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Indie (2001)

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Indie 2001 roku

 Indie
Podzial administracyjny 28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years:
33.12% (male 175,630,537; female 165,540,672)

15-64 years:
62.2% (male 331,790,850; female 308,902,864)

65 years and over:
4.68% (male 24,439,022; female 23,687,200) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Lotniska 337 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total:
235

over 3,047 m:
13

2,438 to 3,047 m:
48

1,524 to 2,437 m:
81

914 to 1,523 m:
77

under 914 m:
16 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total:
102

2,438 to 3,047 m:
1

1,524 to 2,437 m:
6

914 to 1,523 m:
40

under 914 m:
55 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total:
3,287,590 sq km

land:
2,973,190 sq km

water:
314,400 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Tlo historyczne The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest w the world, goes back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded about 1500 B.C.; their merger z the earlier inhabitants created classical Indien culture. Arab incursions starting w the 8th century and Turkish w 12th were followed by European traders beginning w the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indien lands. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU led to independence w 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of Indie and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries w 1971 resulted w East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesz. Fundamental concerns w Indie include the ongoing dispute z Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic strife, all this despite impressive gains w economic investment and output.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 24.28 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues:
$44.3 billion

expenditures:
$73.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)
Stolica New Delhi
Klimat varies from tropical monsoon w south to temperate w north
Linia brzegowa 7,000 km
Konstytucja 26 styczen 1950
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form:
Republic of Indie

conventional short form:
Indie
Waluta Indien rupee (INR)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.74 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $99.6 billion (2000)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Richard F. CELESTE

embassy:
Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021

mailing address:
use embassy street address

telephone:
[91] (11) 688-9033, 611-3033

FAX:
[91] (11) 419-0025

consulate(s) general:
Chennai (Madras), Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Naresh CHANDRA

chancery:
2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Embassy located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:
[1] (202) 939-7000

FAX:
[1] (202) 483-3972

consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje boundary z Chiny w dispute; status of Kashmir z Pakistan; water-sharing problems z Pakistan over the Indus River (Wular Barrage); a portion of the boundary z Bangladesz is indefinite; exchange of 151 enclaves along border z Bangladesz subject to ratification by Indien parliament; dispute z Bangladesz over New Moore/South Talpatty Island
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $2.9 billion (FY98/99)
Ekonomia Indie's economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of support services. More than a third of the population is too poor to be able to afford an adequate diet. Indie's international payments position remained strong w 2000 z adequate foreign exchange reserves, moderately depreciating nominal exchange rates, and booming exports of software services. Growth w manufacturing output slowed, and electricity shortages continue w many regions.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 424.032 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 200 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - import 1.49 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 454.561 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel:
79.41%

hydro:
17.77%

nuclear:
2.52%

other:
0.3% (1999)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point:
Ocean Indyjski 0 m

highest point:
Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Kurs waluty Indien rupees per US dollar - 46.540 (styczen 2001), 44.942 (2000), 43.055 (1999), 41.259 (1998), 36.313 (1997), 35.433 (1996)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state:
President Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN (since 25 lipiec 1997); Vice President Krishnan KANT (since 21 sierpien 1997)

head of government:
Prime Minister Atal Behari VAJPAYEE (since 19 marzec 1998)

cabinet:
Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections:
president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states dla a five-year term; election last held 14 lipiec 1997 (next to be held NA lipiec 2002); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament dla a five-year term; election last held 16 sierpien 1997 (next to be held NA sierpien 2002); prime minister elected by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held NA pazdziernik 1999 (next to be held NA pazdziernik 2004)

election results:
Kicheril Raman NARAYANAN elected president; percent of electoral college vote - NA%; Krishnan KANT elected vice president; percent of Parliament vote - NA%; Atal Behari VAJPAYEE elected prime minister; percent of vote - NA%
Eksport 200 million kWh (1999)
Eksport $43.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Eksport - towary textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures
Eksport - partnerzy US 22%, UK 6%, Niemcy 5%, Japonia 5%, Hong Kong 5%, UAE 4% (1999)
Rok podatkowy 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green z a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered w the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $2.2 trillion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture:
25%

industry:
24%

services:
51% (2000)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,200 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 20 00 N, 77 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Ocean Indyjski trade routes
Ladowiska helikopterow 16 (2000 est.)
Autostrady total:
3,319,644 km

paved:
1,517,077 km

unpaved:
1,802,567 km (1996)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%:
3.5%

highest 10%:
33.5% (1997)
Narkotyki world's largest producer of licit opium dla the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit country dla illicit narcotics produced w neighboring countries; illicit producer of hashish and methaqualone
Import 1.49 billion kWh (1999)
Import $60.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Import - towary crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals
Import - partnerzy US 9%, Benelux 8%, UK 6%, Arabia Saudyjska 6%, Japonia 6%, Niemcy 5% (1999)
Niepodleglosc 15 sierpien 1947 (from UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 7.5% (2000 est.)
Przemysl textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 63.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 5.4% (2000 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G- 6, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA (observer), IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu 43 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 535,100 sq km (1995/96 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president and remain w office until they reach the age of 65)
Sila robocza NA
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 67%, services 18%, industry 15% (1995 est.)
Granica total:
14,103 km

border countries:
Bangladesz 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Birma 1,463 km, Chiny 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land:
56%

