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Indie (2002)

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Indie 2002 roku

 Indie
Podzial administracyjny 28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 32.7% (male 175,858,386; female 165,724,901)


15-64 years: 62.6% (male 338,957,463; female 316,063,497)


65 years and over: 4.7% (male 24,975,465; female 24,265,514) (2002 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Lotniska 335 (2001)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 232


over 3,047 m: 14


2,438 to 3,047 m: 47


1,524 to 2,437 m: 78


914 to 1,523 m: 73


under 914 m: 20 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 102


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 9


914 to 1,523 m: 42


under 914 m: 48 (2002)
Terytorium total: 3,287,590 sq km


land: 2,973,190 sq km


water: 314,400 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Tlo historyczne The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest w the world, goes back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded about 1500 B.C.; their merger z the earlier inhabitants created the classical Indien culture. Arab incursions starting w the 8th century and Turkish w 12th were followed by European traders beginning w the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indien lands. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU led to independence w 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of Indie and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries w 1971 resulted w East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesz. Fundamental concerns w Indie include the ongoing dispute z Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife, all this despite impressive gains w economic investment and output.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 23.79 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budzet revenues: $48.3 billion


expenditures: $78.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $14 $13.5 billion (FY01/02 est.)
Stolica New Delhi
Klimat varies from tropical monsoon w south to temperate w north
Linia brzegowa 7,000 km
Konstytucja 26 styczen 1950
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Indie


conventional short form: Indie
Waluta Indien rupee (INR)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.62 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $100.6 billion (end-marzec 2001) (2001 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Robert D. BLACKWILL


embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021


mailing address: use embassy street address


telephone: [91] (11) 419-8000


FAX: [91] (11) 419-0017


consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Lalit MANSINGH


chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Embassy located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000


FAX: [1] (202) 483-3972


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje discussions z Bangladesz remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, demarcate and fence off the entire boundary, exchange 162 minuscule enclaves, and allocate divided villages while skirmishes, illegal trafficking, and violence along the border continue; Bangladesz has protested Indie's attempts to fence off high traffic sections of the porous boundary; dispute z Bangladesz over New Moore/South Talpatty Island w the Bay of Bengal; much of the rugged, militarized boundary z Chiny is w dispute but talks to resolve the least contested middle sector resumed w 2001; z Pakistan, armed stand-off over the status and sovereignty of Kashmir continues; dispute z Pakistan over terminus of Rann of Kutch prevents extension of a maritime boundary; water-sharing problems z Pakistan persist over the Indus River (Wular Barrage); Joint Border Committee formed z Nepal w 2001 is intended to resolve 53 disputed sections of boundary covering an area of 720 sq km
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $2.9 billion (FY98/99)
Ekonomia Indie's economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of support services. Overpopulation severely handicaps the economy and about a quarter of the population is too poor to be able to afford an adequate diet. Government controls have been reduced on imports and foreign investment, and privatization of domestic output has proceeded slowly. The economy has posted an excellent average growth rate of 6% since 1990, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. Indie has large numbers of well-educated people skilled w the English language; Indie is a major exporter of software services and software workers. The poor monsoon of mid-2002 has reduced agricultural output substantially.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 509.89 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 321 million kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - import 1.385 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 547.12 billion kWh (FY 2000-01, utilities only) (2000)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 83%


hydro: 14%


nuclear: 3%


other: 0% (2000)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Indyjski 0 m


highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Kurs waluty Indien rupees per US dollar - 48.336 (styczen 2002), 47.186 (2001), 44.942 (2000), 43.055 (1999), 41.259 (1998), 36.313 (1997)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Abdul KALAM (since 26 lipiec 2002); Vice President (vacant)


head of government: Prime Minister Atal Bihari VAJPAYEE (since 19 marzec 1998)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister


elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states dla a five-year term; election last held NA lipiec 2002 (next to be held NA lipiec 2007); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament dla a five-year term; election last held 12 sierpien 2002 (next to be held NA sierpien 2007); prime minister elected by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held NA pazdziernik 1999 (next to be held NA pazdziernik 2004)


election results: Abdul KALAM elected president; percent of electoral college vote - NA%; Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT elected vice president; percent of Parliament vote - 59.8; Atal Bihari VAJPAYEE elected prime minister; percent of vote - NA%
Eksport 321 million kWh (2000)
Eksport $44.5 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Eksport - towary textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures
Eksport - partnerzy US 20.9%, UK 5.2%, Niemcy 4.3%, Japonia 4.0%, Benelux 3.3% (2000)
Rok podatkowy 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green z a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered w the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $2.66 trillion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 25%


industry: 25%


services: 50% (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,540 (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 4.3% (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 20 00 N, 77 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Ocean Indyjski trade routes
Ladowiska helikopterow 19 (2002)
Autostrady total: 3,319,644 km


paved: 1,517,077 km


unpaved: 1,802,567 km (1996)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 4%


highest 10%: 34% (1997) (1997)
Narkotyki world's largest producer of licit opium dla the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point dla illicit narcotics produced w neighboring countries; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system
Import 1.385 billion kWh (2000)
Import $53.8 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Import - towary crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals
Import - partnerzy UK 6.3%, US 6.0%, Belgia 5.7%, Japonia 3.5%, Niemcy 3.5% (2000)
Niepodleglosc 15 sierpien 1947 (from UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 4.7% (2002 est.)
Przemysl textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 61.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflacja 5.4% (2002 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G- 6, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA (observer), IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOVIC, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu 43 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 590,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president and remain w office until they reach the age of 65)
Sila robocza 406 million (1999) (1999)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 60%, services 23%, industry 17% (1999) (1999)
Granica total: 14,103 km


