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Papua New Guinea (2001)

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Papua New Guinea 2001 year

 Papua New Guinea
Administrative divisions 20 provinces; Bougainville, Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern, Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain
Age structure 0-14 years:
38.7% (male 993,248; female 960,647)

15-64 years:
57.63% (male 1,507,064; female 1,402,666)

65 years and over:
3.67% (male 87,779; female 97,651) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, tea, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables; poultry, pork
Airports 492 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
402 (2000 est.)
Area total:
462,840 sq km

452,860 sq km

9,980 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than California
Background The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997, after claiming some 20,000 lives.
Birth rate 32.15 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$1.6 billion

$1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Capital Port Moresby
Climate tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Coastline 5,152 km
Constitution 16 September 1975
Country name conventional long form:
Independent State of Papua New Guinea

conventional short form:
Papua New Guinea

Territory of Papua and New Guinea

Currency kina (PGK)
Death rate 7.88 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $2.9 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Arma Jane KARAER

Douglas Street, Port Moresby

mailing address:
P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby

[675] 321-1455

[675] 321-3423
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Susan JACOBS

1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

[1] (202) 745-3680

[1] (202) 745-3679
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $400 million (1999 est.)
Economy - overview Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, but exploitation has been hampered by the rugged terrain and the high cost of developing infrastructure. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for 85% of the population. Mineral deposits, including oil, copper, and gold, account for 72% of export earnings. The 3.4% average annual growth rate of GDP during 1979-1998 conceals considerable year-to-year variation resulting from external economic shocks, natural disasters, and economic management problems. There has been little growth in the last half of the 1990s, with real GDP in 1999 barely 3% higher than in 1994, not enough to compensate for population growth. A new administration under the leadership of Prime Minister Mekere MORAUTA in July 1999 has promised to restore integrity to state institutions, to stabilize the kina, to restore stability to the national budget, to privatize public enterprises where appropriate, and to ensure ongoing peace on Bougainville. The government has had considerable success in attracting international support, specifically gaining the support of the IMF and the World Bank in securing development assistance loans. Significant challenges remain for MORAUTA, however, including gaining further investor confidence, specifically for the proposed Papua New Guinea-Australia oil pipeline, continuing efforts to privatize government assets, and in maintaining the support from members of Parliament who after 15 July 2001 can dismiss him with a vote of no-confidence.
Electricity - consumption 1.693 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 1.82 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m
Environment - current issues rain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution from mining projects; severe drought
Environment - international agreements party to:
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian
Exchange rates kina per US dollar - 2.81 (October 2000), 2.696 (2000), 2.539 (1999), 2.058 (1998), 1.434 (1997), 1.318 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Silas ATOPARE (since 13 November 1997)

head of government:
Prime Minister Mekere MORAUTA (since NA August 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Michael OGIO (since 3 November 2000)

National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister

none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the National Executive Council; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general for up to five years on the basis of majority support in National Parliament
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities oil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns
Exports - partners Australia 30%, Japan 12%, Germany 7%, South Korea 4%, Philippines 3%, UK 3% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five, white, five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered
GDP purchasing power parity - $12.2 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


35% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.9% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 6 00 S, 147 00 E
Geography - note shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast
Heliports 2 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
19,600 km

686 km

18,914 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
40.5% (1996)
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners Australia 53%, Singapore 13%, Japan 6%, US 4%, New Zealand 4%, Malaysia 4% (1999)
Independence 16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; crude oil production; construction, tourism
Infant mortality rate 58.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 17% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACP, APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (observer), C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 3 (2000)
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council after consultation with the minister responsible for justice; other judges are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission)
Labor force 1.941 million
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 85%, industry NA%, services NA%
Land boundaries total:
820 km

border countries:
Indonesia 820 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

6% (1993 est.)
Languages English spoken by 1%-2%, pidgin English widespread, Motu spoken in Papua region

715 indigenous languages
Legal system based on English common law
Legislative branch unicameral National Parliament - sometimes referred to as the House of Assembly (109 seats, 89 elected from open electorates and 20 from provincial electorates; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

last held 14-28 June 1997 (next to be held NA June 2002)

election results:
percent of vote by party - PPP 15%, Pangu Pati 14%, NA 14%, PDM 8%, PNC 6%, PAP 5%, UP 3%, NP 1%, PUP 1%, independents 33%; seats by party - PPP 16, Pangu Pati 15, NA 15, PDM 9, PNC 7, PAP 5, UP 3, NP 1, PUP 1, independents 37; note - association with political parties is very fluid
Life expectancy at birth total population:
63.46 years

61.39 years

65.64 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


62.7% (1995 est.)
Location Southeastern Asia, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia
Map references Oceania
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 35,361 GRT/51,096 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 1, cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, combination ore/oil 3, container 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)
Military branches Papua New Guinea Defense Force (includes Ground, Naval, and Air Forces, and Special Forces Unit)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $42 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1% (FY98)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
1,306,159 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
723,012 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 16 September (1975)
Nationality noun:
Papua New Guinean(s)

Papua New Guinean
Natural hazards active volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Rim of Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis
Natural resources gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders National Alliance or NA [Michael SOMARE]; National Party or NP [Michael MEL]; Papua New Guinea United Party or Pangu Pati [Chris HAIVETA]; People's Action Party or PAP [Ted DIRO]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Sir Mekere MORAUTA]; People's National Congress or PNC [Simon KAUMI]; People's Progress Party or PPP [Michael NALI]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Alfred KAIABE]; United Party or UP [Rimbiuk PATO]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 5,049,055 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 37%
Population growth rate 2.43% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Kieta, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul
Radio broadcast stations AM 8, FM 19, shortwave 28 (1998)
Radios 410,000 (1997)
Railways 0 km
Religions Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%, Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant 10%, indigenous beliefs 34%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.07 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.9 male(s)/female

total population:
1.05 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
services are adequate and being improved; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services

mostly radiotelephone

submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service
Telephones - main lines in use 47,000 (1996)
Telephones - mobile cellular 3,053 (1996)
Television broadcast stations 3 (1997)
Terrain mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Total fertility rate 4.3 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways 10,940 km
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