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Indie (2006)

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Indie 2006 roku

 Indie
Podzial administracyjny 28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 30.8% (male 173,478,760/female 163,852,827)


15-64 years: 64.3% (male 363,876,219/female 340,181,764)


65 years and over: 4.9% (male 27,258,020/female 26,704,405) (2006 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Lotniska 341 (2006)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 243


over 3,047 m: 17


2,438 to 3,047 m: 51


1,524 to 2,437 m: 73


914 to 1,523 m: 81


under 914 m: 21 (2006)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 98


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 7


914 to 1,523 m: 42


under 914 m: 48 (2006)
Terytorium total: 3,287,590 sq km


land: 2,973,190 sq km


water: 314,400 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Tlo historyczne The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest w the world, dates back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto Indien lands about 1500 B.C.; their merger z the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indien culture. Arab incursions starting w the 8th century and Turkish w the 12th were followed by those of European traders, beginning w the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indien lands. Indien armed forces w the British army played a vital role w both Swiat Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence w 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of Indie and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries w 1971 resulted w East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesz. Despite impressive gains w economic investment and output, Indie faces pressing problems such as the ongoing dispute z Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 22.01 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budzet revenues: $111.2 billion


expenditures: $135.8 billion; including capital expenditures of $15 billion (2005 est.)
Stolica name: New Delhi


geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E


time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat varies from tropical monsoon w south to temperate w north
Linia brzegowa 7,000 km
Konstytucja 26 styczen 1950; amended many times
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Indie


conventional short form: Indie


local long form: Republic of Indie/Bharatiya Ganarajya


local short form: Indie/Bharat
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.18 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $125.5 billion (2005 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador David C. MULFORD


embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021


mailing address: use embassy street address


telephone: [91] (11) 2419-8000


FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017


consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ranendra SEN


chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000


FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje since Chiny and Indie launched a security and foreign policy dialogue w 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indien claims that Chiny transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; various talks and confidence-building measures have cautiously begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the pazdziernik 2005 earthquake w the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); w 2004, Indie and Pakistan instituted a cease fire w Kashmir and w 2005, restored bus service across the highly militarized Line of Control; Pakistan has taken its dispute on the impact and benefits of Indie's building the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River w Jammu and Kashmir to the Swiat Bank dla arbitration; UN Military Observer Group w Indie and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; disputes persist z Pakistan over Indus River water sharing; to defuse tensions and prepare dla discussions on a maritime boundary, w 2004, Indie and Pakistan resurveyed a portion of the disputed boundary w Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim w Indien Gujarat State; discussions z Bangladesz remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, to exchange 162 miniscule enclaves w both countries, to allocate divided villages, and to stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesz protests Indie's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the border; dispute z Bangladesz over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island w the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; Indie seeks cooperation from Bhutan and Birma to keep Indien Nagaland and Assam separatists from hiding w remote areas along the borders; Joint Border Committee z Nepal continues to demarcate minor disputed boundary sections; Indie maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $2.9 billion (FY98/99)
Ekonomia Indie's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Services are the major source of economic growth, accounting dla half of Indie's output z less than one quarter of its labor force. About three-fifths of the work-force is w agriculture, leading the UPA government to articulate an economic reform program that includes developing basic infrastructure to improve the lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. Government controls on foreign trade and investment have been reduced w some areas, but high tariffs (averaging 20% on non-agricultural items w 2004) and limits on foreign direct investment are still w place. The government w 2005 liberalized investment w the civil aviation, telecom, and construction sectors. Privatization of government-owned industries essentially came to a halt w 2005, and continues to generate political debate; continued social, political, and economic rigidities hold back needed initiatives. The economy has posted an average growth rate of more than 7% w the decade since 1994, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. Indie achieved 7.6% Produkt krajowy brutto growth w 2005, significantly expanding manufacturing. Indie is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled w the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers. Despite strong growth, the Swiat Bank and others worry about the combined state and federal budget deficit, running at approximately 9% of Produkt krajowy brutto; government borrowing has kept interest rates high. Economic deregulation would help attract additional foreign capital and lower interest rates. The huge and growing population is the fundamental social, economic, and environmental problem.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 519 billion kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 187 million kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - import 1.4 billion kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 556.8 billion kWh (2003)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Indyjski 0 m


highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Kurs waluty Indien rupees per US dollar - 44.101 (2005), 45.317 (2004), 46.583 (2003), 48.61 (2002), 47.186 (2001)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President A.P.J. Abdul KALAM (since 25 lipiec 2002); Vice President Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT (since 19 sierpien 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since 22 maj 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states dla a five-year term (no term limits); election last held lipiec 2002 (next to be held 18 lipiec 2007); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament dla a five-year term; election last held 12 sierpien 2002 (next to be held sierpien 2007); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held kwiecien - maj 2004 (next to be held maj 2009)


election results: Abdul KALAM elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 89.6%; Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT elected vice president; percent of Parliament vote - 59.8%
Eksport 187 million kWh (2003)
Eksport $76.23 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport 350,000 bbl/day
Eksport - towary textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures
Eksport - partnerzy US 16.7%, UAE 8.5%, Chiny 6.6%, Singapur 5.3%, UK 4.9%, Hong Kong 4.4% (2005)
Rok podatkowy 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green z a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered w the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 18.6%


industry: 27.6%


services: 53.8% (2005 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8.4% (2005 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 20 00 N, 77 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Ocean Indyjski trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain w the world, lies on the border z Nepal
Ladowiska helikopterow 28 (2006)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.5%


