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Philippines (2001)

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Philippines 2001 year

Administrative divisions 73 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique, Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*, Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*, Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*, Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur
Age structure 0-14 years:
36.87% (male 15,547,712; female 14,997,544)

15-64 years:
59.45% (male 24,374,849; female 24,873,595)

65 years and over:
3.68% (male 1,355,046; female 1,692,772) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish
Airports 288 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
11 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
129 (2000 est.)
Area total:
300,000 sq km

298,170 sq km

1,830 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Arizona
Background The Philippines were ceded by Spain to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. They attained their independence in 1946 after being occupied by the Japanese in World War II. The 21-year rule of Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986 when a widespread popular rebellion forced him into exile. In 1992, the US closed down its last military bases on the islands. The Philippines has had two electoral presidential transitions since Marcos' removal by "people power." In January 2001, the Supreme Court declared Joseph ESTRADA unable to rule in view of mass resignations from his government and administered the oath of office to Vice President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO as his constitutional successor. The government continues to struggle with ongoing Muslim insurgencies in the south.
Birth rate 27.37 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$14.5 billion

$12.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Capital Manila
Climate tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
Coastline 36,289 km
Constitution 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of the Philippines

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republika ng Pilipinas

local short form:
Currency Philippine peso (PHP)
Death rate 6.04 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $52 billion (1999)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affairs Michael E. MALINOWSKI

1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita 1000 Manila

mailing address:
FPO 96515

[63] (2) 523-1001

[63] (2) 522-4361
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador (vacant); Acting Ambassador Ariel ABADILLA

1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

[1] (202) 467-9300

[1] (202) 467-9317

consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

San Diego
Disputes - international involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; claim to Malaysia's Sabah State has not been fully revoked
Economic aid - recipient ODA, $1.1 billion (1998)
Economy - overview In 1998 the Philippine economy - a mixture of agriculture, light industry, and supporting services - deteriorated as a result of spillover from the Asian financial crisis and poor weather conditions. Growth fell to about -0.5% in 1998 from 5% in 1997, but recovered to about 3% in 1999 and 3.6% in 2000. The government has promised to continue its economic reforms to help the Philippines match the pace of development in the newly industrialized countries of East Asia. The strategy includes improving infrastructure, overhauling the tax system to bolster government revenues, moving toward further deregulation and privatization of the economy, and increasing trade integration with the region.
Electricity - consumption 37.893 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 40.745 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



20.29% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Philippine Sea 0 m

highest point:
Mount Apo 2,954 m
Environment - current issues uncontrolled deforestation in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in Manila; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps which are important fish breeding grounds
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese 1.5%, other 3%
Exchange rates Philippine pesos per US dollar - 50.969 (January 2001), 44.192 (2000), 39.089 (1999), 40.893 (1998), 29.471 (1997), 26.216 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Cabinet appointed by the president with the consent of the Commission of Appointments

president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for six-year terms; election last held 11 May 1998 (next to be held 16 May 2004)

election results:
results of the last presidential election - Joseph Ejercito ESTRADA elected president; percent of vote - approximately 40%; Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected vice president; percent of vote - NA%; note - on 20 January 2001, Vice President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was sworn in as the constitutional successor to President Joseph ESTRADA after the Supreme Court declared that President ESTRADA was unable to rule in view of the mass resignations from his government; according to the Constitution, only in cases of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the president, can the vice president serve for the unexpired term
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $38 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities electronic equipment, machinery and transport equipment, garments, coconut products
Exports - partners US 34%, Japan 14%, Netherlands 8%, Singapore 6%, UK 6%, Hong Kong 4% (1998)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing three individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle is a small yellow five-pointed star
GDP purchasing power parity - $310 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


48% (1997 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,800 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.6% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 13 00 N, 122 00 E
Heliports 1 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
199,950 km

