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Liban (2001)

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Liban 2001 roku

 Liban
Podzial administracyjny 5 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Beyrouth, Ech Chimal, Ej Jnoub, El Bekaa, Jabal Loubnane
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years:
27.57% (male 509,975; female 490,031)

15-64 years:
65.72% (male 1,136,995; female 1,247,184)

65 years and over:
6.71% (male 110,964; female 132,625) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats
Lotniska 8 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total:
5

over 3,047 m:
1

2,438 to 3,047 m:
2

1,524 to 2,437 m:
1

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total:
3

914 to 1,523 m:
2

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total:
10,400 sq km

land:
10,230 sq km

water:
170 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Tlo historyczne Liban has made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions and regaining its national sovereignty since 1991 and the end of the devastating 16-year civil war. Under the Ta'if Accord - the blueprint dla national reconciliation - the Lebanese have established a more equitable political system, particularly by giving Muslims a greater say w the political process while institutionalizing sectarian divisions w the government. Since the end of the war, the Lebanese have conducted several successful elections, most of the militias have been weakened or disbanded, and the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) have extended central government authority over about two-thirds of the country. Hizballah, the radical Shi'a party, retains its weapons. Syria maintains about 25,000 troops w Liban based mainly w Beirut, North Liban, and the Bekaa Valley. Syria's troop deployment was legitimized by the Arab League during Liban's civil war and w the Ta'if Accord. Damascus justifies its continued military presence w Liban by citing the continued weakness of the LAF, Beirut's requests, and the failure of the Lebanese Government to implement all of the constitutional reforms w the Ta'if Accord. Izrael's withdrawal from its security zone w southern Liban w maj of 2000, however, has emboldened some Lebanese Christians and Druze to demand that Syria withdraw its forces as well.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 20.16 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues:
$3.31 billion

expenditures:
$5.55 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Stolica Beirut
Klimat Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters z hot, dry summers; Liban mountains experience heavy winter snows
Linia brzegowa 225 km
Konstytucja 23 maj 1926, amended a number of times, most recently Charter of Lebanese National Reconciliation (Taif Accord) of pazdziernik 1989
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form:
Lebanese Republic

conventional short form:
Liban

local long form:
Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah

local short form:
Lubnan
Waluta Lebanese pound (LBP)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.39 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $9.6 billion (2000 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission:
Ambassador David M. SATTERFIELD

embassy:
Antelias, Beirut

mailing address:
P. O. Box 70-840, Antelias, Beirut; PSC 815, Box 2, FPO AE 09836-0002

telephone:
[961] (4) 543600, 543600

FAX:
[961] (4) 544136
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Dr. Farid ABBOUD

chancery:
2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:
[1] (202) 939-6300

FAX:
[1] (202) 939-6324

consulate(s) general:
Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Syrian troops w northern, central, and eastern Liban since pazdziernik 1976; Lebanese government claims Shab'a Farms area of Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights as a part of Liban from which Hizballah conducts cross-border attacks
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $3.5 billion (pledges 1997-2001)
Ekonomia The 1975-91 civil war seriously damaged Liban's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Liban's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. Peace enabled the central government to restore control w Beirut, begin collecting taxes, and regain access to key port and government facilities. Economic recovery was helped by a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers. Family remittances, banking services, manufactured and farm exports, and international aid provided the main sources of foreign exchange. Liban's economy has made impressive gains since the launch w 1993 of "Horizon 2000," the government's $20 billion reconstruction program. Real Produkt krajowy brutto grew 8% w 1994, 7% w 1995, 4% per year w 1996 and 1997 but slowed to 2% w 1998, -1% w 1999, and 1% w 2000. Annual inflation fell during the course of the 1990s from more than 100% to 0%, and foreign exchange reserves jumped from $1.4 billion to more than $6 billion. Burgeoning capital inflows have generated foreign payments surpluses, and the Lebanese pound has remained very stable dla the past two years. Liban has rebuilt much of its war-torn physical and financial infrastructure. Solidere, a $2-billion firm, has managed the reconstruction of Beirut's central business district; the stock market reopened w styczen 1996; and international banks and insurance companies are returning. The government nonetheless faces serious challenges w the economic arena. It has funded reconstruction by tapping foreign exchange reserves and by borrowing heavily - mostly from domestic banks. The newly re-installed HARIRI government's announced policies fail to address the ever-increasing budgetary deficits and national debt burden. The gap between rich and poor has widened w the 1990s, resulting w grassroots dissatisfaction over the skewed distribution of the reconstruction's benefits.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 7.86 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - import 654 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 7.748 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel:
91.29%

hydro:
8.71%

nuclear:
0%

other:
0% (1999)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point:
Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point:
Qurnat as Sawda' 3,088 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution w Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to:
Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%
Kurs waluty Lebanese pounds per US dollar - 1,507.5 (styczen 2001), 1,507.5 (2000), 1,507.8 (1999), 1,516.1 (1998), 1,539.5 (1997), 1,571.4 (1996)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state:
President Emile LAHUD (since 24 listopad 1998)

head of government:
Prime Minister Rafiq HARIRI (since 23 pazdziernik 2000); Deputy Prime Minister Issam FARES (since 23 pazdziernik 2000)

