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Philippines (2003)

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Philippines 2003 year

Administrative divisions 73 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique, Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City*, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*, Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*, Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur
Age structure 0-14 years: 36.2% (male 15,625,480; female 15,028,498)

15-64 years: 59.9% (male 25,206,467; female 25,485,482)

65 years and over: 3.9% (male 1,427,238; female 1,846,809) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish
Airports 257 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 82

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 26

914 to 1,523 m: 34

under 914 m: 13 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 175

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 71

under 914 m: 99 (2002)
Area total: 300,000 sq km

land: 298,170 sq km

water: 1,830 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Arizona
Background The Philippines were ceded by Spain to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. They attained independence in 1946 after Japanese occupation in World War II. The 21-year rule of Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a widespread popular rebellion forced him into exile. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. The Philippines has had two electoral presidential transitions since the removal of MARCOS. In January 2001, the Supreme Court declared Joseph ESTRADA unable to rule in view of mass resignations from his government and administered the oath of office to Vice President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO as his constitutional successor. The government continues to struggle with Muslim insurgencies in the south.
Birth rate 26.3 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $10.9 billion

expenditures: $15 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Capital Manila
Climate tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
Coastline 36,289 km
Constitution 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
Country name conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines

conventional short form: Philippines

local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas

local short form: Pilipinas
Currency Philippine peso (PHP)
Death rate 5.6 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $60.3 billion (2002)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Francis J. RICCIARDONE

embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Manila

mailing address: PSC 500, FPO AP 96515-1000

telephone: [63] (2) 523-1001

FAX: [63] (2) 522-4361
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Albert DEL ROSARIO

chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300

FAX: [1] (202) 328-7614

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, San Jose (Northern Mariana Islands), Tamuning (Guam)

consulate(s): San Diego
Disputes - international involved in complex dispute over Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam and possibly Brunei; claimants in November 2002 signed the "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea", a mechanism to ease tension but which fell short of a legally binding "code of conduct"; Sultanate of Sulu granted Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue its sovereignty claim over Malaysia's Sabah State but Malaysia rejects claim
Economic aid - recipient ODA, $1.1 billion (1998)
Economy - overview In 1998, the Philippine economy - a mixture of agriculture, light industry, and supporting services - deteriorated as a result of spillover from the Asian financial crisis and poor weather conditions. Growth fell to 0.6% in 1998 from 5% in 1997, but recovered to about 3.3% in 1999, 4.5% in 2000, and 4.5% in 2001. In 2002, the Philippines recorded GDP growth of 4.4% but also incurred a record budget deficit. As a result, the Philippines is burdened with a public sector debt equal to more than 100% of GDP. Growth eased to 3.8% in 2003. The government has promised economic reforms including going forward with privatization, reforming the tax system, and promoting additional trade integration within its region. Considerable drive is required to update the educational system and the road network.
Electricity - consumption 42.04 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 45.21 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 55.6%

hydro: 17.5%

nuclear: 0%

other: 26.9% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m
Environment - current issues uncontrolled deforestation in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in Manila; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%, other 3%
Exchange rates Philippine pesos per US dollar - 51.67 (2002), 50.99 (2001), 44.19 (2000), 39.09 (1999), 40.89 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001) and Vice President Teofisto GUINGONA (since 20 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001) and Vice President Teofisto GUINGONA (since 20 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with the consent of the Commission of Appointments

elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for six-year terms; election last held 11 May 1998 (next to be held 16 May 2004)

election results: results of the last presidential election - Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA elected president; percent of vote - approximately 40%; Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected vice president; percent of vote - 55%; note - on 20 January 2001, Vice President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was sworn in as the constitutional successor to President Joseph ESTRADA after the Supreme Court declared that ESTRADA was unable to rule in view of the mass resignations from his government; according to the Constitution, only in cases of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the president, can the vice president serve for the unexpired term
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $35.1 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities electronic equipment, machinery and transport equipment, garments, coconut products, chemicals
Exports - partners US 26.2%, Japan 14.9%, China 7.4%, Taiwan 5.8%, Singapore 5.7%, Hong Kong 5.3%, Malaysia 5.3%, Netherlands 5%, Germany 4.6%, South Korea 4.3% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing three individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle is a small yellow five-pointed star
GDP purchasing power parity - $379.7 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 15%

