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Indie (2005)

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Indie 2005 roku

 Indie
Podzial administracyjny 28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 31.2% (male 173,634,432/female 163,932,475)


15-64 years: 63.9% (male 356,932,082/female 333,283,590)


65 years and over: 4.9% (male 26,542,025/female 25,939,784) (2005 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Lotniska 333 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 234


over 3,047 m: 14


2,438 to 3,047 m: 47


1,524 to 2,437 m: 78


914 to 1,523 m: 74


under 914 m: 21 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 99


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 9


914 to 1,523 m: 42


under 914 m: 45 (2004 est.)
Terytorium total: 3,287,590 sq km


land: 2,973,190 sq km


water: 314,400 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Tlo historyczne The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest w the world, dates back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded about 1500 B.C.; their merger z the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indien culture. Arab incursions starting w the 8th century and Turkish w the 12th were followed by those of European traders, beginning w the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indien lands. Indien armed forces w the British army played a vital role w both Swiat Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence w 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of Indie and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries w 1971 resulted w East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesz. Despite impressive gains w economic investment and output, Indie faces pressing problems such as the ongoing dispute z Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 22.32 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budzet revenues: $67.3 billion


expenditures: $104 billion, including capital expenditures of $13.5 billion (2004 est.)
Stolica New Delhi
Klimat varies from tropical monsoon w south to temperate w north
Linia brzegowa 7,000 km
Konstytucja 26 styczen 1950; amended many times
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Indie


conventional short form: Indie
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.28 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $117.2 billion (2004 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador David C. MULFORD


embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021


mailing address: use embassy street address


telephone: [91] (11) 2419-8000


FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017


consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ranendra SEN


chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000


FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Chiny and Indie launched a security and foreign policy dialogue w 2005, consolidating discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indien claims that Chiny transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters; recent talks and confidence-building measures have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); w 2004, Indie and Pakistan instituted a cease fire w the Kashmir and w 2005, restored bus service across the highly militarized Line of Control; Pakistan has taken its dispute on the impact and benefits of Indie's building the Baglihar dam on the Chenab River w Jammu and Kashmir to the Swiat Bank dla arbitration; UN Military Observer Group w Indie and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; disputes persist z Pakistan over Indus River water sharing; to defuse tensions and prepare dla discussions on a maritime boundary, w 2004, Indie and Pakistan resurveyed a portion of the disputed boundary w Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch; Pakistani maps continue to show Junagadh claim w Indien Gujarat State; discussions z Bangladesz remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, to exchange 162 miniscule enclaves w both countries, to allocate divided villages, and to stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesz protests Indie's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections; dispute z Bangladesz over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island w the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; Indie seeks cooperation from Bhutan and Birma to keep Indien Nagaland and Assam separatists from hiding w remote areas along the borders; Joint Border Committee z Nepal continues to demarcate minor disputed boundary sections; Indie has instituted a stricter border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $2.9 billion (FY98/99)
Ekonomia Indie's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Services are the major source of economic growth, though two-thirds of the workforce is w agriculture. The UPA government has committed to furthering economic reforms and developing basic infrastructure to improve the lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. Government controls on foreign trade and investment have been reduced w some areas, but high tariffs (averaging 20% w 2004) and limits on foreign direct investment are still w place. The government has indicated it will do more to liberalize investment w civil aviation, telecom, and insurance sectors w the near term. Privatization of government-owned industries has proceeded slowly, and continues to generate political debate; continued social, political, and economic rigidities hold back needed initiatives. The economy has posted an excellent average growth rate of 6.8% since 1994, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. Indie is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled w the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers. Despite strong growth, the Swiat Bank and others worry about the combined state and federal budget deficit, running at approximately 9% of Produkt krajowy brutto. The huge and growing population is the fundamental social, economic, and environmental problem. In late grudzien 2004, a major tsunami took nearly 11,000 lives, left almost 6,000 missing, destroyed $1.2 billion worth of property, and severely damaged the fishing fleet.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 510.1 billion kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 350 million kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - import 1.54 billion kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 547.2 billion kWh (2002)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Indyjski 0 m


highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Kurs waluty Indien rupees per US dollar - 45.317 (2004), 46.583 (2003), 48.61 (2002), 47.186 (2001), 44.942 (2000)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President A.P.J. Abdul KALAM (since 26 lipiec 2002); Vice President Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT (since 19 sierpien 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since NA maj 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states dla a five-year term; election last held lipiec 2002 (next to be held 18 lipiec 2007); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament dla a five-year term; election last held 12 sierpien 2002 (next to be held sierpien 2007); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held kwiecien - maj 2004 (next to be held maj 2009)


election results: Abdul KALAM elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 89.6%; Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT elected vice president; percent of Parliament vote - 59.8%
Eksport 350 million kWh (2002)
Eksport $69.18 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport NA
Eksport - towary textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures
Eksport - partnerzy US 17%, UAE 8.8%, Chiny 5.5%, Hong Kong 4.7%, UK 4.5%, Singapur 4.5% (2004)
Rok podatkowy 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green z a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered w the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 23.6%


industry: 28.4%


services: 48% (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,100 (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6.2% (2004 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 20 00 N, 77 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Ocean Indyjski trade routes
Ladowiska helikopterow 20 (2004 est.)
Autostrady total: 2,525,989 km


paved: 1,448,655 km


unpaved: 1,077,334 km (1999)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.5%


