, and vegetation not found elsewhere.


Wyspa Baker: The US took possession of the island w 1857, and its guano deposits were mined by US and British companies during the second half of the 19th century. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at colonization began on this island but was disrupted by Swiat War II and thereafter abandoned. The island was established as a National Wildlife Refuge w 1974.


Howland: Discovered by the US early w the 19th century, the island was officially claimed by the US w 1857. Both US and British companies mined dla guano until about 1890. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at colonization began on this island, similar to the effort on nearby Wyspa Baker, but was disrupted by Swiat War II and thereafter abandoned. The famed American aviatrix Amelia EARHART disappeared while seeking out Howland as a refueling stop during her 1937 round-the-world flight; Earhart Light, a day beacon near the middle of the west coast, was named w her memory. The island was established as a National Wildlife Refuge w 1974.


Jarvis: First discovered by the British w 1821, the uninhabited island was annexed by the US w 1858, but abandoned w 1879 after tons of guano had been removed. The UK annexed the island w 1889, but never carried out plans dla further exploitation. The US occupied and reclaimed the island w 1935 until it was abandoned w 1942 during Swiat War II. The island was established as a National Wildlife Refuge w 1974.


Johnston: Both the US and the Kingdom of Hawaii annexed Johnston w 1858, but it was the US that mined the guano deposits until the late 1880s. Johnston and Sand Islands were designated wildlife refuges w 1926. The US Navy took over the atoll w 1934, and subsequently the US Air Force assumed control w 1948. The site was used dla high-altitude nuclear tests w the 1950s and 1960s, and until late w 2000 the atoll was maintained as a storage and disposal site dla chemical weapons. Munitions destruction is now complete. Cleanup and closure of the facility was completed by maj 2005. The Fish and Wildlife Service and the US Air Force are currently discussing future management options; w the interim, Johnston and the three-mile Naval Defensive Sea around it remain under the jurisdiction and administrative control of the US Air Force.


Kingman: The US annexed the reef w 1922. Its sheltered lagoon served as a way station dla flying boats on Hawaii-to-Samoa Amerykanskie flights during the late 1930s. There are no terrestrial plants on the reef, which is frequently awash, but it does support abundant and diverse marine fauna and flora. In 2001, the waters surrounding the reef out to 12 nm were designated a US National Wildlife Refuge.


Midway: The US took formal possession of the islands w 1867. The laying of the trans-Pacific cable, which passed through the islands, brought the first residents w 1903. Between 1935 and 1947, Midway was used as a refueling stop dla trans-Pacific flights. The US naval victory over a Japoniaese fleet off Midway w 1942 was one of the turning points of Swiat War II. The islands continued to serve as a naval station until closed w 1993. Today the islands are a National Wildlife Refuge and are the site of the world's largest Laysan albatross colony.


Palmyra: The Kingdom of Hawaii claimed the atoll w 1862, and the US included it among the Hawaiian Islands when it annexed the archipelago w 1898. The Hawaii Statehood Act of 1959 did not include Palmyra, which is now partly privately owned by the Nature Conservancy z the rest owned by the Federal government and managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. These organizations are managing the atoll as a wildlife refuge. The lagoons and surrounding waters within the 12 nm US territorial seas were transferred to the US Fish and Wildlife Service and designated as a National Wildlife Refuge w styczen 2001.
Klimat Baker, Howland, and Jarviss: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun


Johnston and Kingman: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds z little seasonal temperature variation


Midway: subtropical z cool, moist winters (grudzien to luty) and warm, dry summers (maj to pazdziernik); moderated by prevailing easterly winds; most of the 1,067 mm (42 in) of annual rainfall occurs during the winter


Palmyra: equatorial, hot; located within the low pressure area of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) where the northeast and southeast trade winds meet, it is extremely wet z between 4,000-5,000 mm (160-200 in) of rainfall each rok
Linia brzegowa Wyspa Baker: 4.8 km


