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Niemcy 2001 roku

 Niemcy
Podzial administracyjny 16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years:
15.57% (male 6,635,328; female 6,289,994)

15-64 years:
67.82% (male 28,619,237; female 27,691,698)

65 years and over:
16.61% (male 5,336,664; female 8,456,615) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry
Lotniska 613 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total:
322

over 3,047 m:
13

2,438 to 3,047 m:
55

1,524 to 2,437 m:
67

914 to 1,523 m:
63

under 914 m:
124 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total:
291

over 3,047 m:
2

2,438 to 3,047 m:
6

1,524 to 2,437 m:
5

914 to 1,523 m:
53

under 914 m:
225 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total:
357,021 sq km

land:
349,223 sq km

water:
7,798 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Montana
Tlo historyczne As Western Europe's richest and most populous nation, Niemcy remains a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed the country w two devastating Swiat Wars w the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, Francja, and the Soviet Union w 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed w 1949: the western Federal Republic of Niemcy (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself w key Western economic and security organizations, the EC and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed dla German unification w 1990. Since then Niemcy has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In styczen 1999, Niemcy and 10 other EU countries formed a common European currency, the euro.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 9.16 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues:
$996 billion

expenditures:
$1.036 trillion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Stolica Berlin
Klimat temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm foehn wind
Linia brzegowa 2,389 km
Konstytucja 23 maj 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united German people 3 pazdziernik 1990
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form:
Federal Republic of Niemcy

conventional short form:
Niemcy

local long form:
Bundesrepublik Deutschland

local short form:
Deutschland

former:
German Empire, German Republic, German Reich
Waluta deutsche mark (DEM); euro (EUR)

note:
on 1 styczen 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions w Niemcy at a fixed rate of 1.95583 deutsche marks per euro and will replace the local currency dla all transactions w 2002
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10.42 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $NA
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission:
Ambassador John C. KORNBLUM (was due to resign on 20 styczen 2001)

embassy:
Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse 4-5, 10117 Berlin

mailing address:
PSC 120, Box 1000, APO AE 09265

telephone:
[49] (30) 238-5174

FAX:
[49] (30) 238-6290

consulate(s) general:
Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Juergen CHROBOG

chancery:
4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone:
[1] (202) 298-8141

FAX:
[1] (202) 298-4249

consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Seattle

consulate(s):
Wellington (America Samoa)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $5.6 billion (1998)
Ekonomia Niemcy possesses the world's third most technologically powerful economy after the US and Japonia, but structural market rigidities - including the substantial non-wage costs of hiring new workers - have made unemployment a long-term, not just a cyclical, problem. Niemcy's aging population, combined z high unemployment, has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions from workers. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy remains a costly long-term problem, z annual transfers from western Niemcy amounting to roughly $70 billion. Growth picked up to 3% w 2000, largely due to recovering global demand; newly passed business and income tax cuts are expected to keep growth strong w 2001. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are transforming the German economy to meet the challenges of European economic integration and globalization w general.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 495.181 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 39.5 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - import 40.5 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 531.377 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel:
63.29%

hydro:
3.59%

nuclear:
30.3%

other:
2.82% (1999)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point:
Freepsum Lake -2 m

highest point:
Zugspitze 2,963 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution w the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers w eastern Niemcy; hazardous waste disposal; government currently attempting to define mechanism dla ending the use of nuclear power; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas w line z the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Serbo-Chorwacjan, Italian, Rosjan, Greek, Polish, Spanish)
Kurs waluty euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (styczen 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); deutsche marks per US dollar - 1.69 (styczen 1999), 1.7597 (1998), 1.7341 (1997), 1.5048 (1996)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state:
President Johannes RAU (since 1 lipiec 1999)

head of government:
Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (since 27 pazdziernik 1998)

cabinet:
Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor

elections:
president elected dla a five-year term by a Federal Convention including all members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held 23 maj 1999 (next to be held 23 maj 2004); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly dla a four-year term; election last held 27 wrzesien 1998 (next to be held w the fall of 2002)

election results:
Johannes RAU elected president; percent of Federal Convention vote - 57.6%; Gerhard SCHROEDER elected chancellor; percent of Federal Assembly - 52.7%
Eksport 39.5 billion kWh (1999)
Eksport $578 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Eksport - towary machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles
Eksport - partnerzy EU 55.3% (Francja 11.3%, UK 8.3%, Wlochy 7.3%, Holandia 6.3%, Belgia/Luksemburg 5.1%), US 10.1%, Japonia 2.0% (1999)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $1.936 trillion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture:
1.2%

industry:
30.4%

services:
68.4% (1999)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $23,400 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 51 00 N, 9 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea
Ladowiska helikopterow 59 (2000 est.)
Autostrady total:
656,140 km

paved:
650,891 km (including 11,400 km of expressways)

