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Kolumbia (2006)

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Kolumbia 2006 roku

 Kolumbia
Podzial administracyjny 32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 30.3% (male 6,683,079/female 6,528,563)


15-64 years: 64.5% (male 13,689,384/female 14,416,439)


65 years and over: 5.2% (male 996,022/female 1,279,548) (2006 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp
Lotniska 984 (2006)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 101


over 3,047 m: 2


2,438 to 3,047 m: 9


1,524 to 2,437 m: 38


914 to 1,523 m: 40


under 914 m: 12 (2006)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 883


over 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 35


914 to 1,523 m: 275


under 914 m: 572 (2006)
Terytorium total: 1,138,910 sq km


land: 1,038,700 sq km


water: 100,210 sq km


note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Tlo historyczne Kolumbia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Kolumbia w 1830 (the others are Ekwador and Wenezuela). A 40-year conflict between government forces and anti-government insurgent groups and illegal paramilitary groups - both heavily funded by the drug trade - escalated during the 1990s. The insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, and violence has been decreasing since about 2002, but insurgents continue attacks against civilians and large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence. Paramilitary groups challenge the insurgents dla control of territory and the drug trade. Most paramilitary members have demobilized since 2002 w an ongoing peace process, although their commitment to ceasing illicit activity is unclear. The Kolumbian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence w every one of its municipalities. However, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 20.48 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budzet revenues: $46.82 billion


expenditures: $48.77 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Stolica name: Bogota


geographic coordinates: 4 36 N, 74 05 W


time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler w highlands
Linia brzegowa 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Ocean Spokojny 1,448 km)
Konstytucja 5 lipiec 1991
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Kolumbia


conventional short form: Kolumbia


local long form: Republica de Kolumbia


local short form: Kolumbia
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.58 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $32.35 billion (2005 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador William B. WOOD


embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831


mailing address: Carrera 45 #22D-45, Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34038


telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811


FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Carolina BARCO Isakson


chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338


FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643


consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Portoryko), Washington, DC
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Nikaragua filed a claim against Honduras w 1999 and against Kolumbia w 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary involving 50,000 sq km w the Caribbean Sea, including the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; dispute z Wenezuela over maritime boundary and Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Wenezuela; Kolumbian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all of its neighbors' borders and have created a serious refugee crisis z over 300,000 persons having fled the country, mostly into neighboring states
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $NA
Ekonomia Kolumbia's economy has been on a recovery trend during the past two years despite a serious armed conflict. The economy continues to improve thanks to austere government budgets, focused efforts to reduce public debt levels, an export-oriented growth strategy, and an improved security situation w the country. Ongoing economic problems facing President URIBE range from reforming the pension system to reducing high unemployment. New exploration is needed to offset declining oil production. On the positive side, several international financial institutions have praised the economic reforms introduced by URIBE, which succeeded w reducing the public-sector deficit below 1.5% of Produkt krajowy brutto. The government's economic policy and democratic security strategy have engendered a growing sense of confidence w the economy, particularly within the business sector. Coffee prices have recovered from previous lows as the Kolumbian coffee industry pursues greater market shares w developed countries such as the Stany Zjednoczone.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 48.83 billion kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 1.082 billion kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - import 48.4 million kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 50.43 billion kWh (2003)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m


note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially w Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Grupy etniczne mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
Kurs waluty Kolumbian pesos per US dollar - 2,320.75 (2005), 2,628.61 (2004), 2,877.65 (2003), 2,504.24 (2002), 2,299.63 (2001)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 sierpien 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 sierpien 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 sierpien 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 sierpien 2002)


cabinet: Cabinet consists of a coalition of the two dominant parties - the PL and PSC - and independents


elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 28 maj 2006 (next to be held w maj 2010)


election results: President Alvaro URIBE Velez reelected president; percent of vote - Alvaro URIBE Velez 62%, Carlos GAVIRIA Diaz 22%, Horacio SERPA Uribe 12%, other 4%
Eksport 1.082 billion kWh (2003)
Eksport $19.3 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Eksport NA bbl/day
Eksport - towary petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel, bananas, cut flowers
Eksport - partnerzy US 41.8%, Wenezuela 9.9%, Ekwador 6.3% (2005)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ekwador, which is longer and bears the Ekwadorian coat of arms superimposed w the center
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 12.5%


