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Irak (2002)

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Irak 2002 roku

 Irak
Podzial administracyjny 18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', majsan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 41.1% (male 5,003,755; female 4,849,238)


15-64 years: 55.9% (male 6,794,265; female 6,624,662)


65 years and over: 3% (male 341,520; female 388,376) (2002 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep
Lotniska 108 (2001)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 77


over 3,047 m: 21


2,438 to 3,047 m: 36


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 6


under 914 m: 9 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 73


over 3,047 m: 5


2,438 to 3,047 m: 5


1,524 to 2,437 m: 24


914 to 1,523 m: 28


under 914 m: 11 (2002)
Terytorium total: 437,072 sq km


land: 432,162 sq km


water: 4,910 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Tlo historyczne Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Irak became an independent kingdom w 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed w 1958, but w actuality a series of military strongmen have ruled the country since then, the latest being SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes z Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In sierpien 1990 Irak seized Kuwejt, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during styczen-luty 1991. The victors did not occupy Irak, however, thus allowing the regime to stay w control. Following Kuwejt's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Irak to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. UN trade sanctions remain w effect due to incomplete Iraki compliance z relevant UNSC resolutions.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 34.2 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budzet revenues: $NA


expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Stolica Baghdad
Klimat mostly desert; mild to cool winters z dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters z occasionally heavy snows that melt w early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding w central and southern Irak
Linia brzegowa 58 km
Konstytucja 22 wrzesien 1968, effective 16 lipiec 1970 (provisional constitution); new constitution drafted w 1990 but not adopted
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Irak


conventional short form: Irak


local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Irakiyah


local short form: Al Irak
Waluta Iraki dinar (IQD)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.02 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $62.2 billion (2001 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA none; note - the US has an Interests Section w the Polish Embassy w Baghdad; address: P. O. Box 2051 Hay Babel, Baghdad; telephone: [964] (1) 718-9267; FAX: [964] (1) 718-9297
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA none; note - Irak has an Interest Section w the Algierian Embassy headed by Akram AL DOURI; address: Iraki Interests Section, Algierian Embassy, 1801 P Street NW, Washington, DC 20036; telephone: [1] (202) 483-7500; FAX: [1] (202) 462-5066
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje despite restored diplomatic relations w 1990, lacks maritime boundary z Iran and disputes land boundary, navigation channels, and other issues from eight-year war; w listopad 1994, Irak formally accepted the UN-demarcated border z Kuwejt which had been spelled out w Security Council Resolutions 687 (1991), 773 (1993), and 883 (1993); this formally ends earlier claims to Kuwejt and to Bubiyan and Warbah islands although the government continues periodic rhetorical challenges; dispute over water development plans by Turcja dla the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $327.5 million (1995) (1995)
Ekonomia Irak's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s financial problems caused by massive expenditures w the eight-year war z Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran led the government to implement austerity measures, borrow heavily, and later reschedule foreign debt payments; Irak suffered economic losses from the war of at least $100 billion. After hostilities ended w 1988, oil exports gradually increased z the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. Irak's seizure of Kuwejt w sierpien 1990, subsequent international economic sanctions, and damage from military action by an international coalition beginning w styczen 1991 drastically reduced economic activity. Although government policies supporting large military and internal security forces and allocating resources to key supporters of the regime have hurt the economy, implementation of the UN's oil-for-food program w grudzien 1996 has helped improve conditions dla the average Iraki citizen. For the first six, six-month phases of the program, Irak was allowed to export limited amounts of oil w exchange dla food, medicine, and some infrastructure spare parts. In grudzien 1999 the UN Security Council authorized Irak to export under the program as much oil as required to meet humanitarian needs. Oil exports are now more than three-quarters prewar level. However, 28% of Irak's export revenues under the program are deducted to meet UN Compensation Fund and UN administrative expenses. The drop w Produkt krajowy brutto w 2001 was largely the result of the global economic slowdown and lower oil prices. Per capita food imports have increased significantly, while medical supplies and health care services are steadily improving. Per capita output and living standards are still well below the prewar level, but any estimates have a wide range of error.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 25.389 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 27.3 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 98%


hydro: 2%


nuclear: 0%


other: 0% (2000)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m


highest point: Haji Ibrahim 3,600 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Shi'a Muslims, who have inhabited these areas dla thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers system contingent upon agreements z upstream riparian Turcja; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
Kurs waluty Iraki dinars per US dollar - 0.3109 (fixed official rate since 1982); black market rate - Iraki dinars per US dollar - 2,000 (grudzien 2001), 1,910 (grudzien 1999), 1,815 (grudzien 1998), 1,530 (grudzien 1997), 910 (grudzien 1996); note - subject to wide fluctuations
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President SADDAM Husayn (since 16 lipiec 1979); Vice Presidents Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF (since 21 kwiecien 1974) and Taha Yasin RAMADAN (since 23 marzec 1991)


