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Kanada (2008)

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Kanada 2008 roku

 Kanada
Podzial administracyjny 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 17.3% (male 2,967,383/female 2,824,189)


15-64 years: 69.2% (male 11,604,723/female 11,490,839)


65 years and over: 13.5% (male 1,927,035/female 2,575,972) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish
Lotniska 1,343 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 509


over 3,047 m: 18


2,438 to 3,047 m: 16


1,524 to 2,437 m: 149


914 to 1,523 m: 248


under 914 m: 78 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 834


1,524 to 2,437 m: 68


914 to 1,523 m: 356


under 914 m: 410 (2007)
Terytorium total: 9,984,670 sq km


land: 9,093,507 sq km


water: 891,163 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci somewhat larger than the US
Tlo historyczne A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Kanada became a self-governing dominion w 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed w parallel z the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Kanada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands dla quality improvements w health care and education services, as well as responding to separatist concerns w predominantly francophone Quebec. Kanada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 10.75 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $565.8 billion


expenditures: $551.2 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Ottawa


geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W


time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday w marzec; ends first Sunday w listopad


note: Kanada is divided into six time zones
Klimat varies from temperate w south to subarctic and arctic w north
Linia brzegowa 202,080 km
Konstytucja made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions; the written part of the constitution consists of the Konstytucja Act of 29 marzec 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Konstytucja Act of 17 kwiecien 1982, which transferred formal control over the constitution from Britain to Kanada, and added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as procedures dla constitutional amendments
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Kanada
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7.86 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $758.6 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador David H. WILKINS


embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8


mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13669-0430; P.O. Box 866, Station B, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5T1


telephone: [1] (613) 688-5335


FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082


consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Michael WILSON


chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001


telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740


FAX: [1] (202) 682-7701


consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, Phoenix, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Tucson


consulate(s): Anchorage, Houston, Philadelphia, Princeton (New Jersey), Raleigh, San Jose (California)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje managed maritime boundary disputes z the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; US works closely z Kanada to intensify security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute z Dania over Hans Island w the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Grenlandia
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $3.9 billion (2007)
Ekonomia As an affluent, high-tech industrial society w the trillion-dollar class, Kanada resembles the US w its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and affluent living standards. Since Swiat War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Kanada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Meksyk) touched off a dramatic increase w trade and economic integration z the US. Given its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Kanada enjoys solid economic prospects. Top-notch fiscal management has produced consecutive balanced budgets since 1997, although public debate continues over the equitable distribution of federal funds to the Canadian provinces. Eksport account dla roughly a third of Produkt krajowy brutto. Kanada enjoys a substantial trade surplus z its principal trading partner, the US, which absorbs 80% of Canadian exports each year. Kanada is the US's largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power. During 2007, Kanada enjoyed good economic growth, moderate inflation, and the lowest unemployment rate w more than three decades.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 540.2 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 42.93 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 19.33 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 609.6 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Atlantycki 0 m


highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%
Kurs waluty Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.0724 (2007), 1.1334 (2006), 1.2118 (2005), 1.301 (2004), 1.4011 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Michaelle JEAN (since 27 wrzesien 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Stephen HARPER (since 6 luty 2006)


cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among the members of his own party sitting w Parliament


elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister dla a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition w the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general
Eksport 42.93 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $440.1 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 101.9 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 2.274 million bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
Eksport - partnerzy US 81.6%, UK 2.3%, Japonia 2.1% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec
Opis flagi two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), z white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered w the white square; the official colors of Kanada are red and white
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 2.1%


industry: 28.8%


services: 69.1% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 2.7% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 60 00 N, 95 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne second-largest country w world (after Rosja); strategic location between Rosja and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border
Ladowiska helikopterow 11 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.6%


highest 10%: 24.8% (2000)
Narkotyki illicit producer of cannabis dla the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; increasing ecstasy production, some of which is destined dla the US; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector
Import 19.33 billion kWh (2005)
Import $394.4 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 9.403 billion cu m (2005)
Import 1.185 million bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods
Import - partnerzy US 54.9%, Chiny 8.7%, Meksyk 4% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 1 lipiec 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 grudzien 1931 (recognized by UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 1.6% (2007 est.)
Przemysl transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 4.63 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 5.08 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 4.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 2.4% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACCT, ADB (nonregional members), AfDB, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAFTA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SECI (observer), UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 7,850 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court of Kanada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Kanada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)
Sila robocza 17.9 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 2%, manufacturing 13%, construction 6%, services 76%, other 3% (2006)
Granica total: 8,893 km


border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km z Alaska)
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 4.57%


permanent crops: 0.65%


other: 94.78% (2005)
Jezyki English (official) 59.3%, French (official) 23.2%, other 17.5%
System prawny based on English common law, except w Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general z the advice of the prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms starting w 2009 elections)


elections: House of Commons - last held 23 styczen 2006 (next to be held w 2009)


election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative Party 36.3%, Liberal Party 30.2%, New Democratic Party 17.5%, Bloc Quebecois 10.5%, Greens 4.5%, other 1%; seats by party - Conservative Party 124, Liberal Party 102, New Democratic Party 29, Bloc Quebecois 51, other 2; seats by party as of listopad 2007 - Conservative Party 125, Liberal Party 96, New Democratic Party 30, Bloc Quebecois 49, other 4, vacant 4
Zywotnosc total population: 80.34 years


male: 76.98 years


female: 83.86 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99%


male: 99%


female: 99% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern North America, bordering the North Ocean Atlantycki on the east, North Ocean Spokojny on the west, and the Ocean Arktyczny on the north, north of the conterminous US
Lokalizacja na mapie North America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 171 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,191,099 GRT/2,815,416 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 60, cargo 10, carrier 1, chemical tanker 9, combination ore/oil 1, container 2, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 64, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 6


foreign-owned: 8 (Niemcy 3, Holandia 1, Norwegia 1, US 3)


registered w other countries: 130 (Australia 2, Bahamas 13, Barbados 9, Kambodza 6, Cypr 2, Dania 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 39, Liberia 3, Malta 15, Wyspy Marshalla 4, Panama 17, St Vincent and The Grenadines 6, Tajwan 3, US 4, Vanuatu 5) (2007)
Wojsko Canadian Forces: Land Forces Command (LFC), Maritime Command (MARCOM), Air Command (AIRCOM), Kanada Command (homeland security) (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.1% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Kanada Day, 1 lipiec (1867)
Narodowosc noun: Canadian(s)


adjective: Canadian
Naturalne zagrozenia continuous permafrost w north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
Surowce naturalne iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 5.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi crude and refined oil 23,564 km; liquid petroleum gas 74,980 km (2006)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Kanada [Stephen HARPER] (a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party); Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]; Liberal Party [Stephane DION]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 33,390,141 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 10.8%; note - this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO), a calculation that results w higher figures than found w many comparable economies; Kanada does not have an official poverty line (2005)
Przyrost naturalny 0.869% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 245, FM 582, shortwave 6 (2004)
Linie kolejowe total: 48,068 km


standard gauge: 48,068 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (including United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16% (2001 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.051 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.748 male(s)/female


total population: 0.977 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology


domestic: domestic satellite system z about 300 earth stations


international: country code - 1; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Spokojny) and 2 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region) (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 20.78 million (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 17.017 million (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly plains z mountains w west and lowlands w southeast
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.61 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 5.9% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 636 km


note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared z Stany Zjednoczone (2007)
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