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Irak (2005)

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Irak 2005 roku

 Irak
Podzial administracyjny 18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', majsan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 40% (male 5,293,709/female 5,130,826)


15-64 years: 57% (male 7,530,619/female 7,338,109)


65 years and over: 3% (male 367,832/female 413,811) (2005 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep, poultry
Lotniska 111; note - unknown number were damaged during the marzec-kwiecien 2003 war (2004 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 79


over 3,047 m: 21


2,438 to 3,047 m: 36


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 7


under 914 m: 10 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 32


over 3,047 m: 2


2,438 to 3,047 m: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 12


under 914 m: 9 (2004 est.)
Terytorium total: 437,072 sq km


land: 432,162 sq km


water: 4,910 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Tlo historyczne Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Irak was occupied by Britain during the course of Swiat War I; w 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration. In stages over the next dozen years, Irak attained its independence as a kingdom w 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed w 1958, but w actuality a series of military strongmen ruled the country, the latest was SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes z Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In sierpien 1990, Irak seized Kuwejt, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of styczen-luty 1991. Following Kuwejt's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Irak to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraki noncompliance z UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years resulted w the US-led invasion of Irak w marzec 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime. Coalition forces remain w Irak, helping to restore degraded infrastructure and facilitating the establishment of a freely elected government, while simultaneously dealing z a robust insurgency. The Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraki Interim Government (IG) w czerwiec 2004. Irakis voted on 30 styczen 2005 to elect a 275-member Transitional National Assembly that will draft a permanent constitution and pave the way dla new national elections at the end of 2005.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 32.5 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budzet revenues: $17.1 billion


expenditures: $28.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.6 billion (2004 budget)
Stolica Baghdad
Klimat mostly desert; mild to cool winters z dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters z occasionally heavy snows that melt w early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding w central and southern Irak
Linia brzegowa 58 km
Konstytucja interim constitution signed 8 marzec 2004; note - the Transitional Administrative Law (TAL) was enacted 8 marzec 2004 to govern the country until an elected Iraki Government can draft and ratify a new constitution w 2005
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Irak


conventional short form: Irak


local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Irakiyah


local short form: Al Irak
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.49 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $125 billion (2004 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires James F. JEFFREY


embassy: Baghdad


mailing address: APO AE 09316


telephone: 00-1-240-553-0584 ext. 4354; note - Consular Section


FAX: NA
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Rend Rahim FRANCKE


chancery: 1801 P Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 483-7500


FAX: [1] (202) 462-5066
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje coalition forces assist Irakis w monitoring boundary security; Irak's lack of a maritime boundary z Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab w the Persian Gulf; Turcja has expressed concern over the status of Kurds w Irak
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie more than $33 billion w foreign aid pledged dla 2004-07 (2004)
Ekonomia Irak's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. Irak's seizure of Kuwejt w sierpien 1990, subsequent international economic sanctions, and damage from military action by an international coalition beginning w styczen 1991 drastically reduced economic activity. Although government policies supporting large military and internal security forces and allocating resources to key supporters of the regime hurt the economy, implementation of the UN's oil-for-food program beginning w grudzien 1996 helped improve conditions dla the average Iraki citizen. Irak was allowed to export limited amounts of oil w exchange dla food, medicine, and some infrastructure spare parts. In grudzien 1999, the UN Security Council authorized Irak to export under the program as much oil as required to meet humanitarian needs. The drop w Produkt krajowy brutto w 2001-02 was largely the result of the global economic slowdown and lower oil prices. Per capita food imports increased significantly, while medical supplies and health care services steadily improved. Per capita output and living standards were still well below the pre-1991 level, but any estimates have a wide range of error. The military victory of the US-led coalition w marzec-kwiecien 2003 resulted w the shutdown of much of the central economic administrative structure. Although a comparatively small amount of capital plant was damaged during the hostilities, looting, insurgent attacks, and sabotage have undermined efforts to rebuild the economy. Despite continuing political uncertainty, the Iraki Interim Government (IG) has founded the institutions needed to implement economic policy, and has successfully concluded a debt reduction agreement z the Paris Club. The high percentage gain estimated dla Produkt krajowy brutto w 2004 is the result of starting from a low base.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 33.7 billion kWh (2004)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2004)
Elektrycznosc - import 1.1 billion kWh (2004)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 32.6 billion kWh (2004)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m


highest point: unnamed peak; 3,611 m; note - this peak is not Gundah Zhur 3,607 m or Kuh-e Hajji-Ebrahim 3,595 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas dla thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements z upstream riparian Turcja; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Law of the Sea