head of government: Prime Minister SADDAM Husayn (since 29 maj 1994); Deputy Prime Ministers Tariq Mikhail AZIZ (since NA 1979), Hikmat Mizban Ibrahim al-AZZAWI (since 30 lipiec 1999), Ahmad Husayn al-KHUDAYIR (since NA lipiec 2001), and Abd al-Tawab Mullah al-HUWAYSH (since NA lipiec 2001)


cabinet: Council of Ministers; note - there is also a Revolutionary Command Council or RCC z eight members as of 2001 (Chairman SADDAM Husayn, Vice Chairman Izzat IBRAHIM al-Duri) which controls the ruling Ba'th Party; the RCC is the highest executive and legislative body and the most powerful political entity w the country; new RCC members must come from the Regional Command Leadership of the Ba'th Party


elections: president and vice presidents elected by a two-thirds majority of the Revolutionary Command Council; regular election last held 17 pazdziernik 1995 (next scheduled dla 2002); note - w place of the 2002 election, a presidential referendum was held on 15 pazdziernik 2002 w which the presidency of SADDAM Husayn was extended dla a fifth consecutive seven-year term


election results: SADDAM Husayn reelected president; percent of vote - 99%; Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF and Taha Yasin RAMADAN elected vice presidents; percent of vote - NA%; note - w a presidential referendum held 15 pazdziernik 2002, SADDAM Husayn's term was extended dla another seven years
Eksport 0 kWh (2000)
Eksport $15.8 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Eksport - towary crude oil
Eksport - partnerzy US 46.2%, Wlochy 12.2%, Francja 9.6%, Hiszpania 8.6% (2000)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black z three green five-pointed stars w a horizontal line centered w the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) w green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added w styczen 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria which has two stars but no script and the flag of Jemen which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Egipt which has a symbolic eagle centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $59 billion (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 6%


industry: 13%


services: 81% (1993 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu -5.7% (2001 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 33 00 N, 44 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf
Ladowiska helikopterow 5 (2002)
Autostrady total: 45,550 km


paved: 38,400 km


unpaved: 7,150 km (1996 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
Import 0 kWh (2000)
Import $11 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Import - towary food, medicine, manufactures
Import - partnerzy Francja 22.5%, Australia 22%, Chiny 5.8%, Rosja 5.8% (2000)
Niepodleglosc 3 pazdziernik 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle NA%
Przemysl petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 57.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflacja 60% (2001 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, EAPC, ESCWA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO
Dostawcy internetu 1 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 35,250 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Court of Cassation
Sila robocza 4.4 million (1989) (1989)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Granica total: 3,650 km


border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordania 181 km, Kuwejt 240 km, Arabia Saudyjska 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turcja 352 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 11.89%


permanent crops: 0.78%


other: 87.33% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Arabic, Kurdish (official w Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
System prawny based on Islamic law w special religious courts, civil law system elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Watani (250 seats; 30 appointed by the president to represent the three northern provinces of Dahuk, Arbil, and As Sulaymaniyah; 220 elected by popular vote; members serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 27 marzec 2000 (next to be held NA marzec 2004)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA
Zywotnosc total population: 67.38 years


male: 66.31 years


female: 68.5 years (2002 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 58%


male: 70.7%


female: 45% (1995 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwejt
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary continental shelf: not specified


territorial sea: 12 NM
Flota handlowa total: 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 186,709 GRT/278,575 DWT


ships by type: cargo 14, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 8, roll on/roll off 1 (2002 est.)
Wojsko Army, Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Border Guard Force, Fedayeen Saddam
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $1.3 billion (FY00)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) NA%
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 6,135,847 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 3,430,819 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 274,035 (2002 est.)
Swieto narodowe Revolution Day, 17 lipiec (1968)
Narodowosc noun: Iraki(s)


adjective: Iraki
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, sandstorms, floods
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 4,350 km; petroleum products 725 km; natural gas 1,360 km
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Ba'th Party [SADDAM Husayn, central party leader]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow any formal political activity must be sanctioned by the government; opposition to regime from Kurdish groups and southern Shi'a dissidents
Ludnosc 24,001,816 (lipiec 2002 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 2.82% (2002 est.)
Porty i stocznie Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, and Al Basrah have limited functionality
Stacje radiowe AM 19 (5 are inactive), FM 51, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radia 4.85 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,339 km


standard gauge: 2,339 km 1.435-m gauge (2001)
Religie Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female


total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: reconstitution of damaged telecommunication facilities began after the Gulf war; most damaged facilities have been rebuilt


domestic: the network consists of coaxial cables and microwave radio relay links


international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordania, Kuwejt, Syria, and Turcja; Kuwejt line is probably nonoperational
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 675,000 (1997)
Telefony komorkowe NA; service available w northern Irak (2001)
Stacje telewizyjne 13 (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border w south z large flooded areas; mountains along borders z Iran and Turcja
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.63 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia NA%
Drogi wodne 1,015 km


note: Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic dla about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and is w use; Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have navigable sections dla shallow-draft boats; Shatt al Basrah canal was navigable by shallow-draft craft before closing w 1991 because of the Gulf war
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