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Liban (2004)

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Liban 2004 roku

 Liban
Podzial administracyjny 6 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Beyrouth, Beqaa, Liban-Nord, Liban-Sud, Mont-Liban, Nabatiye
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 26.9% (male 517,356; female 496,888)


15-64 years: 66.3% (male 1,197,430; female 1,305,339)


65 years and over: 6.9% (male 117,930; female 142,275) (2004 est.)
Rolinictwo citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats
Lotniska 8 (2003 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 5


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 3


914 to 1,523 m: 2


under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Terytorium total: 10,400 sq km


land: 10,230 sq km


water: 170 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Tlo historyczne Liban has made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions since 1991 and the end of the devastating 15-year civil war. Under the Ta'if Accord - the blueprint dla national reconciliation - the Lebanese have established a more equitable political system, particularly by giving Muslims a greater say w the political process while institutionalizing sectarian divisions w the government. Since the end of the war, the Lebanese have conducted several successful elections, most of the militias have been weakened or disbanded, and the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) have extended central government authority over about two-thirds of the country. Hizballah, a radical Shia organization, retains its weapons. Syria maintains about 16,000 troops w Liban, based mainly east of Beirut and w the Bekaa Valley. Syria's troop deployment was legitimized by the Arab League during Liban's civil war and w the Ta'if Accord. Damascus justifies its continued military presence w Liban by citing Beirut's requests and the failure of the Lebanese Government to implement all of the constitutional reforms w the Ta'if Accord. Izrael's withdrawal from southern Liban w maj 2000, however, encouraged some Lebanese groups to demand that Syria withdraw its forces as well. The passage of UNSCR 1559 w early pazdziernik 2004 - a resolution calling dla Syria to withdraw from Liban and end its interference w Lebanese affairs - further emboldened Lebanese groups opposed to Syria's presence w Liban.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 19.31 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budzet revenues: $4.414 billion


expenditures: $7.026 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Stolica Beirut
Klimat Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters z hot, dry summers; Liban mountains experience heavy winter snows
Linia brzegowa 225 km
Konstytucja 23 maj 1926, amended a number of times, most recently Charter of Lebanese National Reconciliation (Ta'if Accord) of pazdziernik 1989
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Lebanese Republic


conventional short form: Liban


local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah


local short form: Lubnan
Waluta Lebanese pound (LBP)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.28 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $20.79 billion (2003 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Jeffrey D. FELTMAN


embassy: Awkar, Liban


mailing address: P. O. Box 70-840, Antelias, Liban; PSC 815, Box 2, FPO AE 09836-0002


telephone: [961] (4) 542600, 543600


FAX: [961] (4) 544136
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Farid ABBOUD


chancery: 2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 939-6300


FAX: [1] (202) 939-6324


consulate(s) general: Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Syrian troops w central and eastern Liban since pazdziernik 1976; Lebanese Government claims Shab'a Farms area of Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $3.5 billion (pledges 1997-2001); $4.2 billion w soft loan pledges listopad 2002 Paris II Aid Conference (2002)
Ekonomia The 1975-91 civil war seriously damaged Liban's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Liban's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. Peace enabled the central government to restore control w Beirut, begin collecting taxes, and regain access to key port and government facilities. Economic recovery was helped by a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers. Family remittances, banking services, manufactured and farm exports, and international aid provided the main sources of foreign exchange. Liban's economy made impressive gains since the launch w 1993 of "Horizon 2000," the government's $20 billion reconstruction program. Real Produkt krajowy brutto grew 8% w 1994, 7% w 1995, 4% w 1996 and w 1997, but slowed to 1.2% w 1998, -1.6% w 1999, -0.6% w 2000, 0.8% w 2001, 1.5% w 2002, and 3% w 2003. During the 1990s, annual inflation fell to almost 0% from more than 100%. Liban has rebuilt much of its war-torn physical and financial infrastructure. The government nonetheless faces serious challenges w the economic arena. It has funded reconstruction by borrowing heavily - mostly from domestic banks. In order to reduce the ballooning national debt, the re-installed HARIRI government began an economic austerity program to rein w government expenditures, increase revenue collection, and privatize state enterprises. The HARIRI government met z international donors at the Paris II conference w listopad 2002 to seek bilateral assistance restructuring its domestic debt at lower rates of interest. While privatization of state-owned enterprises had not occurred by the end of 2003, massive receipts from donor nations stabilized government finances w 2002-04.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 7.44 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 1.183 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 6.728 billion kWh (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m


highest point: Qurnat as Sawda' 3,088 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution w Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%
Kurs waluty Lebanese pounds per US dollar - 1,507.5 (2003), 1,507.5 (2002), 1,507.5 (2001), 1,507.5 (2000), 1,507.84 (1999)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Emile LAHUD (since 24 listopad 1998)


head of government: Prime Minister Omar KARAMI (since 21 pazdziernik 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Issam FARES (since 23 pazdziernik 2000)


cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister w consultation z the president and members of the National Assembly