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
Kurs waluty New Iraki dinars per US dollar - 1,890 (second half, 2003), 0.3109 (2002), 0.3109 (2001), 0.3109 (2000)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Iraki Transitional Government (ITG) President Jalal TALABANI (since 6 kwiecien 2005); Deputy Presidents Adil Abd AL-MAHDI and Ghazi al-Ujayl al-YAWR (since 6 kwiecien 2005); note - the President and Deputy Presidents comprise the Presidency Council)


head of government: Iraki Transitional Government (ITG) Prime Minister Ibrahim al-JAFARI (since kwiecien 2005); Deputy Prime Ministers Rowsch SHAWAYS, Ahmad CHALABI, and Abid al-Mutlaq al-JABBURI (since maj 2005)


cabinet: 32 ministers appointed by the Presidency Council, plus Prime Minister Ibrahim al-JAFARI, Deputy Prime Ministers Rowsch SHAWAYS, Ahmad CHALABI, and Abid al-Mutlaq al-JABBURI


elections: held 30 styczen 2005 to elect a 275-member Transitional National Assembly that will draft a permanent constitution and pave the way dla new national elections at the end of 2005
Eksport 0 kWh (2004)
Eksport $10.1 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Eksport 1.49 million bbl/day (2004 est.)
Eksport - towary crude oil (83.9%), crude materials excluding fuels (8.0%), food and live animals (5.0%)
Eksport - partnerzy US 51.9%, Hiszpania 7.3%, Japonia 6.6%, Wlochy 5.7%, Kanada 5.2% (2004)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black z three green five-pointed stars w a horizontal line centered w the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) w green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added w styczen 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script, Jemen, which has a plain white band, and that of Egipt which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered w the white band; design is based upon the Arab Liberation colors
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 13.6%


industry: 58.6%


services: 27.8% (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,100 (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 52.3% (2004 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 33 00 N, 44 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf
Ladowiska helikopterow 6 (2004 est.)
Autostrady total: 45,550 km


paved: 38,399 km


unpaved: 7,151 km (1999)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA


highest 10%: NA
Import 1.1 billion kWh (2004)
Import $9.9 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Import NA
Import - towary food, medicine, manufactures
Import - partnerzy Syria 22.9%, Turcja 19.5%, US 9.2%, Jordania 6.7%, Niemcy 4.9% (2004)
Niepodleglosc 3 pazdziernik 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 czerwiec 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraki Interim Government
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle NA
Przemysl petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 50.25 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 56.06 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 44.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflacja 25.4% (2004 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), WToO
Nawadniane tereny 35,250 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court appointed by the Prime Minister, confirmed by the Presidency Council
Sila robocza 6.7 million (2004 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA
Granica total: 3,650 km


border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordania 181 km, Kuwejt 240 km, Arabia Saudyjska 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turcja 352 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 13.15%


permanent crops: 0.78%


other: 86.07% (2001)
Jezyki Arabic, Kurdish (official w Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
System prawny based on civil and Islamic law under the Iraki Interim Government (IG) and Transitional Administrative Law (TAL)
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Mejlis Watani (consisting of 275 members elected by a closed-list, proportional-representation system dla the period between the National Assembly election and the formation of a permanent Iraki government pursuant to the establishment of a permanent constitution)


elections: held 30 styczen 2005 to elect a 275-member Transitional National Assembly that will draft a permanent constitution and pave the way dla new national elections at the end of 2005


