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Sao Tome and Principe (2004)

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Sao Tome and Principe 2004 year

 Sao Tome and Principe
Administrative divisions 2 provinces; Principe, Sao Tome

note: Principe has had self-government since 29 April 1995
Age structure 0-14 years: 47.7% (male 43,810; female 42,708)

15-64 years: 48.4% (male 42,469; female 45,456)

65 years and over: 3.9% (male 3,275; female 3,847) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra, cinnamon, pepper, coffee, bananas, papayas, beans; poultry; fish
Airports 2 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Area total: 1,001 sq km

land: 1,001 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative more than five times the size of Washington, DC
Background Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. Although independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. Though the first free elections were held in 1991, the political environment has been one of continued instability with frequent changes in leadership and coup attempts in 1995 and 2003. The recent discovery of oil in the Gulf of Guinea is likely to have a significant impact on the country's economy.
Birth rate 41.36 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $38.59 million

expenditures: $42.04 million, including capital expenditures of $54 million (2003 est.)
Capital Sao Tome
Climate tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
Coastline 209 km
Constitution approved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990
Country name conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe

conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe

local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe

local short form: Sao Tome e Principe
Currency dobra (STD)
Death rate 6.89 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $318 million (2002)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands
Diplomatic representation in the US Sao Tome and Principe does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN, headed by First Secretary Domingos Augusto FERREIRA, located at 400 Park Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10022, telephone [1] (212) 317-0580
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $200 million in December 2000 under the HIPC program
Economy - overview This small poor island economy has become increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence 29 years ago. Cocoa production has substantially declined in recent years because of drought and mismanagement, but strengthening prices helped boost export earnings in 2003. Sao Tome has to import all fuels, most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and a substantial amount of food. Over the years, it has been unable to service its external debt and has had to depend on concessional aid and debt rescheduling. Sao Tome benefited from $200 million in debt relief in December 2000 under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. Sao Tome's success in implementing structural reforms has been rewarded by international donors, who pledged increased assistance in 2001. Considerable potential exists for development of a tourist industry, and the government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The government also has attempted to reduce price controls and subsidies. Sao Tome is optimistic about the development of petroleum resources in its territorial waters in the oil-rich Gulf of Guinea; production could begin as early as 2004.
Electricity - consumption 15.81 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 17 million kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)
Exchange rates dobras per US dollar - 9,347.58 (2003), 9,088.32 (2002), 8,842.11 (2001), 7,978.17 (2000), 7,118.96 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President Fradique DE MENEZES (since 3 September 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Damiao Vaz DE ALMEIDA (since 17 September 2004)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 July 2001 (next to be held NA July 2006); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president

election results: Fradique DE MENEZES elected president in Sao Tome's third multiparty presidential election; percent of vote - NA%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $6.479 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities cocoa 80%, copra, coffee, palm oil
Exports - partners Netherlands 41.7%, Canada 16.7%, Belgium 8.3%, Germany 8.3%, Philippines 8.3% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP purchasing power parity - $214 million (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 19.6%

industry: 17.8%

services: 62.6% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 1 00 N, 7 00 E
Geography - note the smallest country in Africa; the two main islands form part of a chain of extinct volcanoes and both are fairly mountainous
Highways total: 320 km

paved: 218 km

unpaved: 102 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $30.03 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and electrical equipment, food products, petroleum products
Imports - partners Portugal 51.6%, Germany 11.3%, Italy 6.5%, Belgium 4.8%, Netherlands 4.8% (2003)
Independence 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Industrial production growth rate NA
Industries light construction, textiles, soap, beer; fish processing; timber
Infant mortality rate total: 44.58 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 46.57 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 42.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 9% (2003 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Irrigated land 100 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the National Assembly)
Labor force NA
Labor force - by occupation population mainly engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing

note: shortages of skilled workers
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 6.25%

permanent crops: 48.96%

other: 44.79% (2001)
Languages Portuguese (official)
Legal system based on Portuguese legal system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (55 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 3 March 2002 (next to be held NA March 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - MLSTP 39.6%, Force for Change Democratic Movement 39.4%, Ue-Kedadji coalition 16.2%; seats by party - MLSTP 24, Force for Change Democratic Movement 23, Ue-Kedadji coalition 8
Life expectancy at birth total population: 66.63 years

male: 65.11 years

female: 68.21 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 79.3%

male: 85%

female: 62% (1991 est.)
Location Western Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the Equator, west of Gabon
Map references Africa
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 79,490 GRT/97,077 DWT

by type: bulk 2, cargo 14, chemical tanker 2, livestock carrier 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3

foreign-owned: British Virgin Islands 1, Egypt 1, Greece 1, Lebanon 1, Portugal 1, Ukraine 2 (2004 est.)
Military branches Army, Coast Guard, Presidential Guard, National Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $500,000 (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.8% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 38,347 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 20,188 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 12 July (1975)
Nationality noun: Sao Tomean(s)

adjective: Sao Tomean
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources fish, hydropower
Net migration rate -2.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Renovation Party [Armindo GRACA]; Force for Change Democratic Movement [leader NA]; Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Carlos NEVES]; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Manuel Pinto Da COSTA]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Aldo BANDEIRA]; Ue-Kedadji coalition [leader NA]; other small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 181,565 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 54% NA (2004 est.)
Population growth rate 3.18% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Santo Antonio, Sao Tome
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 1 (2002)
Religions Christian 80% (Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: adequate facilities

domestic: minimal system

international: country code - 239; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 7,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 4,800 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 2 (2002)
Terrain volcanic, mountainous
Total fertility rate 5.8 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate NA
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