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Irak (2004)

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Irak 2004 roku

 Irak
Podzial administracyjny 18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', majsan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 40.3% (male 5,198,966; female 5,039,173)


15-64 years: 56.7% (male 7,280,167; female 7,094,688)


65 years and over: 3% (male 357,651; female 404,046) (2004 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep
Lotniska 111; note - unknown number were damaged during the marzec-kwiecien 2003 war (2003 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 79


over 3,047 m: 21


2,438 to 3,047 m: 36


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 7


under 914 m: 10 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 32


over 3,047 m: 2


2,438 to 3,047 m: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 12


under 914 m: 9 (2004 est.)
Terytorium total: 437,072 sq km


land: 432,162 sq km


water: 4,910 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Tlo historyczne Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Irak was occupied by Britain during the course of Swiat War I; w 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration. In stages over the next dozen years, Irak attained its independence as a kingdom w 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed w 1958, but w actuality a series of military strongmen ruled the country, the latest was SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes z Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In sierpien 1990, Irak seized Kuwejt, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of styczen-luty 1991. Following Kuwejt's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Irak to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraki noncompliance z UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years resulted w the US-led invasion of Irak w marzec 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime. Coalition forces remain w Irak, helping to restore degraded infrastructure and facilitating the establishment of a freely elected government, while simultaneously dealing z a robust insurgency. The Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraki Interim Government (IG) w czerwiec 2004 and the election of its president, Ghazi al-Ujayl al-YAWR, was held w styczen 2005.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 33.09 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budzet revenues: $12.8 billion NA


expenditures: $13.4 billion NA, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 budget)
Stolica Baghdad
Klimat mostly desert; mild to cool winters z dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters z occasionally heavy snows that melt w early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding w central and southern Irak
Linia brzegowa 58 km
Konstytucja interim constitution signed 8 marzec 2004; note - the Transitional Administrative Law (TAL) was enacted 8 marzec 2004 to govern the country until an elected Iraki Transitional Government can draft and ratify a new constitution w 2005
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Irak


conventional short form: Irak


local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Irakiyah


local short form: Al Irak
Waluta New Iraki dinar (NID) as of 22 styczen 2004
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.66 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $93.95 billion (2003 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador John D. NEGROPONTE


embassy: Baghdad


mailing address: APO AE 09316


telephone: 00-1-240-553-0584 ext. 4354; note - Consular Section


FAX: NA
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)


chancery: 1801 P Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 483-7500


FAX: [1] (202) 462-5066
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje coalition forces assist Irakis w monitoring boundary security, but resolution of disputes and creation of maritime boundaries z neighboring states will remain w hiatus until full sovereignty is restored w Irak; Turcja has expressed concern over the status of Kurds w Irak
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie more than $33 billion w foreign aid pledged dla 2004-07 (2004)
Ekonomia Irak's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s financial problems caused by massive expenditures w the eight-year war z Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran led the government to implement austerity measures, borrow heavily, and later reschedule foreign debt payments; Irak suffered economic losses from that war of at least $100 billion. After hostilities ended w 1988, oil exports gradually increased z the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. Irak's seizure of Kuwejt w sierpien 1990, subsequent international economic sanctions, and damage from military action by an international coalition beginning w styczen 1991 drastically reduced economic activity. Although government policies supporting large military and internal security forces and allocating resources to key supporters of the regime have hurt the economy, implementation of the UN's oil-for-food program beginning w grudzien 1996 helped improve conditions dla the average Iraki citizen. Irak was allowed to export limited amounts of oil w exchange dla food, medicine, and some infrastructure spare parts. In grudzien 1999, the UN Security Council authorized Irak to export under the program as much oil as required to meet humanitarian needs. The drop w Produkt krajowy brutto w 2001-02 was largely the result of the global economic slowdown and lower oil prices. Per capita food imports increased significantly, while medical supplies and health care services steadily improved. Per capita output and living standards were still well below the pre-1991 level, but any estimates have a wide range of error. The military victory of the US-led coalition w marzec-kwiecien 2003 resulted w the shutdown of much of the central economic administrative structure, but z the loss of a comparatively small amount of capital plant. The rebuilding of oil, electricity, and other production is proceeding steadily at the start of 2004 z foreign support and despite the continuation of severe internal strife. A joint UN and Swiat Bank report released w the fall of 2003 estimated that Irak's key reconstruction needs through 2007 would cost $55 billion. In pazdziernik 2003, international donors pledged assistance worth more than $33 billion toward this rebuilding effort.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 33.49 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 36.01 billion kWh (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m