highest 10%: 33.5% (1997)
Narkotyki world's largest producer of licit opium dla the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point dla illicit narcotics produced w neighboring countries; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system
Import 1.54 billion kWh (2002)
Import $89.33 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Import NA
Import - towary crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Chiny 6.1%, US 6%, Szwajcaria 5.2%, Belgia 4.4% (2004)
Niepodleglosc 15 sierpien 1947 (from UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 7.4% (2004 est.)
Przemysl textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 56.29 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 56.86 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 55.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflacja 4.2% (2004 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, C, CERN (observer), CP, FAO, G- 6, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), ONUB, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 590,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president and remain w office until they reach the age of 65)
Sila robocza 482.2 million (2004 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 60%, industry 17%, services 23% (1999)
Granica total: 14,103 km


border countries: Bangladesz 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Birma 1,463 km, Chiny 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 54.4%


permanent crops: 2.74%


other: 42.86% (2001)
Jezyki English enjoys associate status but is the most important language dla national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern Indie but is not an official language
System prawny based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members, up to 12 of whom are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)


elections: People's Assembly - last held 20 kwiecien through 10 maj 2004 (next to be held 2009)


election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - INC 145, BJP 138, CPI(M) 43, SP 36, RJD 24, BSP 19, DMK 16, SS 12, BJD 11, CPI 10, NCP 9, JDU 8, SAD 8, PMK 6, TDP 5, TRS 5, JMM 5, LJSP 4, MDMK 4, independents 5, other 30
Zywotnosc total population: 64.35 years


male: 63.57 years


female: 65.16 years (2005 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 59.5%


male: 70.2%


female: 48.3% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Birma and Pakistan
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 299 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 6,555,507 GRT/11,069,791 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 85, cargo 75, chemical tanker 13, combination ore/oil 1, container 7, liquefied gas 14, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 9, petroleum tanker 91, roll on/roll off 1


foreign-owned: 10 (Australia 1, Chiny 1, Grecja 1, UAE 6, Wielka Brytania 1)


registered w other countries: 30 (2005)
Wojsko Army, Navy (includes naval air arm), Air Force, Coast Guard, various security or paramilitary forces (includes Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, National Security Guards, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Special Frontier Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Railway Protection Force, and Defense Security Corps)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $18.86 billion (2005)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.93% (2005/06)
Swieto narodowe Republic Day, 26 styczen (1950)
Narodowosc noun: Indien(s)


adjective: Indien
Naturalne zagrozenia droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
Surowce naturalne coal (fourth-largest reserves w the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Rurociagi gas 6,171 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,195 km; oil 5,613 km; refined products 5,567 km (2004)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy All Indie Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [C. Jayalalitha JAYARAM]; All Indie Forward Bloc or AIFB, [Debabrata BISWAS]; Asom Gana Parishad [Brindaban GOSWAMI]; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Lal Krishna ADVANI]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of Indie or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of Indie (Marxist) or CPI (M) Hakishan Singh SURJEET]; Congress (I) Party [Sonia GANDHI]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK (a regional party w Tamil Nadu) [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indien National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]; Indien National League [Suliaman SAITH]; Janata Dal (Secular) [H. D. Deve GOWDA]; Janata Dal (United) or JDU [Sharad YADAV]; Jharkhand Mukti Morcha or JMM [leader NA]; Kerala Congress (Mani faction) [K. M. MANI]; Lok Jan Shakti Party or LJSP [leader NA]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKO]; Muslim League [G. M. BANATWALA]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Pattali Makkal Katchi or PMK [leader NA]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Revolutionary Socialist Party or RSP [Abani ROY]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [G. S. TOHRA]; Shiv Sena or SS [Bal THACKERAY]; Tamil Maanila Congress [G. K. VASAN]; Telangana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [leader NA]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]; Trinamool Congress [Mamata BANERJEE]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference w the Kashmir Valley and the National Socialist Council of Nagaland w the Northeast
Ludnosc 1,080,264,388 (lipiec 2005 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 25% (2002 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.4% (2005 est.)
Porty i stocznie Chennai, Haldia, Jawaharal Nehru, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), New Mangalore, Vishakhapatnam
Stacje radiowe AM 153, FM 91, shortwave 68 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 63,230 km (16,693 km electrified)


broad gauge: 45,718 km 1.676-m gauge


narrow gauge: 14,406 km 1.000-m gauge; 3,106 km 0.762-m gauge and 0.610-m gauge (2004)
Religie Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female


total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies have prompted rapid change; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, z services primarily concentrated w the urban areas; steady improvement is taking place z the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but telephone density remains low at about seven dla each 100 persons nationwide but only one per 100 persons w rural areas and a national waiting list of over 1.7 million; fastest growth is w cellular service z modest growth w fixed lines


domestic: expansion of domestic service, although still weak w rural areas, resulted from increased competition and dramatic reductions w price led w large part by wireless service; mobile cellular service (both CDMA and GSM) introduced w 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan cities and 19 telecom circles each z about three private service providers and one state-owned service provider; w recent years significant trunk capacity added w the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indien National Satellite system (INSAT), z five satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)


international: country code - 91; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Indyjski region); nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam; 5 submarine cables, including Sea-Me-We-3 z landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) z landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), Republika Poludniowej Afryki - Far East (SAFE) z landing site at Cochin, i2icn linking to Singapur z landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapur and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase w the bandwidth available dla both voice and data traffic (2004)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 48.917 million (2003)
Telefony komorkowe 26,154,400 (2003)
Stacje telewizyjne 562 (of which 82 stations have 1 kW or greater power and 480 stations have less than 1 kW of power) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu upland plain (Deccan Plateau) w south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts w west, Himalayas w north
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.78 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.2% (2004 est.)
Drogi wodne 14,500 km


note: 5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable dla mechanized vessels (2004)
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