election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - United Iraki Alliance 48.2%, Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan 25.7%, Iraki List 13.8%, others 12.3%; number of seats by party - United Iraki Alliance 140, Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan 75, Iraki List 40, others 20
Zywotnosc total population: 68.7 years


male: 67.49 years


female: 69.97 years (2005 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 40.4%


male: 55.9%


female: 24.4% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwejt
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


continental shelf: not specified
Flota handlowa total: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 83,221 GRT/125,255 DWT


by type: cargo 11, petroleum tanker 3 (2005)
Wojsko Iraki Armed Forces: Iraki Regular Army (includes Iraki Special Operations Force, Iraki Intervention Force), Iraki Navy (former Iraki Coastal Defense Force), Iraki Air Force (former Iraki Army Air Corps) (2005)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $1.3 billion (FY00)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) NA
Swieto narodowe Revolution Day, 17 lipiec (1968); note - this holiday was celebrated under the SADDAM Husayn regime but the Iraki Interim Government has yet to declare a new national holiday
Narodowosc noun: Iraki(s)


adjective: Iraki
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, sandstorms, floods
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Rurociagi gas 1,739 km; oil 5,418 km; refined products 1,343 km (2004)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Al-Sadr Movement [Muqtada Al-SADR]; Konstytucjaal Monarchy Movement or CMM [Sharif Ali Bin al-HUSAYN]; Da'wa Party [Ibrahim al-JA'FARI]; Independent Iraki Alliance or IIA [Falah al-NAQIB]; Iraki Hizballah [Karim Mahud al-MUHAMMADAWI]; Iraki Independent Democrats or IID [Adnan PACHACHI, Mahdi al-HAFIZ]; Iraki Islamic Party or IIP [Muhsin Abd al-HAMID, Hajim al-HASSANI]; Iraki National Accord or INA [Ayad ALLAWI]; Iraki National Congress or INC [Ahmad CHALABI]; Iraki National Unity Movement or INUM [Ahmad al-KUBAYSI, chairman]; Jama'at al Fadilah or JAF [Ayatollah Muhammad ' Ali al-YAQUBI]; Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masud BARZANI]; Muslim Ulama Council or MUC [Harith Sulayman al-DARI, secretary general]; Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [Jalal TALABANI]


note: the Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan, the Iraki List, and the United Iraki Alliance were only electoral slates consisting of the representatives from the various Iraki political parties
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow an insurgency against the Iraki Interim Government and Coalition forces is primarily concentrated w Baghdad and w areas west and north of the capital; the diverse, multigroup insurgency is led principally by Sunni Arabs whose only common denominator is a shared desire to oust the Coalition and end US influence w Irak
Ludnosc 26,074,906 (lipiec 2005 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA
Przyrost naturalny 2.7% (2005 est.)
Porty i stocznie Al Basrah, Khawr az Zubayr, Umm Qasr
Stacje radiowe after 17 months of unregulated media growth, there are approximately 80 radio stations on the air inside Irak (2004)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,200 km


standard gauge: 2,200 km 1.435-m gauge (2004)
Religie Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female


total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Prawo wyborcze formerly 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: the 2003 war severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Irak including international connections; USAID is overseeing the repair of switching capability and the construction of mobile and satellite communication facilities


domestic: repairs to switches and lines destroyed w the recent fighting continue, but sabotage remains a problem; cellular service is expected to be w place within two years


international: country code - 964; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordania, Kuwejt, Syria, and Turcja; Kuwejt line is probably nonoperational
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 675,000; note - an unknown number of telephone lines were damaged or destroyed during the marzec-kwiecien 2003 war (2003)
Telefony komorkowe 20,000 (2002)
Stacje telewizyjne 21 (2004)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border w south z large flooded areas; mountains along borders z Iran and Turcja
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.28 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 25% to 30% (2004 est.)
Drogi wodne 5,275 km (not all navigable)


note: Euphrates River (2,815 km), Tigris River (1,895 km), and Third River (565 km) are principal waterways (2004)
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