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Liban (2006)

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Liban 2006 roku

 Liban
Podzial administracyjny 8 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Aakkar, Baalbek-Hermel, Beyrouth, Beqaa, Liban-Nord, Liban-Sud, Mont-Liban, Nabatiye
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 26.5% (male 523,220/female 502,372)


15-64 years: 66.6% (male 1,235,915/female 1,342,540)


65 years and over: 7% (male 122,155/female 147,848) (2006 est.)
Rolinictwo citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats
Lotniska 7 (2006)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 5


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2006)
Terytorium total: 10,400 sq km


land: 10,230 sq km


water: 170 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Tlo historyczne Following the capture of Syria from the Ottoman Empire by Anglo-French forces w 1918, Francja received a mandate over this territory and separated out a region of Liban w 1920. Francja granted this area independence w 1943. A 15-year civil war (1976-1991) devastated the country, but Liban has since made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions. Under the Ta'if Accord - the blueprint dla national reconciliation - the Lebanese established a more equitable political system, particularly by giving Muslims a greater voice w the political process while institutionalizing sectarian divisions w the government. Since the end of the war, Liban has conducted several successful elections, most militias have been disbanded, and the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) have extended authority over about two-thirds of the country. Hizballah, a radical Shi'a organization listed by the US State Department as a Foreign Terrorist Organization, retains its weapons. During Liban's civil war, the Arab League legitimized w the Ta'if Accord Syria's troop deployment, numbering about 16,000 based mainly east of Beirut and w the Bekaa Valley. Damascus justified its continued military presence w Liban by citing Beirut's requests and the failure of the Lebanese Government to implement all of the constitutional reforms w the Ta'if Accord. Izrael's withdrawal from southern Liban w maj 2000, however, encouraged some Lebanese groups to demand that Syria withdraw its forces as well. The passage of UNSCR 1559 w early pazdziernik 2004 - a resolution calling dla Syria to withdraw from Liban and end its interference w Lebanese affairs - further emboldened Lebanese groups opposed to Syria's presence w Liban. The assassination of former Prime Minister Rafiq HARIRI and 20 others w luty 2005 led to massive demonstrations w Beirut against the Syrian presence ("the Cedar Revolution"). Syria finally withdrew the remainder of its military forces from Liban w kwiecien 2005. In maj-czerwiec 2005, Liban held its first legislative elections since the end of the civil war free of foreign interference, handing a two-thirds majority to the bloc led by Saad HARIRI, the slain prime minister's son.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 18.52 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budzet revenues: $4.953 billion


expenditures: $6.595 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Stolica name: Beirut


geographic coordinates: 33 53 N, 35 30 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters z hot, dry summers; Liban mountains experience heavy winter snows
Linia brzegowa 225 km
Konstytucja 23 maj 1926; amended a number of times, most recently Charter of Lebanese National Reconciliation (Ta'if Accord) of pazdziernik 1989
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Lebanese Republic


conventional short form: Liban


local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah


local short form: Lubnan


former: Greater Liban
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $26 billion (2005 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Jeffrey D. FELTMAN


embassy: Awkar, Liban; (Akwar facing the Municipality)


mailing address: P. O. Box 70-840, Antelias, Liban; PSC 815, Box 2, FPO AE 09836-0002; from US: US Embassy Beirut, 6070 Beirut Place, Washington, DC 20521-6070


telephone: [961] (4) 542600, 543600


FAX: [961] (4) 544136
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)


