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Serbia and Montenegro (2004)

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 Serbia and Montenegro
Administrative divisions 2 republics (republike, singular - republika); and 2 nominally autonomous provinces* (autonomn pokrajine, singular - autonomna pokrajina); Kosovo* (currently under UN administration pending resolution of its future status), Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*
Age structure 0-14 years: 18.3% (male 1,027,479; female 956,681)

15-64 years: 66.8% (male 3,602,959; female 3,627,616)

65 years and over: 14.9% (male 693,929; female 917,236) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats
Airports 45 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 19

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 4 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 25

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 13 (2004 est.)
Area total: 102,350 sq km

land: 102,136 sq km

water: 214 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Kentucky
Background The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941 was resisted by various paramilitary bands that fought each other as well as the invaders. The group headed by Marshal TITO took full control upon German expulsion in 1945. Although Communist, his new government and its successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In the early 1990s, post-TITO Yugoslavia began to unravel along ethnic lines: Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina were recognized as independent states in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (FRY) in April 1992 and, under President Slobodan MILOSEVIC, Serbia led various military intervention efforts to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." All of these efforts were ultimately unsuccessful and led to Yugoslavia being ousted from the UN in 1992. In 1998-99, massive expulsions by FRY forces and Serb paramilitaries of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo provoked an international response, including the NATO bombing of Serbia and the stationing of a NATO-led force (KFOR), in Kosovo. Federal elections in the fall of 2000, brought about the ouster of MILOSEVIC and installed Vojislav KOSTUNICA as president. The arrest of MILOSEVIC in 2001 allowed for his subsequent transfer to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague to be tried for crimes against humanity. In 2001, the country's suspension from the UN was lifted, and it was once more accepted into UN organizations under the name of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Kosovo has been governed by the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) since June 1999, under the authority of UN Security Council Resolution 1244, pending a determination by the international community of its future status. In 2002, the Serbian and Montenegrin components of Yugoslavia began negotiations to forge a looser relationship. These talks became a reality in February 2003 when lawmakers restructured the country into a loose federation of two republics called Serbia and Montenegro. The Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro includes a provision that allows either republic to hold a referendum after three years that would allow for their independence from the state union.
Birth rate 12.13 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $8.668 billion

expenditures: $9.633 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Capital Belgrade
Climate in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland
Coastline 199 km
Constitution 4 February 2003
Country name conventional long form: Serbia and Montenegro

conventional short form: none

local long form: Srbija i Crna Gora

local short form: none

former: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

abbreviation: SCG
Currency in Serbia the Serbian dinar (CSD) is legal tender, but the euro (EUR) is the de facto currency; in Montenegro and Kosovo the euro is legal tender. (2004)
Death rate 10.53 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $14.01 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael C. POLT

embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade

mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070

telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344

FAX: [381] (11) 361-8230

consulate(s): Podgorica

note: there is a branch office in Pristina at 30 Nazim Hikmet 38000 Pristina, Kosovo; telephone: [381](38)549-516; FAX: [381](38)549-890
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ivan VUJACIC

chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333

FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933

consulate(s) general: Chicago
Disputes - international the future status of Kosovo remains an unresolved issue in South Central Europe with Kosovo Albanians overwhelmingly supporting and Serbian officials opposing Kosovo independence; the international community has agreed to begin a process to determine final status only after significant progress has been made in solidifying multi-ethnic democracy in Kosovo as outlined in the policy of "standards before status"; the Contact group (including the US, UK, France, Germany, Italy, and Russia) will review progress on the UNMIK standard around mid-2005; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo resist demarcation of the F.Y.R.O.M. boundary in accordance with the 2000 delimitation treaty, which transfers on net a small amount of land to F.Y.R.O.M.; Serbia and Montenegro have delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
Economic aid - recipient $2 billion pledged in 2001 (disbursements to follow for several years)
Economy - overview MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 have left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in October 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on an aggressive market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A World Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors' Conference held in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion for economic restructuring. An agreement rescheduling the country's $4.5 billion Paris Club government debts was concluded in November 2001; it wrote off 66% of the debt. The smaller republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and continues to maintain its own central bank, uses the euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar as official currency, collects customs tariffs, and manages its own budget. Kosovo, while technically still part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (now Serbia and Montenegro) according to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, is largely autonomous under United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and is greatly dependent on the international community and the diaspora for financial and technical assistance. The euro and the Yugoslav dinar are official currencies, and UNMIK collects taxes and manages the budget. The complexity of Serbia and Montenegro political relationships, slow progress in privatization, legal uncertainty over property rights, and scarcity of foreign-investment are holding back Serbia and Montenegro's economy. Arrangements with the IMF, especially requirements for fiscal discipline, are an important element in policy formation. Severe unemployment remains a key political economic problem.
Electricity - consumption 32.37 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 446 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 3.33 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 31.71 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Daravica 2,656 m
Environment - current issues pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Serb 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%, Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3.3%, other 12.6% (1991)
Exchange rates new Yugoslav dinars per US dollar - official rate: 65 (2002)
Executive branch chief of state: President Svetozar MAROVIC (since 7 March 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Svetozar MAROVIC (since 7 March 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Federal Ministries act as Cabinet

elections: president elected by the Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 7 March 2003 (next to be held 2007)