permanent crops:
1%

permanent pastures:
4%

forests and woodland:
23%

other:
16% (1993 est.)
Jezyki English enjoys associate status but is the most important language dla national, political, and commercial communication, Hindi the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people, Bengali (official), Telugu (official), Marathi (official), Tamil (official), Urdu (official), Gujarati (official), Malayalam (official), Kannada (official), Oriya (official), Punjabi (official), Assamese (official), Kashmiri (official), Sindhi (official), Sanskrit (official), Hindustani (a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern Indie)

note:
24 languages each spoken by a million or more persons; numerous other languages and dialects, dla the most part mutually unintelligible
System prawny based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members, up to 12 of which are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)

elections:
People's Assembly - last held 5 wrzesien through 3 pazdziernik 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results:
People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - BJP alliance 40.8%, Congress alliance 33.8%, other 25.4%; seats by party - BJP alliance 304, Congress alliance 134, other 107
Zywotnosc total population:
62.86 years

male:
62.22 years

female:
63.53 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:
52%

male:
65.5%

female:
37.7% (1995 est.)
Lokalizacja Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Birma and Pakistan
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary contiguous zone:
24 NM

continental shelf:
200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Flota handlowa total:
315 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,433,831 GRT/10,691,973 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 117, cargo 70, chemical tanker 15, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 3, container 15, liquefied gas 9, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 76, short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker 2 (2000 est.)
Wojsko Army, Navy (including naval air arm), Air Force, various security or paramilitary forces (includes Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, Rashtriya Rifles, and National Security Guards)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $13.02 billion (FY01)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.5% (FY00)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49:
280,204,502 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49:
164,410,461 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 17 years of age
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males:
10,879,384 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Republic Day, 26 styczen (1950)
Narodowosc noun:
Indien(s)

adjective:
Indien
Naturalne zagrozenia droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common; earthquakes
Surowce naturalne coal (fourth-largest reserves w the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 3,005 km; petroleum products 2,687 km; natural gas 1,700 km (1995)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy All Indie Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [C. Jayalalitha JAYARAM]; All Indie Forward Bloc or AIFB [Prem Dutta PALIWAL (chairman), Chitta BASU (general secretary)]; Asom Gana Parishad [Prafulla Kumar MAHANTA]; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [Kanshi RAM]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Bangaru LAXMAN, president]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of Indie or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of Indie/Marxist-Leninist or CPI/ML [Vinod MISHRA]; Congress (I) Party [Sonia GANDHI, president]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK (a regional party w Tamil Nadu) [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indien National League [Suliaman SAIT]; Janata Dal (Secular) [H. D. Deve GOWDA]; Janata Dal (United) or JDU [Sharad YADAV, president, I. K. GUJRAL]; Kerala Congress (Mani faction) [K. M. MANI]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKO]; Muslim League [G. M. BANATWALA]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; National Democratic Alliance, a 16-party alliance including BJP, DMK, Janata Dal (U), SHS, Shiromani Akali Dal, Telugu Desam, BJD, Rinamool Congress]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Revolutionary Socialist Party or RSP [Tridip CHOWDHURY]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV, president]; Shiromani Akali Dal [Prakash Singh BADAL]; Shiv Sena [Bal THACKERAY]; Tamil Maanila Congress [G. K. MOOPANAR]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP (a regional party w Andhra Pradesh) [Chandrababu NAIDU]; Trinamool Congress [Mamata BANERJEE]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference
Ludnosc 1,029,991,145 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 35% (1994 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.55% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie Chennai (Madras), Cochin, Jawaharal Nehru, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Vishakhapatnam
Stacje radiowe AM 153, FM 91, shortwave 68 (1998)
Radia 116 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total:
62,915 km (12,307 km electrified; 12,617 km double track)

broad gauge:
40,620 km 1.676-m gauge

narrow gauge:
18,501 km 1.000-m gauge; 3,794 km 0.762-m and 0.610-m gauge (1998 est.)
Religie Hindu 81.3%, Muslim 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5% (2000)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.07 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
1.03 male(s)/female

total population:
1.07 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment:
mediocre service; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, z services primarily concentrated w the urban areas; major objective is to continue to expand and modernize long-distance network w order to keep pace z rapidly growing number of local subscriber lines; steady improvement is taking place z the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but, z telephone density at about two dla each 100 persons and a waiting list of over 2 million, demand dla main line telephone service will not be satisfied dla a very long time

domestic:
local service is provided by microwave radio relay and coaxial cable, z open wire and obsolete electromechanical and manual switchboard systems still w use w rural areas; starting w the 1980s, a substantial amount of digital switch gear has been introduced dla local and long-distance service; long-distance traffic is carried mostly by coaxial cable and low-capacity microwave radio relay; since 1985 significant trunk capacity has been added w the form of fiber-optic cable and a domestic satellite system z 254 earth stations; mobile cellular service is provided w four metropolitan cities

international:
satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Indyjski region); nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gaidhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam; 4 submarine cables - LOCOM linking Chennai (Madras) to Penang; Indo-UAE-Gulf cable linking Mumbai (Bombay) to Al Fujayrah, UAE; Indie-SEA-ME-WE-3, SEA-ME-WE-2 z landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay); Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) z landing site at Mumbai (Bombay) (2000)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 27.7 million (pazdziernik 2000)
Telefony komorkowe 2.93 million (listopad 2000)
Stacje telewizyjne 562 (of which 82 stations have 1 kW or greater power and 480 stations have less than 1 kW of power) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu upland plain (Deccan Plateau) w south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts w west, Himalayas w north
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 3.04 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia NA%
Drogi wodne 16,180 km

note:
3,631 km navigable by large vessels
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