border countries: Bangladesz 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Birma 1,463 km, Chiny 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 54.35%


permanent crops: 2.66%


other: 42.99% (1998 est.)
Jezyki English enjoys associate status but is the most important language dla national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern Indie but is not an official language
System prawny based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members, up to 12 of which are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)


elections: People's Assembly - last held 5 wrzesien through 3 pazdziernik 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)


election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - BJP alliance 40.8%, Congress (I) alliance 33.8%, other 25.4%; seats by party - BJP alliance 304, Congress (I) alliance 134, other 107
Zywotnosc total population: 63.23 years


male: 62.55 years


female: 63.93 years (2002 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 52%


male: 65.5%


female: 37.7% (1995 est.)
Lokalizacja Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Birma and Pakistan
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary contiguous zone: 24 NM


continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin


exclusive economic zone: 200 NM


territorial sea: 12 NM
Flota handlowa total: 319 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,325,284 GRT/10,581,459 DWT


ships by type: bulk 115, cargo 80, chemical tanker 16, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 3, container 13, liquefied gas 9, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 74, short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker 1


note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Chiny 1, Zjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie 10, Wielka Brytania 1 (2002 est.)
Wojsko Army, Navy (including naval air arm), Air Force, Strategic Nuclear Command (SNC), Coast Guard, various security or paramilitary forces (including Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, Rashtriya Rifles, National Security Guards, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Special Frontier Force, Ladakh Scouts, Central Reserve Police Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Railway Protection Force, Defense Security Corps, and Indien Reserve Battalions)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $12,079.7 million (FY01)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.5% (FY01)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 285,729,565 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 167,599,380 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 17 years of age (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 10,879,384 (2002 est.)
Swieto narodowe Republic Day, 26 styczen (1950)
Narodowosc noun: Indien(s)


adjective: Indien
Naturalne zagrozenia droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
Surowce naturalne coal (fourth-largest reserves w the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 3,005 km; petroleum products 2,687 km; natural gas 1,700 km (1995)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy All Indie Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [C. Jayalalitha JAYARAM]; All Indie Forward Bloc or AIFB, [D. BISWAS (general secretary)]; Asom Gana Parishad [Brindaban GOSWAMI]; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Jana KRISNAMURTHY]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of Indie or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of Indie/Marxist-Leninist or CPI/ML [Dipankar BHATTACHARYA]; Congress (I) Party [Sonia GANDHI]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK (a regional party w Tamil Nadu) [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indien National League [Suliaman SAITH]; Janata Dal (Secular) [H. D. Deve GOWDA]; Janata Dal (United) or JDU [Sharad YADAV]; Kerala Congress (Mani faction) [K. M. MANI]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKO]; Muslim League [G. M. BANATWALA]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Revolutionary Socialist Party or RSP [Abani ROY]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal [G. S. TOHRA]; Shiv Sena [Bal THACKERAY]; Tamil Maanila Congress [G. K. VASAN]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]; Trinamool Congress [Mamata BANERJEE]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference
Ludnosc 1,045,845,226 (lipiec 2002 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 25% (2002 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.51% (2002 est.)
Porty i stocznie Chennai (Madras), Cochin, Jawaharal Nehru, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Vishakhapatnam
Stacje radiowe AM 153, FM 91, shortwave 68 (1998)
Radia 116 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total: 63,693 km (13,771 km electrified)


broad gauge: 45,103 km 1.676-m gauge


narrow gauge: 15,178 km 1.000-m gauge; 3,105 km 0.762-m gauge; 307 km 0.610-m gauge (2001)
Religie Hindu 81.3%, Muslim 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5% (2000)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female


total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: mediocre service; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, z services primarily concentrated w the urban areas; major objective is to continue to expand and modernize long-distance network to keep pace z rapidly growing number of local subscriber lines; steady improvement is taking place z the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but, z telephone density at about two dla each 100 persons and a waiting list of over 2 million, demand dla main line telephone service will not be satisfied dla a very long time


domestic: local service is provided by microwave radio relay and coaxial cable, z open wire and obsolete electromechanical and manual switchboard systems still w use w rural areas; starting w the 1980s, a substantial amount of digital switch gear has been introduced dla local and long-distance service; long-distance traffic is carried mostly by coaxial cable and low-capacity microwave radio relay; since 1985 significant trunk capacity has been added w the form of fiber-optic cable and a domestic satellite system z 254 earth stations; mobile cellular service is provided w four metropolitan cities


international: satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Indyjski region); nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gaidhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam; 4 submarine cables - LOCOM linking Chennai (Madras) to Penang; Indo-UAE-Gulf cable linking Mumbai (Bombay) to Al Fujayrah, UAE; Indie-SEA-ME-WE-3, SEA-ME-WE-2 z landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay); Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) z landing site at Mumbai (Bombay) (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 27.7 million (pazdziernik 2000)
Telefony komorkowe 2.93 million (listopad 2000)
Stacje telewizyjne 562 (of which 82 stations have 1 kW or greater power and 480 stations have less than 1 kW of power) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu upland plain (Deccan Plateau) w south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts w west, Himalayas w north
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.98 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 8.8% (2002)
Drogi wodne 16,180 km


note: 3,631 km navigable by large vessels
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