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Marshall Islands (2006)

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Marshall Islands 2006 year

 Marshall Islands
Administrative divisions 33 municipalities; Ailinginae, Ailinglaplap, Ailuk, Arno, Aur, Bikar, Bikini, Bokak, Ebon, Enewetak, Erikub, Jabat, Jaluit, Jemo, Kili, Kwajalein, Lae, Lib, Likiep, Majuro, Maloelap, Mejit, Mili, Namorik, Namu, Rongelap, Rongrik, Toke, Ujae, Ujelang, Utirik, Wotho, Wotje
Age structure 0-14 years: 38.1% (male 11,720/female 11,295)

15-64 years: 59.2% (male 18,305/female 17,445)

65 years and over: 2.7% (male 801/female 856) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products coconuts, tomatoes, melons, taro, breadfruit, fruits; pigs, chickens
Airports 15 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Area total: 11,854.3 sq km

land: 181.3 sq km

water: 11,673 sq km (note - lagoon waters)

note: includes the atolls of Bikini, Enewetak, Kwajalein, Majuro, Rongelap, and Utirik
Area - comparative about the size of Washington, DC
Background After almost four decades under US administration as the easternmost part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Marshall Islands attained independence in 1986 under a Compact of Free Association. Compensation claims continue as a result of US nuclear testing on some of the atolls between 1947 and 1962. The Marshall Islands hosts the US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Reagan Missile Test Site, a key installation in the US missile defense network.
Birth rate 33.05 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $42 million

expenditures: $40 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)
Capital name: Majuro

geographic coordinates: 7 05 N, 171 08 E

time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; hot and humid; wet season May to November; islands border typhoon belt
Coastline 370.4 km
Constitution 1 May 1979
Country name conventional long form: Republic of the Marshall Islands

conventional short form: Marshall Islands

local long form: Republic of the Marshall Islands

local short form: Marshall Islands

abbreviation: RMI

former: Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Marshall Islands District
Death rate 4.78 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $86.5 million (FY99/00 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Greta N. MORRIS

embassy: Oceanside, Mejen Weto, Long Island, Majuro

mailing address: P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96960-1379

telephone: [692] 247-4011

FAX: [692] 247-4012
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Banny DE BRUM

chancery: 2433 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-5414

FAX: [1] (202) 232-3236

consulate(s) general: Honolulu
Disputes - international claims US territory of Wake Island
Economic aid - recipient $51.1 million more than $1 billion from the US, 1986-2002
Economy - overview US Government assistance is the mainstay of this tiny island economy. Agricultural production, primarily subsistence, is concentrated on small farms; the most important commercial crops are coconuts and breadfruit. Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts, tuna processing, and copra. The tourist industry, now a small source of foreign exchange employing less than 10% of the labor force, remains the best hope for future added income. The islands have few natural resources, and imports far exceed exports. Under the terms of the Amended Compact of Free Association, the US will provide millions of dollars per year to the Marshall Islands (RMI) through 2023, at which time a Trust Fund made up of US and RMI contributions will begin perpetual annual payouts. Government downsizing, drought, a drop in construction, the decline in tourism and foreign investment due to the Asian financial difficulties, and less income from the renewal of fishing vessel licenses have held GDP growth to an average of 1% over the past decade.
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location on Likiep 10 m
Environment - current issues inadequate supplies of potable water; pollution of Majuro lagoon from household waste and discharges from fishing vessels
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Micronesian
Exchange rates the US dollar is used
Executive branch chief of state: President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 5 January 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 5 January 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president from among the members of the legislature

elections: president elected by Parliament from among its own members for a four-year term; election last held 17 November 2003 (next to be held November 2007)

election results: Kessai Hesa NOTE elected president; percent of Parliament vote - 100%
Exports $9.1 million f.o.b. (2000)
Exports - commodities copra cake, coconut oil, handicrafts, fish
Exports - partners US, Japan, Australia, China (2004)
Fiscal year 1 October - 30 September
Flag description blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner - orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 31.7%

