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Holy See (Vatican City) (2001)

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Holy See (Vatican City) 2001 year

 Holy See (Vatican City)
Airports none
Area total:
0.44 sq km

0.44 sq km

0 sq km
Area - comparative about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Background Popes in their secular role ruled much of the Italian peninsula for more than a thousand years until the mid 19th century, when many of the Papal States were seized by the newly united Kingdom of Italy. In 1870, the pope's holdings were further circumscribed when Rome itself was annexed. Disputes between a series of "prisoner" popes and Italy were resolved in 1929 by three Lateran Treaties, which established the independent state of Vatican City and granted Roman Catholicism special status in Italy. In 1984, a concordat between the Vatican and Italy modified certain of the earlier treaty provisions, including the primacy of Roman Catholicism as the Italian state religion. Present concerns of the Holy See include the failing health of Pope John Paul II, interreligious dialogue and reconciliation, and the adjustment of church doctrine in an era of rapid change and globalization. About 1 billion people worldwide profess the Catholic faith.
Budget revenues:
$209.6 million

$198.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)
Capital Vatican City
Climate temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with hot, dry summers (May to September)
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)
Country name conventional long form:
The Holy See (State of the Vatican City)

conventional short form:
Holy See (Vatican City)

local long form:
Santa Sede (Stato della Citta del Vaticano)

local short form:
Santa Sede (Citta del Vaticano)
Currency Italian lira (ITL); euro (EUR)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador (vacant)

Villa Domiziana, Via delle Terme Deciane 26, 00162 Rome

mailing address:
PSC 59, Box F, APO AE 09624

[39] (06) 4674-3428

[39] (06) 5758346
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Apostolic Nuncio Archbishop Gabriele MONTALVO

3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 333-7121
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient none
Economy - overview This unique, noncommercial economy is supported financially by contributions (known as Peter's Pence) from Roman Catholics throughout the world, the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications. The incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to, or somewhat better than, those of counterparts who work in the city of Rome.
Electricity - consumption NA kWh
Electricity - imports NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by Italy
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



Elevation extremes lowest point:
unnamed location 19 m

highest point:
unnamed location 75 m
Environment - current issues NA
Environment - international agreements party to:
none of the selected agreements

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution, Environmental Modification
Ethnic groups Italians, Swiss, other
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Vatican lire per US dollar - 2,099 (2000), 1817.2 (1999), 1,736.2 (1998), 1,703.1 (1997), 1,542.9 (1996); note - the Vatican lira is at par with the Italian lira; the Vatican will start using euros in 2002 in conjunction with Italy at a fixed rate of 1,936.17 lire per euro
Executive branch chief of state:
Pope JOHN PAUL II (since 16 October 1978)

head of government:
Secretary of State Cardinal Angelo SODANO (since 2 December 1990)

Pontifical Commission appointed by the pope

pope elected for life by the College of Cardinals; election last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of the current pope); secretary of state appointed by the pope

election results:
Karol WOJTYLA elected pope
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the crossed keys of Saint Peter and the papal miter centered in the white band
Geographic coordinates 41 54 N, 12 27 E
Geography - note urban; landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state; outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo (the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights
Heliports 1 (2000 est.)
Highways none; all city streets
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Imports NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by Italy
Independence 11 February 1929 (from Italy)
Industries printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities
International organization participation CE (observer), IAEA, ICFTU, Intelsat, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU, WHO (observer), WIPO, WToO (observer), WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 93 (Holy See and Italy) (2000)
Irrigated land 0 sq km (1993)
Judicial branch none; normally handled by Italy
Labor force NA
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%; note - dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000 lay workers live outside the Vatican
Land boundaries total:
3.2 km

border countries:
Italy 3.2 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

100% (urban area)
Languages Italian, Latin, French, various other languages
Legal system NA
Legislative branch unicameral Pontifical Commission
Literacy definition:

total population:


Location Southern Europe, an enclave of Rome (Italy)
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military - note defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are posted at entrances to the Vatican City to provide security and protect the Pope
National holiday Coronation Day of Pope JOHN PAUL II, 22 October (1978)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards NA
Natural resources none
Political parties and leaders none
Political pressure groups and leaders none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
Population 890 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.15% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 4, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios NA
Railways total:
862 m; note - a spur of the Italian Railways system, serving Rome's Saint Peter's station

standard gauge:
862 m 1.435-m gauge (1999)
Religions Roman Catholic
Suffrage limited to cardinals less than 80 years old
Telephone system general assessment:
automatic exchange

tied into Italian system

uses Italian system
Telephones - main lines in use NA
Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Television broadcast stations 1 (1996)
Terrain low hill
Waterways none
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