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Papua New Guinea (2004)

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 Papua New Guinea
Administrative divisions 20 provinces; Bougainville, Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern, Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain
Age structure 0-14 years: 38.3% (male 1,053,940; female 1,019,492)

15-64 years: 58% (male 1,622,124; female 1,519,104)

65 years and over: 3.8% (male 96,638; female 108,982) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, tea, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables, poultry, pork
Airports 559 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 21

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 550

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 62

under 914 m: 478 (2004 est.)
Area total: 462,840 sq km

land: 452,860 sq km

water: 9,980 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than California
Background The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997 after claiming some 20,000 lives.
Birth rate 30.52 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $954.1 million

expenditures: $996.8 million, including capital expenditures of $344 million (2003 est.)
Capital Port Moresby
Climate tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Coastline 5,152 km
Constitution 16 September 1975
Country name conventional long form: Independent State of Papua New Guinea

conventional short form: Papua New Guinea

former: Territory of Papua and New Guinea

abbreviation: PNG
Currency kina (PGK)
Death rate 7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $2.909 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Robert W. FITTS

embassy: Douglas Street, Port Moresby

mailing address: 4240 Port Moresby PI, US Department of State, Washington DC 20521-4240

telephone: [675] 321-1455

FAX: [675] 321-3423
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Evan Jeremy PAKI

chancery: 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 805, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680

FAX: [1] (202) 745-3679
Disputes - international seeks assistance from Australia to control illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonesia, including smuggling, drug trafficking, and Indonesian squatters and secessionists
Economic aid - recipient $400 million (1999 est.)
Economy - overview Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, but exploitation has been hampered by rugged terrain and the high cost of developing infrastructure. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for 85% of the population. Mineral deposits, including oil, copper, and gold, account for 72% of export earnings. The economy has faltered over the past four years. Former Prime Minister Mekere MORAUTA had tried to restore integrity to state institutions, to stabilize the kina, restore stability to the national budget, to privatize public enterprises where appropriate, and to ensure ongoing peace on Bougainville. The government has had considerable success in attracting international support, specifically gaining the backing of the IMF and the World Bank in securing development assistance loans. Challenges face Prime Minister Michael SOMARE, including curbing inflation, gaining further investor confidence, continuing efforts to privatize government assets, maintaining the support of members of Parliament, and balancing relations with Australia, the former colonial ruler.
Electricity - consumption 1.391 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 1.496 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m
Environment - current issues rain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution from mining projects; severe drought
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian
Exchange rates kina per US dollar - 3.5635 (2003), 3.8952 (2002), 3.3887 (2001), 2.7822 (2000), 2.5708 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by governor general Sir Paulius MATANE (since 29 June 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister Sir Michael SOMARE (since 2 August 2002); deputy prime minister (vacant)

cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the National Executive Council; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually is appointed prime minister by the governor general
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $1.938 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities oil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns
Exports - partners Australia 25.6%, Japan 7.4%, China 5.8% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five, white, five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered
GDP purchasing power parity - $11.48 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 34%

industry: 37.7%

services: 28.3% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,200 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.4% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 6 00 S, 147 00 E
Geography - note shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast
Heliports 2 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 19,600 km

paved: 686 km

unpaved: 18,914 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.7%

highest 10%: 40.5% (1996)
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $967 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners Australia 44.6%, Singapore 20.6%, New Zealand 7.7%, China 5% (2003)
Independence 16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate NA (FY01/02 est.)
Industries copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; crude oil production; construction, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 53.15 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 57.39 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 48.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 14.7% (2003 est.)
International organization participation ACP, APEC, ARF, AsDB, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council after consultation with the minister responsible for justice; other judges are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission)
Labor force 3.25 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 85%, industry NA, services NA
Land boundaries total: 820 km

border countries: Indonesia 820 km
Land use arable land: 0.46%

permanent crops: 1.44%

other: 98.1% (2001)
Languages Melanesian Pidgin serves as the lingua franca, English spoken by 1%-2%, Motu spoken in Papua region

note: 715 indigenous languages -- many unrelated
Legal system based on English common law
Legislative branch unicameral National Parliament - sometimes referred to as the House of Assembly (109 seats, 89 elected from open electorates and 20 from provincial electorates; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 15-29 June 2002 and April and May 2003; completed in May 2003 (voting in the Southern Highlands was not completed during the June 2002 election period); next to be held not later than June 2007

election results: percent of vote by party - National Alliance 18%, URP 13%, PDM 12%, PPP 8%, Pangu 6%, PAP 5%, PLP 4%, others 34%; seats by party - National Alliance 19, UPR 14, PDM 13, PPP 8, Pangu 6, PAP 5, PLP 4, others 40; note - association with political parties is fluid (2003)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 64.56 years

male: 62.41 years

female: 66.81 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 64.6%

male: 71.1%

female: 57.7% (2002)
Location Oceania, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia
Map references Oceania
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 47,586 GRT/60,934 DWT

by type: bulk 1, cargo 12, chemical tanker 1, combination ore/oil 2, container 1, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 2

foreign-owned: Singapore 2, United Kingdom 6

registered in other countries: 1 (2004 est.)
Military branches Papua New Guinea Defense Force: Ground Force, Maritime Operations Element, and Air Operations Element
Military expenditures - dollar figure $16.9 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (FY02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,403,467 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 775,064 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 16 September (1975)
Nationality noun: Papua New Guinean(s)

adjective: Papua New Guinean
Natural hazards active volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Ring of Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis
Natural resources gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines oil 264 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Christian Democratic Party [Dr.Banare BUN, party leader]; Melanesian Alliance Party or MAP [Sir Moi AVEL, party leader]; National Alliance Party or NA [Michael SOMARE, party leader; George MANOA, party president]; National Party [Melchior PEP, party leader]; Papua and Niugini Union Party or PANGU [Chris HAIVETA, party leader]; Papua New Guinea First Party [Cecilking DORUBA, party leader]; Papua New Guinea Labor Party [Bob DANAYA, party leader]; Papua New Guinea Party [Sir Mekere MORAUTA, party leader]; People's Action Party or PAP [Moses MALADINA, party leader]; People's Labor Party or PLP [Ekis ROPENU, party leader]; People's National Congress or PNC [Peter O'NEILL, party leader]; People's Progressive Party or PPP [Andrew BAING, party leader]; Pipol First Party [Luther WENGE, party leader]; Rural People's Party [Peter NAMUS, party leader]; United Party [Bire KIMASOPA, party leader]; United Resources Party or URP [Tim NEVILLE, party leader] (2004)
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 5,420,280 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 37% (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 2.3% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Kieta, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul
Radio broadcast stations AM 8, FM 19, shortwave 28 (1998)
Religions Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%, Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant 10%, indigenous beliefs 34%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: services are adequate; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services

domestic: mostly radiotelephone

international: country code - 675; submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service
Telephones - main lines in use 62,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 15,000 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 3 (all in the Port Moresby area)

note: additional stations at Mt. Hagen, Goroka, Lae, and Rabaul are planned (2004)
Terrain mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Total fertility rate 4.04 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate NA
Waterways 10,940 km (2003)
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