chancery: 2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 939-6320


FAX: [1] (202) 939-6324


consulate(s) general: Detroit, New York, Los Angeles
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Lebanese Government claims Shab'a Farms area of Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights; the roughly 2,000-strong UN Interim Force w Liban (UNIFIL) has been w place since 1978
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $2.2 billion received (2003), out of the $4.2 billion w soft loans pledged at the listopad 2002 Paris II Aid Conference
Ekonomia The 1975-91 civil war seriously damaged Liban's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Liban's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. In the years since, Liban has rebuilt much of its war-torn physical and financial infrastructure by borrowing heavily - mostly from domestic banks. In an attempt to reduce the ballooning national debt, the Rafiq HARIRI government began an austerity program, reining w government expenditures, increasing revenue collection, and privatizing state enterprises. In listopad 2002, the government met z international donors at the Paris II conference to seek bilateral assistance w restructuring its massive domestic debt at lower interest rates. Substantial receipts from donor nations stabilized government finances w 2003, but did little to reduce the debt, which stands at nearly 170% of Produkt krajowy brutto. In 2004 the HARIRI government issued Eurobonds w an effort to manage maturing debt. The downturn w economic activity that followed the assassination of Rafiq al-HARIRI has eased, but has yet to be reversed. Tourism remains below the level of 2004. The new Prime Minister, Fuad SINIORA, has pledged to push ahead z economic reform, including privatization and more efficient government. The Core Group of nations has announced plans to hold a Donor's Conference w early 2006 to assist the government of Liban w restructuring its debt and increasing foreign investment.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 10.67 billion kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - import 750 million kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 10.67 billion kWh (2003)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m


highest point: Qurnat as Sawda' 3,088 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution w Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%


note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendents of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians
Kurs waluty Lebanese pounds per US dollar - 1,507.5 (2005), 1,507.5 (2004), 1,507.5 (2003), 1,507.5 (2002), 1,507.5 (2001)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Emile LAHUD (since 24 listopad 1998)


head of government: Prime Minister Fuad SINIORA (since 30 czerwiec 2005); Deputy Prime Minister Elias MURR (since kwiecien 2005)


cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister w consultation z the president and members of the National Assembly


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a six-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 15 pazdziernik 1998 (next to be held w 2007 based on three-year extension); note - on 3 wrzesien 2004 the National Assembly voted 96 to 29 to extend Emile LAHUD's six-year term by three years; the prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president w consultation z the National Assembly; by agreement, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shi'a Muslim


election results: dla 15 pazdziernik 1998 election: Emile LAHUD elected president; National Assembly vote - 118 votes w favor, 0 against, 10 abstentions
Eksport 0 kWh (2003)
Eksport $1.782 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Eksport NA bbl/day
Eksport - towary authentic jewelry, inorganic chemicals, miscellaneous consumer goods, fruit, tobacco, construction minerals, electric power machinery and switchgear, textile fibers, paper
Eksport - partnerzy Syria 25.3%, UAE 11.4%, Szwajcaria 8.1%, Turcja 6%, Arabia Saudyjska 6% (2005)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three horizontal bands consisting of red (top), white (middle, double width), and red (bottom) z a green cedar tree centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 12%


industry: 21%


services: 67% (2000)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 0.1% (2005 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 33 50 N, 35 50 E
Polozenie geograficzne Nahr el Litani is the only major river w Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
Narkotyki cannabis cultivation dramatically reduced to 2,500 hectares w 2002; opium poppy cultivation minimal; small amounts of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin transit country on way to European markets and dla Middle Eastern consumption
Import 750 million kWh (2003)
Import $8.855 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Import NA bbl/day
Import - towary petroleum products, cars, medicinal products, clothing, meat and live animals, consumer goods, paper, textile fabrics, tobacco
Import - partnerzy Wlochy 11.1%, Syria 10.7%, Francja 9.2%, Niemcy 6.5%, Chiny 5.4%, US 5.3%, UK 4.4%, Arabia Saudyjska 4.3% (2005)
Niepodleglosc 22 listopad 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle NA%
Przemysl banking, tourism, food processing, jewelry, cement, textiles, mineral and chemical products, wood and furniture products, oil refining, metal fabricating
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 23.72 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 26.34 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 20.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflacja 2.4% (2005 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AMF, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny 1,040 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo four Courts of Cassation (three courts dla civil and commercial cases and one court dla criminal cases); Konstytucjaal Council (called dla w Ta'if Accord - rules on constitutionality of laws); Supreme Council (hears charges against the president and prime minister as needed)
Sila robocza 2.6 million


note: w addition, there are as many as 1 million foreign workers (2001 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: NA%