election results: Svetozar MAROVIC elected president by the Parliament; vote was Svetozar MAROVIC 65, other 47
Exports 446 million kWh (2001)
Exports $2.667 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials
Exports - partners Italy 31.6%, Germany 17.5%, Austria 6.2%, France 6%, Greece 5.4%, Slovenia 4.1%, Hungary 4% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red
GDP purchasing power parity - $23.89 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 15.2%

industry: 28.2%

services: 56.5% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,200 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.5% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 44 00 N, 21 00 E
Geography - note controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast
Heliports 4 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 49,805 km

paved: 31,029 km (including 560 km of expressways)

unpaved: 18,776 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering
Imports 3.33 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $7.144 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
Imports - partners Germany 18.8%, Italy 16.3%, Austria 8.1%, Slovenia 6.6%, Hungary 5.8%, France 4.8%, Bulgaria 4.6%, Greece 4.4% (2003)
Independence 27 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or FRY - now Serbia and Montenegro - formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY)
Industrial production growth rate 1.7% (2002 est.)
Industries machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals
Infant mortality rate total: 13.43 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 15.04 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 11.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 11.2% (2003 est.)
Irrigated land 570 sq km
Judicial branch The Court of Serbia and Montenegro; judges are elected by the Serbia and Montenegro Parliament for six-year terms

note: since the promulgation of the 2003 Constitution, the Federal Court has constitutional and administrative functions; it has an equal number of judges from each republic
Labor force 2.93 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA
Land boundaries total: 2,246 km

border countries: Albania 287 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241 km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
Land use arable land: 33.35%

permanent crops: 3.2%

other: 63.45% (2001)
Languages Serbian 95%, Albanian 5%
Legal system based on civil law system
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (126 seats - 91 Serbian, 35 Montenegrin - filled by nominees of the two state parliaments for the first two years, after which the Constitutional Charter calls for direct elections

elections: last held 25 February 2003 (next to be held 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Serbian parties: SRS 30, DSS 20, DS 13, G17 Plus 12, SPO-NS 8, SPS 8; Montenegrin parties: DPS 15, SNP 9, SDP 4, DSS 3, NS 2, LSCG 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 74.4 years

male: 71.9 years

female: 77.12 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93%

male: 97.2%

female: 88.9% (1991)
Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Map references Europe
Maritime claims NA
Military branches Army (VJ) (including ground forces with border troops, naval forces, air and air defense forces)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $654 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,718,234 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,184,937 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 81,245 (2004 est.)
National holiday National Day, 27 April
Nationality noun: Serb(s); Montenegrin(s)

adjective: Serbian; Montenegrin
Natural hazards destructive earthquakes
Natural resources oil, gas, coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, hydropower, arable land
Net migration rate -1.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines gas 3,177 km; oil 393 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Bozidar BOJOVIC]; G17 Plus [Miroljub LABUS]; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Liberal Party of Montenegro or LSCG [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Dragan SOC]; Power of Serbia Movement or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Tomislav NIKOLIC]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]; Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former Communist Party and party of Slobodan MILOSEVIC) [Ivica DACIC, president of Main Board]; Social Democratic Party of Montenegro or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]; Socialist People's Party of Montenegro or SNP [Predrag BULATOVIC]

note: the following political parties participate in elections and institutions only in Kosovo, which has been governed by the UN under UNSCR 1244 since 1999: Albanian Christian Democratic Party or PSHDK [Mark KRASNIQI]; Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]; Citizens' Initiative of Serbia or GIS [Slavisa PETKOVIC]; Democratic Ashkali Party of Kosovo or PDAK [Sabit RRAHMANI]; Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Ibrahim RUGOVA]; Democratic Party of Kosovo or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Justice Party of PD [Sylejman CERKEZI]; Kosovo Democratic Turkish Party of KDTP [Mahir YAGCILAR]; Liberal Party of Kosovo or PLK [Gjergj DEDAJ]; Ora [Veton SURROI]; New Democratic Initiative of Kosovo or IRDK [Bislim HOTI]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Numan BALIC]; Popular Movement of Kosovo or LPK [Emrush XHEMAJLI]; Prizren-Dragas Initiative or PDI [Ismajl KARADOLAMI]; Serb List for Kosovo and Metohija or SLKM [Oliver IVANOVIC]; United Roma Party of Kosovo or PREBK [Haxhi Zylfi MERXHA]; Vakat [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Political Council for Presevo, Medvedja and Bujanovac or PCPMB [leader NA]; Group for Changes of Montenegro or GZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]
Population 10,825,900 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 30% (1999 est.)
Population growth rate 0.03% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Bar, Belgrade, Kotor, Novi Sad, Pancevo, Tivat, Zelenika
Radio broadcast stations AM 113, FM 194, shortwave 2 (1998)
Railways total: 4,380 km

standard gauge: 4,380 km 1.435-m gauge (1,445 km electrified) (2003)
Religions Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: country code - 381; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 2,611,700 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 3,634,600 (2003)
Television broadcast stations more than 771 (including 86 strong stations and 685 low-power stations, plus 20 repeaters in the principal networks; also numerous local or private stations in Serbia and Vojvodina) (1997)
Terrain extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast
Total fertility rate 1.67 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 34.5% (2003 est.)
Waterways 587 km

note: Danube River traffic delayed by pontoon bridge at Novi Sad; plan to replace by summer of 2005 (2004)
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