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Marshall Islands (2001)

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Marshall Islands 2001 year

 Marshall Islands
Administrative divisions 33 municipalities; Ailinginae, Ailinglaplap, Ailuk, Arno, Aur, Bikar, Bikini, Bokak, Ebon, Enewetak, Erikub, Jabat, Jaluit, Jemo, Kili, Kwajalein, Lae, Lib, Likiep, Majuro, Maloelap, Mejit, Mili, Namorik, Namu, Rongelap, Rongrik, Toke, Ujae, Ujelang, Utirik, Wotho, Wotje
Age structure 0-14 years:
49.29% (male 17,808; female 17,101)

15-64 years:
48.61% (male 17,573; female 16,853)

65 years and over:
2.1% (male 707; female 780) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products coconuts, tomatoes, melons, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits; pigs, chickens
Airports 16 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
3 (2000 est.)
Area total:
181.3 sq km

181.3 sq km

0 sq km

includes the atolls of Bikini, Enewetak, and Kwajalein
Area - comparative about the size of Washington, DC
Background After almost four decades under US administration as the easternmost part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Marshall Islands attained independence in 1986 under a Compact of Free Association. Compensation claims continue as a result of US nuclear testing on some of the islands between 1947 and 1962.
Birth rate 45.07 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$80.1 million

$77.4 million, including capital expenditures of $19.5 million (FY95/96 est.)
Capital Majuro
Climate wet season from May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt
Coastline 370.4 km
Constitution 1 May 1979
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of the Marshall Islands

conventional short form:
Marshall Islands

Marshall Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Currency US dollar (USD)
Death rate 6.23 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $125 million (FY96/97 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Joan M. PLAISTED

Oceanside, Mejen Weto, Long Island, Majuro

mailing address:
P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96960-1379

[692] 247-4011

[692] 247-4012
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Banny DE BRUM

2433 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 234-5414

[1] (202) 232-3236

consulate(s) general:
Disputes - international claims US territory of Wake Island
Economic aid - recipient approximately $65 million annually from the US
Economy - overview US Government assistance is the mainstay of this tiny island economy. Agricultural production is concentrated on small farms, and the most important commercial crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons, and breadfruit. Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts, fish processing, and copra. The tourist industry, now a small source of foreign exchange employing less than 10% of the labor force, remains the best hope for future added income. The islands have few natural resources, and imports far exceed exports. Under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US provides roughly $65 million in annual aid. Negotiations were underway in 1999 for an extended agreement. Government downsizing, drought, a drop in construction, and the decline in tourism and foreign investment due to the Asian financial difficulties caused GDP to fall in 1996-98.
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



Elevation extremes lowest point:
Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:
unnamed location on Likiep 10 m
Environment - current issues inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified:
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Micronesian
Exchange rates the US dollar is used
Executive branch chief of state:
President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 3 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 3 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Cabinet selected by the president from among the members of Parliament

president elected by Parliament from among its own members for a four-year term; election last held 15 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003)

election results:
Kessai Hesa NOTE elected president; percent of Parliament vote - 100%
Exports $28 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
Exports - commodities fish, coconut oil, trochus shells
Exports - partners US, Japan, Australia
Fiscal year 1 October - 30 September
Flag description blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner - orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes
GDP purchasing power parity - $105 million (1998 est.), supplemented by approximately $65 million annual US aid
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


72% (1995)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,670 (1998 est.)
GDP - real growth rate -5% (1998 est.)
Geographic coordinates 9 00 N, 168 00 E
Geography - note two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands; Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range
Highways total:
NA km

NA km

NA km

paved roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein), otherwise stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Imports $58 million (f.o.b., 1997 est.)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels, beverages and tobacco
Imports - partners US, Japan, Australia, NZ, Guam, Singapore
Independence 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries copra, fish, tourism, craft items from shell, wood, and pearls, offshore banking (embryonic)
Infant mortality rate 39.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5% (1997)
International organization participation ACP, AsDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, ITU, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Supreme Court; High Court
Labor force NA
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

Languages English (universally spoken and is the official language), two major Marshallese dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family, Japanese
Legal system based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Nitijela (33 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

last held 15 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

the Council of Chiefs is a 12-member body that advises on matters affecting customary law and practice
Life expectancy at birth total population:
65.84 years

64.04 years

67.73 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


88% (1980 est.)
Location Oceania, group of atolls and reefs in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Papua New Guinea
Map references Oceania
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
24 NM

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
212 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,768,406 GRT/16,242,699 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 63, cargo 9, chemical tanker 10, combination ore/oil 2, container 29, liquefied gas 10, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 87, vehicle carrier 1

includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Cyprus 1, Germany 1, Japan 1, US 6 (2000 est.)
Military - note defense is the responsibility of the US
Military branches no regular military forces (a coast guard may be established); Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
National holiday Constitution Day, 1 May (1979)
Nationality noun:
Marshallese (singular and plural)

Natural hazards occasional typhoons
Natural resources phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed minerals
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders traditionally there have been no formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures; the following two "groupings" have competed in legislative balloting in recent years - Kabua Party [Imata KABUA] and United Democratic Party or UDP [Litokwa TOMEING]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 70,822 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 3.88% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Majuro
Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios NA
Railways 0 km
Religions Christian (mostly Protestant)
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.91 male(s)/female

total population:
1.04 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
telex services

Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular, seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes)

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein
Telephones - main lines in use 3,000 (1996)
Telephones - mobile cellular 365 (1996)
Television broadcast stations 3 (of which two are US military stations) (1997)
Terrain low coral limestone and sand islands
Total fertility rate 6.55 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 16% (1991 est.)
Waterways none
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