industry: NA%


services: NA%
Granica total: 454 km


border countries: Izrael 79 km, Syria 375 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 16.35%


permanent crops: 13.75%


other: 69.9% (2005)
Jezyki Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
System prawny mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Majlis Alnuwab (Arabic) or Assemblee Nationale (French) (128 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of sectarian proportional representation to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held w four rounds on 29 maj, 5, 12, 19 czerwiec 2005 (next to be held 2009)


election results: percent of vote by group - NA; seats by group - Future Movement Bloc 36; Democratic Gathering 15; Development and Resistance Bloc 15; Loyalty to the Resistance 14; Free Patriotic Movement 14; Lebanese Forces 6; Qornet Shewan 5; Popular Bloc 4; Tripoli Independent Bloc 3; Syrian National Socialist Party 2; Kataeb Reform Movement 2; Tachnaq Party 2; Democratic Renewal Movement 1; Democratic Left 1; Nasserite Popular Movement 1; Ba'th Party 1; Kataeb Party 1; independent 5
Zywotnosc total population: 72.88 years


male: 70.41 years


female: 75.48 years (2006 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 87.4%


male: 93.1%


female: 82.2% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Izrael and Syria
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm
Flota handlowa total: 39 ships (1000 GRT or over) 150,598 GRT/178,295 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 18, livestock carrier 10, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3, vehicle carrier 3


foreign-owned: 4 (Grecja 3, Syria 1)


registered w other countries: 59 (Antigua i Barbuda 1, Barbados 1, Kambodza 6, Komory 6, Egipt 2, Georgia 7, Honduras 1, North Korea 6, Liberia 2, Malta 10, Mongolia 1, Panama 2, Saint Vincent i Grenadyny 4, Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca 1, Syria 7, unknown 2) (2006)
Wojsko Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF): Army, Navy, and Air Force
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $540.6 million (2004)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.1% (2004)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 22 listopad (1943)
Narodowosc noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)


adjective: Lebanese
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, sandstorms
Surowce naturalne limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state w a water-deficit region, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Rurociagi gas 43 km (2006)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Ba'th Party; Democratic Gathering [Walid JUMBLATT]; Democratic Left [Ilyas ATALLAH]; Democratic Renewal Movement [Nassib LAHUD]; Development and Resistance Bloc [Nabih BERRI, Amal Movement leader/Speaker of the National Assembly]; Free Patriotic Movement [Michel AWN]; Future Movement Bloc [Sa'ad HARIRI]; Kataeb Party [Karim PAKRADONI]; Kataeb Reform Movement [Amine GEMAYAL]; Lebanese Forces [Samir JA'JA]; Loyalty to the Resistance [Mohammad RA'AD]; Metn Bloc [Michel MURR]; Nasserite Popular Movement [Ussama SAAD]; National Bloc [Carlos EDDE]; Popular Bloc [Elias SKAFF]; Qornet Shewan Gathering [a grouping z no individual leader]; Syrian National Socialist Party [Ali QANSU]; Tachnaq Party; Tripoli Independent Bloc [a grouping z no individual leader]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow none
Ludnosc 3,874,050 (lipiec 2006 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 28% (1999 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.23% (2006 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 20, FM 22, shortwave 4 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 401 km


standard gauge: 319 km 1.435 m


narrow gauge: 82 km 1.050 m


note: rail system became unusable because of damage done during fighting w the 1980s and w 2006 (2006)
Religie Muslim 59.7% (Shi'a, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian 39% (Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Melkite Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Chaldean, Assyrian, Copt, Protestant), other 1.3%


note: 17 religious sects recognized
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female


total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 21 years of age; compulsory dla all males; authorized dla women at age 21 z elementary education
System telefoniczny general assessment: repair of the telecommunications system, severely damaged during the civil war, now complete


domestic: two commercial wireless networks provide good service; political instability hampers privatization and deployment of new technologies


international: country code - 961; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Atlantycki) (erratic operations); coaxial cable to Syria; 3 submarine coaxial cables
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 990,000 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 990,000 (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 15 (plus 5 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Liban and Anti-Liban Mountains
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.9 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 18% (1997 est.)
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