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Mongolia (2008)

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Mongolia 2008 roku

 Mongolia
Podzial administracyjny 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 28.7% (male 432,309/female 415,382)


15-64 years: 67.4% (male 994,186/female 995,986)


65 years and over: 3.9% (male 49,517/female 64,406) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Lotniska 44 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 13


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 10


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 31


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 5


1,524 to 2,437 m: 23


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Terytorium total: 1,564,116 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Alaska
Tlo historyczne The Mongols gained fame w the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart w the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and w the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence w 1921 z Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed w 1924. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections w 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) w the 1996 parliamentary election. Since then, parliamentary elections returned the MPRP overwhelmingly to power w 2000, but 2004 elections reduced MPRP representation and, therefore, its authority.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 21.07 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $1.162 billion


expenditures: $1.057 billion (2006)
Stolica name: Ulaanbaatar


geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 55 E


time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Saturday w marzec; ends last Saturday w wrzesien
Klimat desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja 12 luty 1992
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Mongolia


local long form: none


local short form: Mongol Uls


former: Outer Mongolia
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $1.38 billion (2005)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Mark C. MINTON


embassy: Big Ring Road, 11th Micro Region, Ulaanbaatar


mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002; P.O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar-13


telephone: [976] (11) 329-095


FAX: [976] (11) 320-776
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Banzragch ODONJIL


chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007


telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117


FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $211.9 million (2005)
Ekonomia Economic activity w Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits. Copper, coal, gold, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten account dla a large part of industrial production and foreign direct investment. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of Produkt krajowy brutto, disappeared almost overnight w 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession because of political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth because of reform-embracing, free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts w 2000-02 resulted w massive livestock die-off and zero or negative Produkt krajowy brutto growth. This was compounded by falling prices dla Mongolia's primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth was 10.6% w 2004, 5.5% w 2005, 7.5% w 2006, and 9.9% w 2007 largely because of high copper prices and new gold production. Mongolia is experiencing its highest inflation rate w over a decade as consumer prices w 2007 rose 15%, largely because of increased fuel and food costs. Mongolia's economy continues to be heavily influenced by its neighbors. For example, Mongolia purchases 95% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Rosja, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Trade z Chiny represents more than half of Mongolia's total external trade - Chiny receives nearly 70% of Mongolia's exports. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally are sizable, and money laundering is a growing concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt z Rosja at the end of 2003 on favorable terms. Mongolia, which joined the Swiat Trade Organization w 1997, seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.94 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 15.95 million kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - import 125 million kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 3.43 billion kWh (2006)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m


highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy limited natural fresh water resources w some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal w power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air w Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Rosjan) 0.1% (2000)
Kurs waluty togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,170 (2007), 1,179.6 (2006), 1,205 (2005), 1,185.3 (2004), 1,146.5 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 24 czerwiec 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Sanjaa BAYAR (since 22 listopad 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Miegombyn ENKHBOLD (since 6 grudzien 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister w consultation z the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)


elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented w State Great Hural and elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 22 maj 2005 (next to be held w maj 2009); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural


election results: Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected president; percent of vote - Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR 53.44%, Mendsaikhanin ENKHSAIKHAN 20.05%, Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN 13.92%, Badarchyn ERDENEBAT 12.59%; Miegombyn ENKHBOLD elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 56 to 10
Eksport 15.95 million kWh (2006)
Eksport $1.542 billion f.o.b. (2006)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 821.9 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Eksport - towary copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Eksport - partnerzy Chiny 71.7%, Kanada 11.7%, US 7.3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band w yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation dla fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 18.8%


industry: 40.4%


services: 40.8% (2006)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8.4% (2006)
Koordynaty geograficzne 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; strategic location between Chiny and Rosja
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3%


highest 10%: 24.6% (2002)
Import 125 million kWh (2006)
Import $1.486 billion c.i.f. (2006)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 12,280 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Import - partnerzy Rosja 29.7%, Chiny 29.4%, Japonia 11.9% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 11 lipiec 1921 (from Chiny)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 3% (2006 est.)
Przemysl construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 42.65 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 45.86 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 39.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 9.5% (2005 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, ARF, CP, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 840 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (serves as appeals court dla people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)
Sila robocza 1.042 million (2006)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 39.9%


industry: 11.7%


services: 49.4% (2006)
Granica total: 8,220 km


border countries: Chiny 4,677 km, Rosja 3,543 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 0.76%


permanent crops: 0%


other: 99.24% (2005)
Jezyki Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Rosjan (1999)
System prawny blend of Soviet, German, and US systems that combine "continental" or "civil" code and case-precedent; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms


elections: last held 27 czerwiec 2004 (next to be held on 29 czerwiec 2008)


election results: percent of vote by party - MPRP 48.8%, MDC 44.8%, independents 3.5%, Republican Party 1.5%, others 1.4%; seats by party - MPRP 36, MDC 34, others 4; note - 2 seats disputed and unfilled; following czerwiec 2004 election MDC collapsed
Zywotnosc total population: 66.99 years


male: 64.61 years


female: 69.48 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 97.8%


male: 98%


female: 97.5% (2000 census)
Lokalizacja Northern Asia, between Chiny and Rosja
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Flota handlowa total: 73 ships (1000 GRT or over) 448,252 GRT/668,689 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 12, cargo 52, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 5


foreign-owned: 62 (Bulgaria 2, Chiny 3, Hong Kong 1, Japonia 1, Liban 1, Malezja 1, Rosja 17, Singapur 12, Syria 1, Tajlandia 1, Ukraina 3, UAE 5, Wietnam 14) (2007)
Wojsko Mongolian Armed Forces: Mongolian Army, Mongolian Air Force; there is no navy (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.4% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day/Revolution Day, 11 lipiec (1921)
Narodowosc noun: Mongolian(s)


adjective: Mongolian
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Surowce naturalne oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Citizens Will Party [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN] (also called Civil Will); Democratic Party or DP [Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [Badarchyn ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Sanji BAYAR]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN]; People's Party or PP [Lamjav GUNDALAI]


note: DP and Motherland Party formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) w 2003 and z cooperation from Civil Will and Republican parties contested czerwiec 2004 elections as single party; coalition was dissolved w grudzien 2004
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 2,951,786 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 36.1% (2004)
Przyrost naturalny 1.486% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 7, FM 115 (includes 20 National radio broadcaster repeaters), shortwave 4 (2006)
Linie kolejowe total: 1,810 km


broad gauge: 1,810 km 1.524-m gauge (2006)
Religie Buddhist Lamaist 50%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4%, none 40% (2004)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.041 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.998 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.769 male(s)/female


total population: 1 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: network is improving z international direct dialing available w many areas


domestic: very low fixed-line density; there are multiple mobile cellular service providers and subscribership is increasing rapidly; a fiber-optic network is also being installed that will improve broadband and communication services between major urban centers


international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 158,900 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 775,300 (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 456 (including provincial and low-power repeaters) (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains w west and southwest; Gobi Desert w south-central
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.25 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 3.2% (2006)
Drogi wodne 580 km


note: only waterway w operation is Lake Hovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze w winter, are open from maj to wrzesien (2004)
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