highest point: unamed peak 3,611 m; note - this peak is not Gundah Zhur 3,607 m or Kuh-e Hajji-Ebrahim 3,595 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas dla thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements z upstream riparian Turcja; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Law of the Sea


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
Kurs waluty New Iraki dinars per US dollar - 1,890 (second half, 2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Interim Iraki Government (IG) President Ghazi al-Ujayl al-YAWR (since 1 czerwiec 2004); Deputy Presidents Ibrahim al-JAFARI and Rowsch SHAWAYS (since 1 czerwiec 2004); note - the President and Deputy Presidents comprise the Presidency Council


head of government: Interim Iraki Government (IG) Prime Minister Ayad ALLAWI (since 28 czerwiec 2004)


cabinet: 31 ministers appointed by the Presidency Council, plus a Deputy Prime Minister, Barham SALIH


elections: scheduled to be held styczen 2005
Eksport 0 kWh (2001)
Eksport $7.542 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport 1.7 million bbl/day (styczen 2004)
Eksport - towary crude oil
Eksport - partnerzy US 48.8%, Jordania 8.4%, Kanada 8%, Wlochy 7.9%, Maroko 5.3% (2003)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black z three green five-pointed stars w a horizontal line centered w the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) w green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added w styczen 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script, Jemen, which has a plain white band, and that of Egipt which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered w the white band; design is based upon the Arab Liberation colors
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $37.92 billion (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 6%


industry: 13%


services: 81% (1993 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,500 (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu -21.8% (2003 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 33 00 N, 44 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf
Ladowiska helikopterow 6 (2003 est.)
Autostrady total: 45,550 km


paved: 38,399 km


unpaved: 7,151 km (2000 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA


highest 10%: NA
Import 0 kWh (2001)
Import $6.521 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Import NA (2001)
Import - towary food, medicine, manufactures
Import - partnerzy Turcja 18.1%, Jordania 13.4%, Wietnam 10.7%, US 6.9%, Niemcy 5%, UK 4.7% (2003)
Niepodleglosc 3 pazdziernik 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 czerwiec 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraki Interim Government
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle NA
Przemysl petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 52.71 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 58.58 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 46.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflacja 29.3% (2003 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), WToO
Nawadniane tereny 35,250 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court appointed by the Prime Minister, confirmed by the Presidency Council
Sila robocza 7.8 million (2004 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA
Granica total: 3,650 km


border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordania 181 km, Kuwejt 240 km, Arabia Saudyjska 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turcja 352 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 13.15%


permanent crops: 0.78%


other: 86.07% (2001)
Jezyki Arabic, Kurdish (official w Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
System prawny based on civil and Islamic law under the Iraki Interim Government (IG) and Transitional Administrative Law (TAL)
Wladza ustawodawcza Iraki Interim National Council formed w lipiec 2004
Zywotnosc total population: 68.26 years


male: 67.09 years


female: 69.48 years (2004 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 40.4%


male: 55.9%


female: 24.4% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwejt
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


continental shelf: not specified
Flota handlowa total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 83,221 GRT/125,255 DWT