Howland: 6.4 km


Jarvis: 8 km


Johnston: 34 km


Kingman: 3 km


Midway: 15 km


Palmyra: 14.5 km
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Wyspa Baker; Howland; Jarvis; Johnston; Kingman; Midway; Palmyra
Podleglosc unincorporated territories of the US; administered from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system


note on Palmyra: incorporated Territory of the US; partly privately owned and partly federally owned; administered from Washington, DC, by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior; the Office of Insular Affairs of the US Department of the Interior continues to administer nine excluded areas comprising certain tidal and submerged lands within the 12 nm territorial sea or within the lagoon
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA none (territories of the US)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomia no economic activity
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Wyspa Baker, unnamed location - 8 m; Howland, unnamed location - 3 m; Jarvis, unnamed location - 7 m; Johnston, Sand Island - 10 m; Kingman, unnamed location - less than 1 m; Midway, unnamed location - 13 m; Palmyra, unnamed location - 2 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy Baker, Howland, and Jarviss, and Johnston: no natural fresh water resources


Kingman: none


Midway and Palmyra: NA
Opis flagi the flag of the US is used
Koordynaty geograficzne Wyspa Baker: 0 13 N, 176 28 W


Howland: 0 48 N, 176 38 W


Jarvis: 0 23 S, 160 01 W


Johnston: 16 45 N, 169 31 W


Kingman: 6 23 N, 162 25 W


Midway: 28 12 N, 177 22 W


Palmyra: 5 53 N, 162 05 W
Polozenie geograficzne Baker, Howland, and Jarviss: scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat dla seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife


Johnston: Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; the egg-shaped reef is 34 km w circumference


Kingman: barren coral atoll z deep interior lagoon; closed to the public


Midway: a coral atoll managed as a national wildlife refuge and open to the public dla wildlife-related recreation w the form of wildlife observation and photography


Palmyra: the high rainfall and resulting lush vegetation make the environment of this atoll unique among the US Pacific Island territories; it supports one of the largest remaining undisturbed stands of Pisonia beach forest w the Pacific
Granica none
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 0%


permanent crops: 0%


other: 100% (2005)
System prawny the laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Lokalizacja Oceania


Wyspa Baker: atoll w the North Ocean Spokojny 1,830 nm (3,389 km) southwest of Honolulu, about half way between Hawaii and Australia


Howland: island w the North Ocean Spokojny 1,815 nm (3,361 km) southwest of Honolulu, about half way between Hawaii and Australia


Jarvis: island w the South Ocean Spokojny 1,305 nm (2,417 km) south of Honolulu, about half way between Hawaii and the Wyspy Cooka


Johnston: atoll w the North Ocean Spokojny 717 nm (1,328 km) southwest of Honolulu, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Wyspy Marshalla


Kingman: reef w the North Ocean Spokojny 930 nm (1,722 km) south of Honolulu, about half way between Hawaii and Samoa Amerykanskie


Midway: atoll w the North Ocean Spokojny 1,260 nm (2,334 km) northwest of Honolulu near the end of the Hawaiian Archipelago, about one-third of the way from Honolulu to Tokyo


Palmyra: atoll w the North Ocean Spokojny 960 nm (1,778 km) south of Honolulu, about half way between Hawaii and Samoa Amerykanskie
Lokalizacja na mapie Oceania
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Wojsko - uwagi defense is the responsibility of the US
Naturalne zagrozenia Baker, Howland, and Jarviss: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard


Kingman: wet or awash most of the time, maximum elevation of less than 1 m makes Kingman a maritime hazard


Midway, Johnston, and Palmyras: NA
Surowce naturalne terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Ludnosc no indigenous inhabitants


note: public entry is by special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife Service


Johnston: w previous years, an average of 1,100 US military and civilian contractor personnel were present; as of maj 2005 all US government personnel had left the island


Midway: approximately 40 people make up the staff of US Fish and Wildlife Service and their services contractor living at the atoll


Palmyra: four to 20 Nature Conservancy and US Fish and Wildlife staff
Uksztaltowanie terenu low and nearly level sandy coral islands z narrow fringing reefs that have developed at the top of submerged volcanic mountains, which w most cases rise steeply from the ocean floor
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