industry: 34.2%


services: 53.3% (2005 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.2% (2005 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 4 00 N, 72 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne only South American country z coastlines on both the North Ocean Spokojny and Caribbean Sea
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2006)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 7.9%


highest 10%: 34.3% (2004)
Narkotyki illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca w 2004 was 114,100 hectares, virtually unchanged from 2003, but down one-third from its peak of 169,800 ha); producing a potential of 430 mt of pure cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplying most of the US market and the great majority of cocaine to other international drug markets; important supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation fell 50% between 2003 and 2004 to 2,100 hectares yielding a potential 3.8 metric tons of pure heroin, mostly dla the US market; w 2004, aerial eradication treated over 130,000 hectares of coca but aggressive replanting on the part of growers means Kolumbia remains a key producer; a significant portion of non-US narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested w Kolumbia through the black market peso exchange
Import 48.4 million kWh (2003)
Import $18 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Import NA bbl/day
Import - towary industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Import - partnerzy US 28.5%, Meksyk 8.3%, Chiny 7.6%, Brazylia 6.5%, Wenezuela 5.7% (2005)
Niepodleglosc 20 lipiec 1810 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 3.7% (2005 est.)
Przemysl textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 20.35 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 24.25 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 16.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflacja 5% (2005 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BCIE, CAN, CDB, CSN, FAO, G-3, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 9,000 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo four roughly coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected by their peers from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council dla eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council dla eight-year terms); Konstytucjaal Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution; rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Superior Judicial Council (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; resolves jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress dla eight-year terms)
Sila robocza 20.52 million (2005)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 22.7%


industry: 18.7%


services: 58.5% (2000 est.)
Granica total: 6,004 km


border countries: Brazylia 1,643 km, Ekwador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,496 km (est.), Wenezuela 2,050 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 2.01%


permanent crops: 1.37%


other: 96.62% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish
System prawny based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures was enacted into law w 2004 and is gradually being implemented; judicial review of executive and legislative acts
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: Senate - last held 12 marzec 2006 (next to be held w marzec 2010); House of Representatives - last held 12 marzec 2006 (next to be held w marzec 2010)


election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PSUN 20, PC 18, PL 17, CR 15, PDI 11, other parties 21; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 36, PSUN 30, PC 29, CR 20, PDA 42, other parties 42
Zywotnosc total population: 71.99 years


male: 68.15 years


female: 75.96 years (2006 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 92.5%


male: 92.4%


female: 92.6% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Wenezuela, and bordering the North Ocean Spokojny, between Ekwador and Panama
Lokalizacja na mapie South America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 17 ships (1000 GRT or over) 42,413 GRT/58,737 DWT


by type: cargo 13, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 3


registered w other countries: 7 (Antigua i Barbuda 2, Panama 5) (2006)
Wojsko Army (Ejercito Nacional), National Navy (Armada Nacional, includes naval aviation, marines, and coast guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Kolumbiana) (2006)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $3.3 billion (FY01)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.4% (FY01)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 20 lipiec (1810)
Narodowosc noun: Kolumbian(s)


adjective: Kolumbian
Naturalne zagrozenia highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Rurociagi gas 4,360 km; oil 6,140 km; refined products 3,158 km (2006)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Clandestine Communist Party of Kolumbia or PCC [Jaime CAICEDO]; Kolumbian Conservative Party or PC [Carlos HOLGUIN Sardi]; Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Samuel MORENO Rojas]; Liberal Party or PL [Cesar GAVIRIA]; Social National Unity Party or PSUN [Juan Manuel SANTOS]


note: Kolumbia has about 60 formally recognized political parties, most of which do not have a presence w either house of Congress
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow two largest insurgent groups active w Kolumbia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Kolumbia or FARC and National Liberation Army or ELN; largest illegal paramilitary group, a roughly organized umbrella group of disparate paramilitary forces, is United Self-Defense Groups of Kolumbia or AUC
Ludnosc 43,593,035 (lipiec 2006 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 49.2% (2005)
Przyrost naturalny 1.46% (2006 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)
Linie kolejowe total: 3,304 km


standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge


narrow gauge: 3,154 km 0.914-m gauge (2005)
Religie Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female


total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: modern system w many respects


domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system z 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities


international: country code - 57; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 7,678,800 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 21.85 million (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 60 (includes seven low-power stations) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.54 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 11.8% (2005 est.)
Drogi wodne 18,000 km (2005)
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