by type: cargo 6, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 1


registered w other countries: 3 (2004 est.)
Wojsko note: w the summer of 2003 the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) began recruiting and training a New Iraki Army (NIA) that would have a purely defensive mission and capability; w marzec 2004, the Iraki Interim Government established a Ministry of Defense to create an Iraki Armed Force; at that time the NIA was renamed the Iraki Armed Force - Army (IAF-A); plans also were put into effect to reconstitute an Iraki Army Air Corps (IAAC) and Coastal Defense Force (navy), but there are no plans to reconstitute an Iraki Air Force; the Army's primary new focus will be domestic counterinsurgency, which is a change of direction from the CPA's intent to create an army not involved w domestic politics; w mid-2004 the Iraki Civil Defense Corps (ICDC) was designated the Iraki National Guard (ING) and subordinated to the Defense Ministry and the Iraki Armed Forces Pre-war Iraki military equipment was largely destroyed by Coalition forces during combat operations w early 2003 or subsequently looted or scrapped (wrzesien 2004)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $1.3 billion (FY00)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) NA
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 6,547,762 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 3,654,947 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 304,527 (2004 est.)
Swieto narodowe Revolution Day, 17 lipiec (1968); note - this holiday was celebrated under the SADDAM Husayn regime but the Iraki Interim Government has yet to declare a new national holiday
Narodowosc noun: Iraki(s)


adjective: Iraki
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, sandstorms, floods
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Rurociagi gas 1,739 km; oil 5,418 km; refined products 1,343 km (2004)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy note - the Iraki political parties included below reflect only the major groups; new political parties continue to emerge, indicative of a rapidly changing political landscape; Al-Sadr Movement [Muqtada Al-SADR]; Da'wa Party [Ibrahim al-JA'FARI]; Iraki Hizballah [Karim Mahud al-MUHAMMADAWI]; Iraki National Accord or INA [Ayad ALLAWI]; Iraki National Congress or INC [Ahmad CHALABI]; Jama'at al Fadilah or JAF [Ayatollah Muhammad ' Ali al-YAQUBI]; The Supreme Council dla the Islamic Revolution w Irak or SCIRI [Abd al-Aziz al-HAKIM]; Konstytucjaal Monarchy Movement or CMM [Sharif Ali Bin al-HUSAYN]; Independent Iraki Alliance or IIA [Falah al-NAQIB]; Iraki Independent Democrats or IID [Adnan PACHACHI, Mahdi al-HAFIZ]; Iraki Islamic Party or IIP [Muhsin Abd al-HAMID, Hajim al-HASSANI]; Iraki National Unity Movement or INUM [Ahmad al-KUBAYSI, chariman]; Muslim Ulama Council or MUC [Harith Sulayman al-DARI, secretary general]; Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masud BARZANI]; Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [Jalal TALABANI]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow an insurgency against the Iraki Interim Government and Coalition forces is primarily concentrated w Baghdad and w areas west and north of the capital; the diverse, multigroup insurgency is led principally by Sunni Arabs whose only common denominator is a shared desire to oust the Coalition and end US influence w Irak
Ludnosc 25,374,691 (lipiec 2004 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA
Przyrost naturalny 2.74% (2004 est.)
Porty i stocznie Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, and Al Basrah have limited functionality
Stacje radiowe after 17 months of unregulated media growth, there are approximately 80 radio stations on the air inside Irak (2004)
Linie kolejowe total: 1,963 km


standard gauge: 1,963 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)
Religie Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female


total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Prawo wyborcze formerly 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: the 2003 war severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Irak including international connections; USAID is overseeing the repair of switching capability and the construction of mobile and satellite communications facilities


domestic: repairs to switches and lines destroyed w the recent fighting continue but sabotage remains a problem; cellular service is expected to be w place within two years


international: country code - 964; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordania, Kuwejt, Syria, and Turcja; Kuwejt line is probably nonoperational
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 675,000; note - an unknown number of telephone lines were damaged or destroyed during the marzec-kwiecien 2003 war (2003)
Telefony komorkowe 20,000 (2002)
Stacje telewizyjne 21 (2004)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border w south z large flooded areas; mountains along borders z Iran and Turcja
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.4 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia NA (2003 est.)
Drogi wodne 5,275 km (not all navigable)


note: Euphrates River (2,815 km), Tigris River (1,895 km), and Third River (565 km) are principal waterways (2004)
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