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Nikaragua (2005)

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NikaraguaNikaragua (2001) (porownaj)
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Nikaragua 2005 roku

 Nikaragua
Podzial administracyjny 15 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 2 autonomous regions* (regiones autonomistas, singular - region autonomista); Atlantico Norte*, Atlantico Sur*, Boaco, Carazo, Chinyndega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 37.2% (male 1,036,487/female 999,226)


15-64 years: 59.7% (male 1,623,065/female 1,638,017)


65 years and over: 3.1% (male 73,935/female 94,370) (2005 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, corn, tobacco, sesame, soya, beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products
Lotniska 176 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 11


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 3


under 914 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 165


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 23


under 914 m: 141 (2004 est.)
Terytorium total: 129,494 sq km


land: 120,254 sq km


water: 9,240 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the state of New York
Tlo historyczne The Pacific Coast of Nikaragua was settled as a Spanish colony from Panama w the early 16th century. Niepodleglosc from Hiszpania was declared w 1821 and the country became an independent republic w 1838. Britain occupied the Caribbean Coast w the first half of the 19th century, but gradually ceded control of the region w subsequent decades. Violent opposition to governmental manipulation and corruption spread to all classes by 1978 and resulted w a short-lived civil war that brought the Marxist Sandinista guerrillas to power w 1979. Nikaraguan aid to leftist rebels w Salwador caused the US to sponsor anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas through much of the 1980s. Free elections w 1990, 1996, and again w 2001 saw the Sandinistas defeated. The country has slowly rebuilt its economy during the 1990s, but was hard hit by Hurricane Mitch w 1998.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 24.88 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budzet revenues: $725.5 million


expenditures: $1.039 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Stolica Managua
Klimat tropical w lowlands, cooler w highlands
Linia brzegowa 910 km
Konstytucja 9 styczen 1987; reforms w 1995 and 2000
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Nikaragua


conventional short form: Nikaragua


local long form: Republica de Nikaragua


local short form: Nikaragua
Wspolczynnik zgonow 4.49 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $4.573 billion (2004 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Barbara Calandra MOORE


embassy: Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur, Managua


mailing address: APO AA 34021


telephone: [505] 266-6010


FAX: [505] 266-9074
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Salvador STADTHAGEN (since 5 grudzien 2003)


chancery: 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009


telephone: [1] (202) 939-6570, [1] (202) 939-6573


FAX: [1] (202) 939-6545


consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Nikaragua filed a claim against Honduras w 1999 and against Kolumbia w 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary involving 50,000 sq km w the Caribbean Sea, including the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; the 1992 ICJ ruling dla Salwador and Honduras advised a tripartite resolution to establish a maritime boundary w the Gulf of Fonseca, which considers Honduran access to the Pacific; legal dispute over navigational rights of San Juan River on border z Kostaryka
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $541.8 million (2003)
Ekonomia Nikaragua, one of the hemisphere's poorest countries, faces low per capita income, massive unemployment, and huge external debt. Distribution of income is one of the most unequal on the globe. While the country has made progress toward macroeconomic stability over the past few years, Produkt krajowy brutto annual growth has been far too low to meet the country's needs. As a result of successful performance under its International Monetary Fund policy program and other efforts, Nikaragua qualified w early 2004 dla some $4 billion w foreign debt reduction under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. Even after this reduction, however, the government continues to bear a significant foreign and domestic debt burden. If ratified, the US-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) will provide an opportunity dla Nikaragua to attract investment, create jobs, and deepen economic development. While President BOLANOS enjoys the support of the international financial bodies, his internal political base is meager.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.318 billion kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 6.8 million kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - import 15.3 million kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 2.553 billion kWh (2002)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Mogoton 2,438 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian 5%
Kurs waluty gold cordobas per US dollar - 15.937 (2004), 15.105 (2003), 14.251 (2002), 13.372 (2001), 12.684 (2000)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (since 10 styczen 2002); Vice President Jose RIZO Castellon (since 10 styczen 2002); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (since 10 styczen 2002); Vice President Jose RIZO Castellon (since 10 styczen 2002); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 4 listopad 2001 (next to be held by listopad 2006)


election results: Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (PLC) elected president - 56.3%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 42.3%, Alberto SABORIO (PCN) 1.4%; Jose RIZO Castellon elected vice president
Eksport 6.8 million kWh (2002)
Eksport $750 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Eksport 738 bbl/day (2003)
Eksport - towary coffee, beef, shrimp and lobster, tobacco, sugar, gold, peanuts
Eksport - partnerzy US 64.8%, Salwador 7%, Meksyk 3.6% (2004)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue z the national coat of arms centered w the white band; the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of Salwador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered w the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged w an X pattern centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 20.7%