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a six-year term; election last held 15 pazdziernik 1998 (next election date NA); note - on 3 wrzesien 2004 the National Assembly voted 96 to 29 to extend Emile LAHUD's six-year term by three years; the prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president w consultation z the National Assembly; by agreement, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shia Muslim


election results: For 15 pazdziernik 1998 election: Emile LAHUD elected president; National Assembly vote - 118 votes w favor, 0 against, 10 abstentions
Eksport 0 kWh (2001)
Eksport $1.359 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Eksport NA (2001)
Eksport - towary authentic jewelry, inorganic chemicals, miscellaneous consumer goods, fruit, tobacco, construction minerals, electric power machinery and switchgear, textile fibers, paper
Eksport - partnerzy Szwajcaria 10.8%, UAE 10%, Arabia Saudyjska 7.5%, US 7.3%, Turcja 5.5%, Jordania 4.4% (2003)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and red z a green cedar tree centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $17.82 billion (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 12%


industry: 21%


services: 67% (2000)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,800 (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3% (2003 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 33 50 N, 35 50 E
Polozenie geograficzne Nahr el Litani only major river w Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity
Autostrady total: 7,300 km


paved: 6,198 km


unpaved: 1,102 km (1999 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA


highest 10%: NA
Narkotyki cannabis cultivation dramatically reduced to 2,500 hectares w 2002; opium poppy cultivation minimal; small amounts of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin transit country on way to European markets and dla Middle Eastern consumption
Import 1.183 billion kWh (2001)
Import $6.073 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Import NA (2001)
Import - towary petroleum products, cars, medicinal products, clothing, meat and live animals, consumer goods, paper, textile fabrics, tobacco
Import - partnerzy Francja 13.4%, Niemcy 11.7%, Wlochy 10.7%, Syria 5.3%, Chiny 5.2%, UK 4.9%, US 4.5% (2003)
Niepodleglosc 22 listopad 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle NA
Przemysl banking; food processing; jewelry; cement; textiles; mineral and chemical products; wood and furniture products; oil refining; metal fabricating
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 25.48 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 28.21 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 22.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflacja 2.5% (2003 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AMF, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny 1,200 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo four Courts of Cassation (three courts dla civil and commercial cases and one court dla criminal cases); Konstytucjaal Council (called dla w Ta'if Accord - rules on constitutionality of laws); Supreme Council (hears charges against the president and prime minister as needed)
Sila robocza 1.5 million


note: w addition, there are as many as 1 million foreign workers (2001 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA
Granica total: 454 km


border countries: Izrael 79 km, Syria 375 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 16.62%


permanent crops: 13.98%


other: 69.4% (2001)
Jezyki Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
System prawny mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Majlis Alnuwab (Arabic) or Assemblee Nationale (French) (128 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of sectarian proportional representation to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 27 sierpien and 3 wrzesien 2000 (next to be held spring 2005)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by sect - Muslim 64 ( of which Sunnis 27, Shia 27, Druze 8, Alawite 2), Christian 64 (of which Maronite 34)
Zywotnosc total population: 72.35 years


male: 69.91 years


female: 74.91 years (2004 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 87.4%


male: 93.1%


female: 82.2% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Izrael and Syria
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm
Flota handlowa total: 49 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 198,602 GRT/248,313 DWT


by type: bulk 5, cargo 23, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 1, container 2, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 8, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 3


foreign-owned: Grecja 7, Indie 1, Holandia 4, Saint Vincent i Grenadyny 1, Hiszpania 1, Syria 2


registered w other countries: 52 (2004 est.)
Wojsko Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF; includes Army, Navy, and Air Force)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $541 million (2002)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 4.8% (FY99)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 1,049,097 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 643,050 (2004 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 22 listopad (1943)
Narodowosc noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)


adjective: Lebanese
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, sandstorms
Surowce naturalne limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state w a water-deficit region, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Rurociagi oil 209 km (2004)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy political activity is organized along largely sectarian lines; numerous political groupings exist, consisting of individual political figures and followers motivated by religious, ethnic, clan, and economic considerations
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 3,777,218 (lipiec 2004 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 28% (1999 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.3% (2004 est.)
Porty i stocznie Antilyas, Batroun, Beirut, Chekka, El Mina, Ez Zahrani, Jbail, Jounie, Naqoura, Sidon, Tripoli, Tyre
Stacje radiowe AM 20, FM 22, shortwave 4 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 401 km


standard gauge: 319 km 1.435-m


narrow gauge: 82 km 1.050-m


note: rail system was unusable because of damage during the civil war w the 1980s; short sections are operable (2003)
Religie Muslim 59.7% (Shi'a, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian 39% (Maronite Catholic, Melkite Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant), other 1.3%


note: seventeen religious sects recognized
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female


total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 21 years of age; compulsory dla all males; authorized dla women at age 21 z elementary education
System telefoniczny general assessment: telecommunications system severely damaged by civil war; rebuilding well underway


domestic: primarily microwave radio relay and cable


international: country code - 961; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Atlantycki) (erratic operations); coaxial cable to Syria; microwave radio relay to Syria but inoperable beyond Syria to Jordania; 3 submarine coaxial cables
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 678,800 (2002)
Telefony komorkowe 775,100 (2002)
Stacje telewizyjne 15 (plus 5 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Liban and Anti-Liban Mountains
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.95 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 18% (1997 est.)
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