highest 10%: 33.5% (1997)
Narkotyki world's largest producer of licit opium dla the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point dla illicit narcotics produced w neighboring countries; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system
Import 1.4 billion kWh (2003)
Import $113.1 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Import 2.09 million bbl/day
Import - towary crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Chiny 7.3%, US 5.6%, Szwajcaria 4.7% (2005)
Niepodleglosc 15 sierpien 1947 (from UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 7.9% (2005 est.)
Przemysl textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 54.63 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 55.18 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 54.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflacja 4.2% (2005 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, C, CERN (observer), CP, EAS, FAO, G- 6, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), ONUB, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 558,080 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (one chief justice and 25 associate justices are appointed by the president and remain w office until they reach the age of 65 or are removed dla "proved misbehavior")
Sila robocza 496.4 million (2005 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 60%


industry: 17%


services: 23% (1999)
Granica total: 14,103 km


border countries: Bangladesz 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Birma 1,463 km, Chiny 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 48.83%


permanent crops: 2.8%


other: 48.37% (2005)
Jezyki English enjoys associate status but is the most important language dla national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern Indie but is not an official language
System prawny based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members, up to 12 of whom are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)


elections: People's Assembly - last held 20 kwiecien through 10 maj 2004 (next must be held before maj 2009)


election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - INC 145, BJP 138, CPI(M) 43, SP 36, RJD 24, BSP 19, DMK 16, SS 12, BJD 11, CPI 10, NCP 9, JDU 8, SAD 8, PMK 6, TDP 5, TRS 5, JMM 5, LJSP 4, MDMK 4, independents 5, other 30
Zywotnosc total population: 64.71 years


male: 63.9 years


female: 65.57 years (2006 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 59.5%


male: 70.2%


female: 48.3% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Birma and Pakistan
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 316 ships (1000 GRT or over) 7,772,313 GRT/13,310,858 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 96, cargo 72, chemical tanker 13, container 8, liquefied gas 17, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 96, roll on/roll off 1


foreign-owned: 10 (Chiny 2, Hong Kong 1, UAE 6, UK 1)


registered w other countries: 46 (Bahamas 1, Komory 1, Cypr 5, North Korea 1, Liberia 3, Malta 1, Mauritius 2, Panama 19, Saint Vincent i Grenadyny 6, Singapur 5, Wenezuela 1, unknown 1) (2006)
Wojsko Army, Navy (includes naval air arm), Air Force, Coast Guard, various security or paramilitary forces (includes Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, National Security Guards, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Special Frontier Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Railway Protection Force, and Defense Security Corps)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $19.04 billion (2005 est.)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.5% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Republic Day, 26 styczen (1950)
Narodowosc noun: Indien(s)


adjective: Indien
Naturalne zagrozenia droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
Surowce naturalne coal (fourth-largest reserves w the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Rurociagi condensate/gas 8 km; gas 5,184 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,993 km; oil 6,500 km; refined products 6,152 km (2006)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy note - Indie has dozens of national and regional political parties; only parties z four or more seats w the People's Assembly are listed; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Rajnath SINGH]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of Indie or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of Indie (Marxist) or CPI (M) [Prakash KARAT]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indien National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]; Janata Dal (United) or JD(U) [Sharad YADEV]; Jharkhand Mukti Morcha or JMM [Shibu SOREN]; Lok Jan Shakti Party or LJSP [Ram Vilas PASWAN]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKU]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Pattali Makkal Katchi or PMK [S. RAMADOSS]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Prakash Singh BADAL]; Shiv Sena or SS [Bal THACKERAY]; Telangana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrasekhar RAO]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference w the Kashmir Valley and the National Socialist Council of Nagaland w the Northeast
Ludnosc 1,095,351,995 (lipiec 2006 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 25% (2002 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.38% (2006 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 153, FM 91, shortwave 68 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 63,230 km


broad gauge: 45,718 km 1.676-m gauge (16,528 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 14,406 km 1.000-m gauge (165 km electrified); 3,106 km 0.762-m gauge and 0.610-m gauge (2005)
Religie Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female


total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies have prompted rapid change; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, z services primarily concentrated w the urban areas; steady improvement is taking place z the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but telephone density remains low at about seven dla each 100 persons nationwide but only one per 100 persons w rural areas and a national waiting list of over 1.7 million; fastest growth is w cellular service z modest growth w fixed lines


domestic: expansion of domestic service, although still weak w rural areas, resulted from increased competition and dramatic reductions w price led w large part by wireless service; mobile cellular service (both CDMA and GSM) introduced w 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan cities and 19 telecom circles each z about three private service providers and one state-owned service provider; w recent years significant trunk capacity added w the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indien National Satellite system (INSAT), z five satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)


international: country code - 91; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Indyjski region); nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam; 5 submarine cables, including Sea-Me-We-3 z landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) z landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), Republika Poludniowej Afryki - Far East (SAFE) z landing site at Cochin, i2icn linking to Singapur z landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapur and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase w the bandwidth available dla both voice and data traffic (2004)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 49.75 million (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 69,193,321 (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 562 (of which 82 stations have 1 kW or greater power and 480 stations have less than 1 kW of power) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu upland plain (Deccan Plateau) w south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts w west, Himalayas w north
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.73 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 8.9% (2005 est.)
Drogi wodne 14,500 km


note: 5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable dla mechanized vessels (2005)
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