industry: 24.7%


services: 54.6% (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,300 (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 4% (2004 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 13 00 N, 85 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne largest country w Central America; contains the largest freshwater body w Central America, Lago de Nikaragua
Autostrady total: 18,712 km


paved: 2,126 km


unpaved: 16,586 km (2002)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.2%


highest 10%: 45% (2001)
Narkotyki transshipment point dla cocaine destined dla the US and transshipment point dla arms-for-drugs dealing
Import 15.3 million kWh (2002)
Import $2.02 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Import 27,950 bbl/day (2003)
Import - towary consumer goods, machinery and equipment, raw materials, petroleum products
Import - partnerzy US 22.6%, Kostaryka 8.5%, Wenezuela 8.4%, Gwatemala 6.8%, Meksyk 5.8%, Salwador 4.9%, South Korea 4.5% (2004)
Niepodleglosc 15 wrzesien 1821 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 4.4% (2000 est.)
Przemysl food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 29.11 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 32.6 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 25.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflacja 9.3% (2004 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BCIE, CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 880 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (16 judges elected dla five-year terms by the National Assembly)
Sila robocza 1.93 million (2004 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 30.5%, industry 17.3%, services 52.2% (2003 est.)
Granica total: 1,231 km


border countries: Kostaryka 309 km, Honduras 922 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 15.94%


permanent crops: 1.94%


other: 82.12% (2001)
Jezyki Spanish 97.5% (official), Miskito 1.7%, other 0.8% (1995 census)


note: English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast
System prawny civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (92 seats; members are elected by proportional representation and party lists to serve five-year terms; one seat dla previous President, one seat dla runner-up w previous Presidential election


elections: last held 4 listopad 2001 (next to be held by listopad 2006)


election results: percent of vote by party - Liberal Alliance (ruling party - includes PCCN, PLC, PALI, PLIUN, and PUCA) 46.03%, FSLN 36.55%, PCN 2.12%; seats by party - Liberal Alliance 53, FSLN 38, PCN 1
Zywotnosc total population: 70.33 years


male: 68.27 years


female: 72.49 years (2005 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 67.5%


male: 67.2%


female: 67.8% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Ocean Spokojny, between Kostaryka and Honduras
Lokalizacja na mapie Central America and the Caribbean
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 200 nm


continental shelf: natural prolongation
Wojsko Army (includes Navy, Air Force)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $32.8 million (2004)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0.7% (2004)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 15 wrzesien (1821)
Narodowosc noun: Nikaraguan(s)


adjective: Nikaraguan
Naturalne zagrozenia destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
Surowce naturalne gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Rurociagi oil 54 km (2004)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Alliance dla the Republic or APRE [Miguel LOPEZ Baldizon, Oscar WENDOLYN Vargas, Karla WHITE]; Central American Unionist Party or PUCA [leader NA]; Christian Alternative Party or AC [Orlando TARDENCILLA Espinoza]; Conservative Party of Nikaragua or PCN [Mario RAPPACCIOLI]; Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Anibal MARTINEZ Nunez, Pedro REYES Vallejos]; Independent Liberal Party dla National Unity or PLIUN [leader NA]; Liberal Konstytucjaal Party or PLC [Jorge CASTILLO Quant]; Liberal Salvation Movement or MSL [Eliseo NUNEZ Hernandez]; New Liberal Party or PALI [leader NA]; Nikaraguan Party of the Christian Path or PCCN [Guillermo OSORNO Molina]; Nikaraguan Resistance Party or PRN [Salvador TALAVERA]; Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra]; Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [leader NA]; Unity Alliance or AU [leader NA]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including - Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nikaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nikaragua or UPN; Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including - Autonomous Nikaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS; Nikaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups
Ludnosc 5,465,100 (lipiec 2005 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 50% (2001 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.92% (2005 est.)
Porty i stocznie Bluefields, Corinto, El Bluff
Stacje radiowe AM 63, FM 32, shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 6 km


narrow gauge: 6 km 1.067-m gauge (2004)
Religie Roman Catholic 72.9%, Evangelical 15.1%, Moravian 1.5%, Episcopal 0.1%, other 1.9%, none 8.5% (1995 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female


total population: 1 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 16 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: inadequate system being upgraded by foreign investment


domestic: low-capacity microwave radio relay and wire system being expanded; connected to Central American Microwave System


international: country code - 505; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region) and 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 171,600 (2002)
Telefony komorkowe 202,800 (2002)
Stacje telewizyjne 3 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.81 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 7.8% plus underemployment of 46.5% (2003 est.)
Drogi wodne 2,220 km (including lakes Managua and Nikaragua) (1997)
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