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New Zealand (2005)

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 New Zealand
Administrative divisions 16 regions and 1 territory*; Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Chatham Islands*, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wellington, West Coast
Age structure 0-14 years: 21.4% (male 441,836/female 421,065)

15-64 years: 66.9% (male 1,356,095/female 1,343,728)

65 years and over: 11.7% (male 206,650/female 266,087) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables; wool, beef, lamb and mutton, dairy products; fish
Airports 116 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 46

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 27

under 914 m: 5 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 70

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 29

under 914 m: 39 (2004 est.)
Area total: 268,680 sq km

land: 268,021 sq km

water: NA

note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
Area - comparative about the size of Colorado
Background The Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand in about A.D. 800. In 1840, their chieftains entered into a compact with Britain, the Treaty of Waitangi, in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. In that same year, the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealand's full participation in a number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years, the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances.
Birth rate 13.9 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $38.29 billion

expenditures: $36.12 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Capital Wellington
Climate temperate with sharp regional contrasts
Coastline 15,134 km
Constitution consists of a series of legal documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments, as well as The Constitution Act 1986, which is the principal formal charter; adopted 1 January 1987, effective 1 January 1987
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: New Zealand

abbreviation: NZ
Death rate 7.53 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $47.34 billion (2004 est.)
Dependent areas Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Charles J. SWINDELLS

embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington

mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, APO AP 96531-1034

telephone: [64] (4) 462-6000

FAX: [64] (4) 499-0490

consulate(s) general: Auckland
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador L. John WOOD

chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800

FAX: [1] (202) 667-5227

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Disputes - international asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency) [see Antarctica]
Economic aid - donor ODA, $99.7 million
Economy - overview Over the past 20 years the government has transformed New Zealand from an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access to a more industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes (but left behind many at the bottom of the ladder), broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector, and contained inflationary pressures. Per capita income has risen for six consecutive years and is now more than $23,000 in purchasing power parity terms. New Zealand is heavily dependent on trade - particularly in agricultural products - to drive growth. Exports are equal to about 20% of GDP. Thus far the economy has been resilient, and the Labor Government promises that expenditures on health, education, and pensions will increase proportionately to output.
Electricity - consumption 35.71 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 38.39 billion kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Aoraki-Mount Cook 3,754 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by species introduced from outside
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups European 69.8%, Maori 7.9%, Asian 5.7%, Pacific islander 4.4%, other 0.5%, mixed 7.8%, unspecified 3.8% (2001 census)
Exchange rates New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 1.5087 (2004), 1.7221 (2003), 2.1622 (2002), 2.3788 (2001), 2.2012 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Dame Silvia CARTWRIGHT (since 4 April 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10 December 1999) and Deputy Prime Minister Michael CULLEN (since NA July 2002)

cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Exports 0 kWh (2002)
Exports $19.85 billion (2004 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports 30,220 bbl/day (2001)
Exports - commodities dairy products, meat, wood and wood products, fish, machinery
Exports - partners Australia 21%, US 14.4%, Japan 11.3%, China 5.7%, UK 4.7% (2004)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 4.6%

industry: 27.4%

services: 68% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $23,200 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.8% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 41 00 S, 174 00 E
Geography - note about 80% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world
Highways total: 92,382 km

paved: 59,124 km (including at least 169 km of expressways)

unpaved: 33,258 km (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 0.3%

highest 10%: 29.8% (1991 est.)
Imports 0 kWh (2002)
Imports $19.77 billion (2004 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports 119,700 bbl/day (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, electronics, textiles, plastics
Imports - partners Australia 22.4%, US 11.3%, Japan 11.2%, China 9.7%, Germany 5.2% (2004)
Independence 26 September 1907 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 5.9% (2004 est.)
Industries food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining
Infant mortality rate total: 5.85 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 6.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.4% (2004 est.)
International organization participation ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CP, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMISET, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 2,850 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; High Court; note - Judges appointed by the Governor-General
Labor force 2.05 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 10%, industry 25%, services 65% (1995)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 5.6%

permanent crops: 6.99%

other: 87.41% (2001)
Languages English (official), Maori (official)
Legal system based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for the Maori; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (120 seats; 69 members elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies including 7 Maori constituencies, and 51 proportional seats chosen from party lists, all to serve three-year terms)

elections: last held 17 September 2005 (next to be held not later than 15 November 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - NZLP 41.1%, NP 39.1%, NZFP 5.72%, Green Party 5.3%, Maori 2.12%, UF 2.67%, ACT New Zealand 1.51%, Progressive 1.16%; seats by party - NZLP 50, NP 48, NZFP 7, Green Party 6, Maori 4, UF 3, ACT New Zealand 2, Progressive 1

note: results of 2005 election saw the total number of seats increase to 121 because the Maori Party won one more electorate seat than its entitlement under the party vote
Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.66 years

male: 75.67 years

female: 81.78 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99% (1980 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia
Map references Oceania
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 77,523 GRT/108,352 DWT

by type: cargo 3, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1, bulk carrier 3

foreign-owned: 2 (Germany 1, Isle of Man 1)

registered in other countries: 5 (2005)
Military branches New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.147 billion (FY03/04)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1% (FY02)
National holiday Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)
Nationality noun: New Zealander(s)

adjective: New Zealand
Natural hazards earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity
Natural resources natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
Net migration rate 3.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Pipelines gas 2,213 km; liquid petroleum gas 79 km; oil 160 km; refined products 304 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders ACT New Zealand [Rodney HIDE]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS and Rod DONALD]; Maori Party [Whatarangi WINIATA]; National Party or NP [Don BRASH]; New Zealand First Party or NZFP [Winston PETERS]; New Zealand Labor Party or NZLP [Helen CLARK]; Progressive Party [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; United Future or UF [Peter DUNNE]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 4,035,461 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 1.02% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Auckland, Lyttelton, Tauranga, Wellington, Whangarei
Radio broadcast stations AM 124, FM 290, shortwave 4 (1998)
Railways total: 3,898 km

narrow gauge: 3,898 km 1.067-m gauge (506 km electrified) (2004)
Religions Anglican 14.9%, Roman Catholic 12.4%, Presbyterian 10.9%, Methodist 2.9%, Pentecostal 1.7%, Baptist 1.3%, other Christian 9.4%, other 3.3%, unspecified 17.2%, none 26% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems

domestic: NA

international: country code - 64; submarine cables to Australia and Fiji; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.765 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2.599 million (2003)
Television broadcast stations 41 (plus 52 medium-power repeaters and over 650 low-power repeaters) (1997)
Terrain predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains
Total fertility rate 1.79 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.2% (2004 est.)
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