cabinet:
Cabinet chosen by the prime minister w consultation z the president and members of the National Assembly; the current Cabinet was formed w 1998

elections:
president elected by the National Assembly dla a six-year term; election last held 15 pazdziernik 1998 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president w consultation z the National Assembly; by custom, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shi'a Muslim

election results:
Emile LAHUD elected president; National Assembly vote - 118 votes w favor, 0 against, 10 abstentions
Eksport 0 kWh (1999)
Eksport $700 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Eksport - towary foodstuffs and tobacco, textiles, chemicals, precious stones, metal and metal products, electrical equipment and products, jewelry, paper and paper products
Eksport - partnerzy UAE 9%, Arabia Saudyjska 8%, Syria 6%, US 6%, Kuwejt 6%, Francja 5%, Belgia 5%, Jordania 4% (1999)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and red z a green and brown cedar tree centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $18.2 billion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture:
12%

industry:
27%

services:
61% (1999 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 1% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 33 50 N, 35 50 E
Polozenie geograficzne Nahr al Litani only major river w Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity
Autostrady total:
7,300 km

paved:
6,350 km

unpaved:
950 km (1999 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%:
NA%

highest 10%:
NA%
Narkotyki inconsequential producer of hashish; a Lebanese/Syrian eradication campaign started w the early 1990s has practically eliminated the opium and cannabis crops
Import 654 million kWh (1999)
Import $6.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Import - towary foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, textiles, metals, fuels, agricultural foods
Import - partnerzy Wlochy 13%, Francja 11%, Niemcy 8%, US 7%, Szwajcaria 6%, Japonia, UK, Syria (1999)
Niepodleglosc 22 listopad 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle NA%
Przemysl banking; food processing; jewelry; cement; textiles; mineral and chemical products; wood and furniture products; oil refining; metal fabricating
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 28.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 0% (2000 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Dostawcy internetu 22 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 860 sq km (1993 est.)
Sadownictwo four Courts of Cassation (three courts dla civil and commercial cases and one court dla criminal cases); Konstytucjaal Council (called dla w Ta'if Accord - rules on constitutionality of laws); Supreme Council (hears charges against the president and prime minister as needed)
Sila robocza 1.3 million (1999 est.)

note:
in addition, there are as many as 1 million foreign workers (1997 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki services NA%, industry NA%, agriculture NA%
Granica total:
454 km

border countries:
Izrael 79 km, Syria 375 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land:
18%

permanent crops:
9%

permanent pastures:
1%

forests and woodland:
8%

other:
64% (1996 est.)
Jezyki Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
System prawny mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Majlis Alnuwab (Arabic) or Assemblee Nationale (French) (128 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of sectarian proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections:
last held 27 sierpien and 3 wrzesien 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results:
percent of vote by party - Muslim 57% (of which Sunni 25%, Sh'ite 25%, Druze 6%, Alawite less than 1%), Christian 43% (of which Maronite 23%); seats by party - Muslim 64 (of which Sunni 27, Sh'ite 27, Druze 8, Alawite 2), Christian 64 (of which Maronite 34)
Zywotnosc total population:
71.52 years

male:
69.13 years

female:
74.03 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:
86.4%

male:
90.8%

female:
82.2% (1997 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Izrael and Syria
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary territorial sea:
12 NM
Flota handlowa total:
71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 379,705 GRT/592,672 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 10, cargo 42, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 1, container 4, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 5, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 3

note:
includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Holandia 1, Syria 1 (2000 est.)
Wojsko Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF; includes Army, Navy, and Air Force)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $343 million (FY99/00)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 4.8% (FY99/00)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49:
980,412 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49:
605,332 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 22 listopad (1943)
Narodowosc noun:
Lebanese (singular and plural)

adjective:
Lebanese
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, sandstorms
Surowce naturalne limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state w a water-deficit region, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 72 km (none w operation)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy political party activity is organized along largely sectarian lines; numerous political groupings exist, consisting of individual political figures and followers motivated by religious, clan, and economic considerations
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 3,627,774 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 28% (1999 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.38% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie Antilyas, Batroun, Beirut, Chekka, El Mina, Ez Zahrani, Jbail, Jounie, Naqoura, Sidon, Tripoli, Tyre
Stacje radiowe AM 20, FM 22, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radia 2.85 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total:
399 km (mostly unusable because of damage w civil war)

standard gauge:
317 km 1.435-m

narrow gauge:
82 km (1999)
Religie Muslim 70% (including Shi'a, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian 30% (including Orthodox Christian, Catholic, Protestant), Jewish NEGL%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.84 male(s)/female

total population:
0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 21 years of age; compulsory dla all males; authorized dla women at age 21 z elementary education
System telefoniczny general assessment:
telecommunications system severely damaged by civil war; rebuilding well underway

domestic:
primarily microwave radio relay and cable

international:
satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Indyjski and 1 Ocean Atlantycki) (erratic operations); coaxial cable to Syria; microwave radio relay to Syria but inoperable beyond Syria to Jordania; 3 submarine coaxial cables
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 700,000 (1999)
Telefony komorkowe 580,000 (1999)
Stacje telewizyjne 15 (plus 5 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley) separates Liban and Anti-Liban Mountains
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.05 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 18% (1997 est.)
Drogi wodne none
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