industry: 31%

services: 54% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,600 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.4% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 13 00 N, 122 00 E
Geography - note favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait
Heliports 2 (2002)
Highways total: 201,994 km

paved: 42,419 km

unpaved: 159,575 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.5%

highest 10%: 39.3% (1998)
Illicit drugs exports locally-produced marijuana and hashish to East Asia, the US, and other Western markets; serves as a transit point for heroin and crystal methamphetamine
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $33.5 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities raw materials, machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners Japan 21.6%, US 18.6%, Singapore 7.8%, South Korea 7.5%, China 5.2%, Hong Kong 4.5%, Taiwan 4.1% (2002)
Independence 12 June 1898 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 4% (2000 est.)
Industries textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing
Infant mortality rate total: 24.98 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 27.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 21.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.1% (2002 est.)
International organization participation APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 33 (2000)
Irrigated land 15,500 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age)
Labor force 33.7 million (2002)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 45%, industry 15%, services 40% (2003 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 18.45%

permanent crops: 14.76%

other: 66.79% (1998 est.)
Languages two official languages - Filipino (based on Tagalog) and English; eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocan, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinense
Legal system based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (214 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note - additional members may be appointed by the president but the Constitution prohibits the House of Representatives from having more than 250 members)

elections: Senate - last held 14 May 2001 (next to be held 16 May 2004); House of Representatives - elections last held 14 May 2001 (next to be held 16 May 2004)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Lakas 13, PDP-Laban/LDP 11; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Lakas 86, NPC 51, LDP 21, LP 20, independents 10, other 26
Life expectancy at birth total population: 69.29 years

male: 66.44 years

female: 72.28 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.9%

male: 96%

female: 95.8% (2003 est.)
Location Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims continental shelf: to depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 NM from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 NM in breadth
Merchant marine total: 393 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,664,718 GRT/6,699,666 DWT

ships by type: bulk 111, cargo 105, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 8, container 8, liquefied gas 8, livestock carrier 9, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 9, petroleum tanker 42, refrigerated cargo 21, roll on/roll off 16, short-sea passenger 27, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 18

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 2, Canada 1, Germany 3, Greece 8, Hong Kong 13, Japan 47, Malaysia 19, Netherlands 14, Norway 8, Panama 3, Singapore 12, South Korea 1, Taiwan 2, UK 7 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (including Coast Guard and Marine Corps), Air Force, paramilitary units
Military expenditures - dollar figure $995 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.5% (FY98)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 21,923,324 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 15,428,043 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 846,994 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day (from Spain), 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 is the date of independence from Spain, 4 July 1946 is the date of independence from the US
Nationality noun: Filipino(s)

adjective: Philippine
Natural hazards astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
Natural resources timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Net migration rate -1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 565 km; oil 135 km; refined products 100 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Laban Ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA, president, Agapito AQUINO, secretary general]; Lakas Ng Edsa (National Union of Christian Democrats) or Lakas [Jose DE VENECIA, president]; Liberal Party or LP [Florencio ABAD, president; Franklin DRILON, chairman]; National People's Coalition or NPC [Eduardo COJUANGCO, chairman emeritus; Frisco SAN JUAN, president; Faustino DY, chairman]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL, chairman; Jejomar BINAY, president]; PMP [Horacio MORALES, president]; Aksyon Demokratiko Party [Raul ROCO, president]; Reporma [Renato DE VILLA, chairman]; PROMDI [Emilio OSMENA, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 84,619,974 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 40% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 1.92% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras Island, Iligan, Iloilo, Jolo, Legaspi, Manila, Masao, Puerto Princesa, San Fernando, Subic Bay, Zamboanga
Radio broadcast stations AM 366, FM 290, shortwave 5

note: each shortwave station operates on multiple frequencies in the language of the target audience (2002)
Railways total: 897 km

narrow gauge: 897 km 1.067-m gauge (405 km are not in operation) (2002)
Religions Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and inter-island service adequate

domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations

international: 9 international gateways; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean); submarine cables to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan
Telephones - main lines in use 6.98 million (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 11.35 million (2001)
Television broadcast stations 75 (2000)
Terrain mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
Total fertility rate 3.29 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 10.2% (2002)
Waterways 3,219 km

note: limited to vessels with a draft of less than 1.5 m
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