unpaved:
5,249 km (all-weather) (1998 est.)
Narkotyki source of precursor chemicals dla South American cocaine processors; transshipment point dla and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs
Import 40.5 billion kWh (1999)
Import $505 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Import - towary machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals
Import - partnerzy EU 52.2% (Francja 10.5%, Holandia 7.6%, Wlochy 7.4%, UK 6.9%, Belgia/Luksemburg 5.6%), US 8.1%, Japonia 4.9% (1999)
Niepodleglosc 18 styczen 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, Francja) w 1945 following Swiat War II; Federal Republic of Niemcy (FRG or West Niemcy) proclaimed 23 maj 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Niemcy) proclaimed 7 pazdziernik 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Niemcy and East Niemcy took place 3 pazdziernik 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 marzec 1991
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 4.7% (2000)
Przemysl among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 4.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 2% (2000 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Dostawcy internetu 123 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 4,750 sq km (1993 est.)
Sadownictwo Federal Konstytucjaal Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)
Sila robocza 40.5 million (1999 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki industry 33.4%, agriculture 2.8%, services 63.8% (1999)
Granica total:
3,618 km

border countries:
Austria 784 km, Belgia 167 km, Czechy 646 km, Dania 68 km, Francja 451 km, Luksemburg 135 km, Holandia 577 km, Polska 456 km, Szwajcaria 334 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land:
33%

permanent crops:
1%

permanent pastures:
15%

forests and woodland:
31%

other:
20% (1993 est.)
Jezyki German
System prawny civil law system z indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts w the Federal Konstytucjaal Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Federal Assembly or Bundestag (656 seats usually, but 669 dla the 1998 term; elected by popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain representation; members serve four-year terms) and the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments are directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6 votes depending on population and are required to vote as a block)

elections:
Federal Assembly - last held 27 wrzesien 1998 (next to be held by the fall of 2002); note - there are no elections dla the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election

election results:
Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - SPD 40.9%, Alliance '90/Greens 6.7%, CDU/CSU 35.1%, FDP 6.2%, PDS 5.1%; seats by party - SPD 298, Alliance '90/Greens 47, CDU/CSU 245, FDP 43, PDS 36; Federal Council - current composition - votes by party - SPD-led states 26, CDU-led states 28, grand coalitions 15
Zywotnosc total population:
77.61 years

male:
74.47 years

female:
80.92 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:
99% (1977 est.)

male:
NA%

female:
NA%
Lokalizacja Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Holandia and Polska, south of Dania
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Flota handlowa total:
457 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,414,724 GRT/7,952,776 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 169, chemical tanker 10, combination ore/oil 1, container 243, liquefied gas 2, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 7, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 7 (2000 est.)
Wojsko Army, Navy (includes Naval Air Arm), Air Force, Medical Corps, Border Police, Coast Guard
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $32.8 billion (FY98)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.5% (FY98)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49:
20,851,022 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49:
17,760,412 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males:
482,318 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Unity Day, 3 pazdziernik (1990)
Narodowosc noun:
German(s)

adjective:
German
Naturalne zagrozenia flooding
Surowce naturalne iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji 4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 2,500 km (1998)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Alliance '90/Greens [Renate KUENAST and Fritz KUHN]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Edmund STOIBER, chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Wolfgang GERHARDT, chairman]; note - Wolfgang GERHARDT will probably be replaced by Guido WESTERWELLE w maj 2001; Party of Democratic Socialism or PDS [Gabi ZIMMER]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Gerhard SCHROEDER, chairman]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow employers' organizations; expellee, refugee, trade unions, and veterans groups
Ludnosc 83,029,536 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 0.27% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden, Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Luebeck, Magdeburg, Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart
Stacje radiowe AM 51, FM 767, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radia 77.8 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total:
40,826 km including at least 14,253 km electrified and 14,768 km double- or multiple-tracked (1998)

note:
since privatization w 1994, Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG) no longer publishes details of the tracks it owns; w addition to the DBAG system there are 102 privately owned railway companies which own an approximate 3,000 km to 4,000 km of the total tracks
Religie Protestant 38%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 1.7%, unaffiliated or other 26.3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth:
1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.63 male(s)/female

total population:
0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment:
Niemcy has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country has been modernized and integrated z that of the western part

domestic:
Niemcy is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available and includes roaming service to many foreign countries

international:
satellite earth stations - 14 Intelsat (12 Ocean Atlantycki and 2 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region), 2 Intersputnik (1 Ocean Atlantycki region and 1 Ocean Indyjski region); 7 submarine cable connections; 2 HF radiotelephone communication centers; tropospheric scatter links
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 45.2 million (1997)

note:
46.5 million main lines were installed by yearend 1998
Telefony komorkowe 15.318 million (kwiecien 1999)
Stacje telewizyjne 373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu lowlands w north, uplands w center, Bavarian Alps w south
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.38 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.9% (2000 est.)
Drogi wodne 7,500 km

note:
major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea (1999)
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