industry: 14.9%

services: 53.4% (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.5% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 9 00 N, 168 00 E
Geography - note Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous World War II battleground, is used as a US missile test range; island city of Ebeye is the second largest settlement in the Marshall Islands, after the capital of Majuro, and one of the most densely populated locations in the Pacific
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports $54.7 million f.o.b. (2000)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels, beverages and tobacco
Imports - partners US, Japan, Australia, NZ, Singapore, Fiji, China, Philippines (2004)
Independence 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries copra, tuna processing, tourism, craft items from seashells, wood, and pearls
Infant mortality rate total: 28.43 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 31.93 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 24.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2005 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AsDB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, IDA, IFC, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO
Irrigated land 0 sq km
Judicial branch Supreme Court; High Court; Traditional Rights Court
Labor force 14,680 (2000)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 21.4%

industry: 20.9%

services: 57.7%
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 11.11%

permanent crops: 44.44%

other: 44.45% (2005)
Languages Marshallese 98.2%, other languages 1.8% (1999 census)

note: English widely spoken as a second language; both Marshallese and English are official languages
Legal system based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws
Legislative branch unicameral legislature or Nitijela (33 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 17 November 2003 (next to be held by November 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

note: the Council of Chiefs or Ironij is a 12-member body comprised of tribal chiefs that advises on matters affecting customary law and practice
Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.31 years

male: 68.33 years

female: 72.39 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.7%

male: 93.6%

female: 93.7% (1999)
Location Oceania, two archipelagic island chains of 29 atolls, each made up of many small islets, and five single islands in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia
Map references Oceania
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 795 ships (1000 GRT or over) 30,772,611 GRT/50,987,293 DWT

by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 178, cargo 53, chemical tanker 133, container 147, liquefied gas 25, passenger 7, petroleum tanker 234, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 7, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 5

foreign-owned: 730 (Australia 2, Bermuda 4, Brazil 1, Canada 6, Chile 1, Croatia 2, Cyprus 15, Denmark 1, Finland 2, Germany 194, Greece 199, Hong Kong 7, Isle of Man 1, Italy 1, Japan 7, South Korea 1, Latvia 7, Monaco 8, Netherlands 1, Norway 65, Russia 1, Saudi Arabia 1, Singapore 6, Slovenia 3, Spain 3, Switzerland 13, Turkey 20, UAE 3, UK 12, US 143)

registered in other countries: 1 (North Korea 1) (2006)
Military - note defense is the responsibility of the US
Military branches no regular military forces; Marshall Islands Police
Military expenditures - dollar figure NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA
National holiday Constitution Day, 1 May (1979)
Nationality noun: Marshallese (singular and plural)

adjective: Marshallese
Natural hazards infrequent typhoons
Natural resources coconut products, marine products, deep seabed minerals
Net migration rate -5.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Political parties and leaders traditionally there have been no formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures; the following two "groupings" have competed in legislative balloting in recent years - Aelon Kein Ad Party [Michael KABUA] and United Democratic Party or UDP [Litokwa TOMEING]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 60,422 (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 2.25% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0

note: additionally, the US Armed Forces Radio and Television Services (Central Pacific Network) operate one FM and one AM station on Kwajalein (2005)
Religions Protestant 54.8%, Assembly of God 25.8%, Roman Catholic 8.4%, Bukot nan Jesus 2.8%, Mormon 2.1%, other Christian 3.6%, other 1%, none 1.5% (1999 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: digital switching equipment; modern services include telex, cellular, internet, international calling, caller ID, and leased data circuits

domestic: Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular, seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by high frequency radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes) and mini-satellite telephones

international: country code - 692; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein (2001)
Telephones - main lines in use 5,510 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1,198 (2004)
Television broadcast stations 2 (both are US military stations)

note: Marshalls Broadcasting Service (cable company) operates on Majuro (2005)
Terrain low coral limestone and sand islands
Total fertility rate 3.85 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate 30.9% (2000 est.)
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