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Sierra Leone (2001)

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Sierra Leone 2001 year

 Sierra Leone
Administrative divisions 3 provinces and 1 area*; Eastern, Northern, Southern, Western*
Age structure 0-14 years:
44.73% (male 1,190,207; female 1,237,326)

15-64 years:
52.12% (male 1,351,455; female 1,477,155)

65 years and over:
3.15% (male 84,364; female 86,111) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish
Airports 11 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
3 (2000 est.)
Area total:
71,740 sq km

71,620 sq km

120 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than South Carolina
Background Since 1991, civil war between the government and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) has resulted in tens of thousands of deaths and the displacement of more than 2 million people (well over one-third of the population) many of whom are now refugees in neighboring countries. A peace agreement, signed in July 1999, collapsed in May 2000 after the RUF took over 500 UN peacekeepers hostage. The RUF stepped up attacks on Guinea in December 2000, despite a cease-fire that it signed with the Freetown government one month earlier. As of late 2000, up to 13,000 UN peacekeepers were protecting the capital and key towns in the south. A UK force of 750 was helping to reinforce security and train the Sierra Leone army.
Birth rate 45.11 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$96 million

$351 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Freetown
Climate tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)
Coastline 402 km
Constitution 1 October 1991; subsequently amended several times
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Sierra Leone

conventional short form:
Sierra Leone
Currency leone (SLL)
Death rate 19.19 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $1.28 billion (1999)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Joseph H. MELROSE, Jr.

Corner of Walpole and Siaka Stevens Streets, Freetown

mailing address:
use embassy street address

[232] (22) 226481 through 226485

[232] (22) 225471
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador John Ernest LEIGH

1701 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

[1] (202) 939-9261 through 9263

[1] (202) 483-1793
Disputes - international civil war has engendered massive refugee movements into neighboring Guinea and Liberia
Economic aid - recipient $203.7 million (1995)
Economy - overview Sierra Leone is an extremely poor African nation with tremendous inequality in income distribution. It does have substantial mineral, agricultural, and fishery resources. However, the economic and social infrastructure is not well developed, and serious social disorders continue to hamper economic development. About two-thirds of the working-age population engages in subsistence agriculture. Manufacturing consists mainly of the processing of raw materials and of light manufacturing for the domestic market. Bauxite and rutile mines have been shut down by civil strife. The major source of hard currency is found in the mining of diamonds, the large majority of which are smuggled out of the country. The resurgence of internal warfare in 1999 brought another substantial drop in GDP, with GNP recovering part of the way in 2000. The fate of the economy depends upon the maintenance of domestic peace and the continued receipt of substantial aid from abroad.
Electricity - consumption 223.2 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 240 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Loma Mansa (Bintimani) 1,948 m
Environment - current issues rapid population growth pressuring the environment; overharvesting of timber, expansion of cattle grazing, and slash-and-burn agriculture have resulted in deforestation and soil exhaustion; civil war depleting natural resources; overfishing
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups 20 native African tribes 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 30%), Creole 10% (descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area in the late-18th century), refugees from Liberia's recent civil war, small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese, Pakistanis, and Indians
Exchange rates leones per US dollar - 1,653.39 (January 2001), 2,092.13 (2000), 1,804.20 (1999), 1,563.62 (1998), 981.48 (1997), 920.73 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (since 29 March 1996, reinstated 10 March 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (since 29 March 1996, reinstated 10 March 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Ministers of State appointed by the president with the approval of the House of Representatives; the cabinet is responsible to the president

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election held 26-27 February and 15 March 1996 (next to be held NA September 2001); note - president's tenure of office is limited to two five-year terms

election results:
Ahmad Tejan KABBAH elected president; percent of vote - Ahmad Tejan KABBAH (SLPP) 59.5%, John KAREFA-SMART (UNPP) 40.5%
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $65 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities diamonds, rutile, cocoa, coffee, fish
Exports - partners Belgium 38%, US 6%, Italy 4%, UK 4% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and light blue
GDP purchasing power parity - $2.7 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


31% (1999)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $510 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.2% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 8 30 N, 11 30 W
Heliports 1 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
11,300 km

904 km

10,396 km (1997)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
43.6% (1989)
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $145 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels and lubricants, chemicals
Imports - partners UK 34%, US 8%, Italy 7%, Nigeria 5% (1999)
Independence 27 April 1961 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries mining (diamonds); small-scale manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear); petroleum refining
Infant mortality rate 146.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 15% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 290 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Appeals Court; High Court
Labor force 1.369 million (1981 est.)

only about 65,000 wage earners (1985)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Land boundaries total:
958 km

border countries:
Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

33% (1993 est.)
Languages English (official, regular use limited to literate minority), Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal vernacular in the north), Krio (English-based Creole, spoken by the descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area, a lingua franca and a first language for 10% of the population but understood by 95%)
Legal system based on English law and customary laws indigenous to local tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral House of Representatives (80 seats - 68 elected by popular vote, 12 filled by paramount chiefs elected in separate elections; members serve five-year terms)

last held 26-27 February 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)

election results:
percent of vote by party - SLPP 36.1%, UNPP 21.6%, PDP 15.3%, APC 5.7%, NUP 5.3%, DCP 4.8%, other 11.2%; seats by party - SLPP 27, UNPP 17, PDP 12, APC 5, NUP 4, DCP 3; note - first elections since the former House of Representatives was shut down by the military coup of 29 April 1992
Life expectancy at birth total population:
45.6 years

42.69 years

48.61 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write English, Mende, Temne, or Arabic

total population:


18.2% (1995 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Liberia
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea:
200 NM

continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total:
1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,057 GRT/3,498 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army
Military expenditures - dollar figure $46 million (FY96/97)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2% (FY96/97)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
1,161,790 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
563,631 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 April (1961)
Nationality noun:
Sierra Leonean(s)

Sierra Leonean
Natural hazards dry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to February); sandstorms, dust storms
Natural resources diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold, chromite
Net migration rate 10.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

by the end of 1999 refugees from Sierra Leone are assumed to be returning
Political parties and leaders All People's Congress or APC [Edward Mohammed TURAY, chairman]; Democratic Centre Party or DCP [Adu Aiah KOROMA]; National Democratic Alliance or NDA [Amadu M. B. JALLOH]; National Republican Party or NRP [Sahr Stephen MAMBU]; National Unity Party or NUP [Dr. John KARIMU, chairman]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Thaimu BANGURA, chairman]; People's Progressive Party or PPP [Abass Chernok BUNDU, chairman]; Revolutionary United Front Party or RUFP [Foday SANKOH, chairman]; Sierra Leone People's Party or SLPP [President Ahmad Tejan KABBAH, chairman]; United National People's Party or UNPP [John KARIFA-SMART in exile, Raymond KAMARA, acting leader]
Political pressure groups and leaders Trade Unions and Student Unions
Population 5,426,618 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 68% (1989 est.)
Population growth rate 3.61% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Bonthe, Freetown, Pepel
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 9, shortwave 1 (1999)
Radios 1.12 million (1997)
Railways total:
84 km used on a limited basis because the mine at Marampa is closed

narrow gauge:
84 km 1.067-m gauge
Religions Muslim 60%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
0.96 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.98 male(s)/female

total population:
0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
marginal telephone and telegraph service

national microwave radio relay trunk system, made unserviceable by military activities, is now operating from Freetown to Bo and Kenema (April 2001)

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 17,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 650 (1999)
Television broadcast stations 2 (1999)
Terrain coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland plateau, mountains in east
Total fertility rate 6.01 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways 800 km (of which 600 km navigable year round)
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