39,590 km

160,360 km (1998 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
39.3% (1998)
Illicit drugs exports locally produced marijuana and hashish to East Asia, the US, and other Western markets; serves as a transit point for heroin and crystal methamphetamine
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $35 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities raw materials and intermediate goods, capital goods, consumer goods, fuels
Imports - partners US 22%, Japan 20%, South Korea 8%, Singapore 6%, Taiwan 5%, Hong Kong 4% (1998 est.)
Independence 4 July 1946 (from US)
Industrial production growth rate 4% (2000 est.)
Industries textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing
Infant mortality rate 28.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5% (2000 est.)
International organization participation APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 33 (2000)
Irrigated land 15,800 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (justices are appointed for four-year terms by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council)
Labor force 48.1 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 39.8%, government and social services 19.4%, services 17.7%, manufacturing 9.8%, construction 5.8%, other 7.5% (1998 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

19% (1993 est.)
Languages two official languages - Filipino (based on Tagalog) and English, eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocan, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinense
Legal system based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (204 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note - additional members may be appointed by the president but the Constitution prohibits the House of Representatives from having more than 250 members)

Senate - last held 11 May 1998 (next to be held 14 May 2001); House of Representatives - elections last held 11 May 1998 (next to be held 14 May 2001)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - LAMP 12, Lakas 5, PRP 2, LP 1, other 3; note - the Senate now has only 22 members with one seat vacated when Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO became vice president and another seat vacated upon a senator's death; the two seats can only be filled by election and will remain open until the next regular election in May 2001; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - LAMP 135, Lakas 37, LP 13, Aksyon Demokratiko 1, other 35
Life expectancy at birth total population:
67.8 years

64.96 years

70.79 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


94.3% (1995 est.)
Location Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims continental shelf:
to depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
irregular polygon extending up to 100 NM from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 NM in breadth
Merchant marine total:
459 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,653,062 GRT/8,512,326 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 149, cargo 123, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 10, container 5, liquefied gas 13, livestock carrier 10, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 12, petroleum tanker 42, refrigerated cargo 21, roll on/roll off 17, short-sea passenger 31, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 16

includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Cyprus 1, Denmark 1, Hong Kong 5, Japan 14, Netherlands 1, Singapore 1, UK 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (includes Coast Guard and Marine Corps), Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $995 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.5% (FY98)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
21,220,191 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
14,942,363 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
848,181 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day (from Spain), 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 is the date of independence from Spain, 4 July 1946 is the date of independence from the US
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
Natural resources timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Net migration rate -1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines petroleum products 357 km
Political parties and leaders People Power Coalition or PPC includes: Aksyon Demokratiko or Democratic Action [Raul ROCO], Lakas-NUCD [Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, titular head, Teofisto GUINGONA, party president], Liberal Party or LP [Florencio ABAD], Probinsiya Muna Development Initiative or Promdi [Lito OSMENA], and Reporma Party [Renato DE VILLA]; Puwersa ng Masa (Force of the Masses) includes: Laban Ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Eduardo ANGARA], Laban Ng Masang Pilipino or LAMP (Struggle of the Filipino Masses) [Joseph ESTRADA], and People's Reform Party or PRP [Miriam DEFENSOR-SANTIAGO]; Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement) [Imelda MARCOS]; Nacionalista Party [Jose OLIVEROS]; National People's Coalition or NPC [Eduardo COJUANGCO]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 82,841,518 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 41% (1997 est.)
Population growth rate 2.03% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras Island, Iligan, Iloilo, Jolo, Legaspi, Manila, Masao, Puerto Princesa, San Fernando, Subic Bay, Zamboanga
Radio broadcast stations AM 366, FM 290, shortwave 3 (1999)
Radios 11.5 million (1997)
Railways total:
492 km (an additional 405 km are not in operation)

narrow gauge:
492 km 1.067-m gauge (1996)
Religions Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Buddhist and other 3%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.8 male(s)/female

total population:
0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate

domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations

9 international gateways; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean); submarine cables to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan
Telephones - main lines in use 1.9 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.959 million (1998)
Television broadcast stations 31 (1997)
Terrain mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
Total fertility rate 3.42 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 10% (2000)
Waterways 3,219 km

limited to vessels with a draft of less than 1.5 m
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