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Francja (2001)

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Francja 2001 roku

Podzial administracyjny 22 regions (regions, singular - region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-Francja, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes

metropolitan Francja is divided into 22 regions (including the "territorial collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and is subdivided into 96 departments; see separate entries dla the overseas departments (Gujana Francuska, Gwadelupa, Martynika, Reunion) and the overseas territorial collectivities (Majotta, Saint-Pierre i Miquelon)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years:
18.68% (male 5,698,604; female 5,426,838)

15-64 years:
65.19% (male 19,424,018; female 19,399,588)

65 years and over:
16.13% (male 3,900,579; female 5,701,600) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; beef, dairy products; fish
Lotniska 475 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
58 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
130 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total:
547,030 sq km

545,630 sq km

1,400 sq km

includes only metropolitan Francja, but excludes the overseas administrative divisions
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than twice the size of Colorado
Tlo historyczne Although ultimately a victor w Swiat Wars I and II, Francja suffered extensive losses w its empire, wealth, manpower, and rank as a dominant nation-state. Nevertheless, Francja today is one of the most modern countries w the world and is a leader among European nations. Since 1958, it has constructed a presidential democracy resistant to the instabilities experienced w earlier parliamentary democracies. In recent years, its reconciliation and cooperation z Niemcy have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the advent of the euro w styczen 1999. Presently, Francja is at the forefront of European states seeking to exploit the momentum of monetary union to advance the creation of a more unified and capable European defense and security apparatus.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 12.1 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues:
$210 billion

$240 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Stolica Paris
Klimat generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral
Linia brzegowa 3,427 km
Konstytucja 28 wrzesien 1958, amended concerning election of president w 1962, amended to comply z provisions of EC Maastricht Treaty w 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form:
French Republic

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republique Francaise

local short form:
Waluta French franc (FRF); euro (EUR)

on 1 styczen 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions w Francja at a fixed rate of 6.55957 French francs per euro and will replace the local currency dla all transactions w 2002
Wspolczynnik zgonow 9.09 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $106 billion (1998)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission:
Ambassador-designate Howard H. LEACH; Charge d'Affaires Douglas L. McELHANEY

2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08

mailing address:
PSC 116, APO AE 09777

[33] (1) 43-12-22-22

[33] (1) 42 66 97 83

consulate(s) general:
Marseille, Strasbourg
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Francois V. BUJON DE L'ESTANG

4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007

[1] (202) 944-6000

[1] (202) 944-6166

consulate(s) general:
Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Madagaskar claims Bassas da Indie, Europa (wyspa), Wyspy Glorioso, Juan de Nova, and Wyspa Tromelin; Komory claims Majotta; Mauritius claims Wyspa Tromelin; territorial dispute between Surinam and Gujana Francuska; territorial claim w Antarktyda (Adelie Land); Matthew and Hunter Islands east of Nowa Kaledonia claimed by Francja and Vanuatu
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $6.3 billion (1997)
Ekonomia Francja is w the midst of transition, from an economy that featured extensive government ownership and intervention to one that relies more on market mechanisms. The government remains dominant w some sectors, particularly power, public transport, and defense industries, but it has been relaxing its control since the mid-1980s. The Socialist-led government has sold off part of its holdings w Francja Telecom, Air Francja, Thales, Thomson Multimedia, and the European Aerospace and Defense Company (EADS). The telecommunications sector is gradually being opened to competition. Francja's leaders remain committed to a capitalism w which they maintain social equity by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that reduce income disparity and the impact of free markets on public health and welfare. The government has done little to cut generous unemployment and retirement benefits which impose a heavy tax burden and discourage hiring. It has also shied from measures that would dramatically increase the use of stock options and retirement investment plans; such measures would boost the stock market and fast-growing IT firms as well as ease the burden on the pension system, but would disproportionately benefit the rich. In addition to the tax burden, the reduction of the work week to 35-hours has drawn criticism dla lowering the competitiveness of French companies.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 398.752 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 68.7 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - import 5 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 497.26 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel:



0.49% (1999)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point:
Rhone River delta -2 m

highest point:
Mont Blanc 4,807 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy some forest damage from acid rain (major forest damage occurred as a result of severe grudzien 1999 windstorm); air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne Celtic and Latin z Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities
Kurs waluty euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (styczen 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.65 (styczen 1999), 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state:
President Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 maj 1995)

head of government:
Prime Minister Lionel JOSPIN (since 3 czerwiec 1997)

Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the suggestion of the prime minister

president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term; election last held 23 kwiecien and 7 maj 1995 (next to be held by maj 2002); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly majority and appointed by the president

election results:
Jacques CHIRAC elected president; percent of vote, second ballot - Jacques CHIRAC (RPR) 52.64%, Lionel JOSPIN (PS) 47.36%
Eksport 68.7 billion kWh (1999)
Eksport $325 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Eksport - towary machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages
Eksport - partnerzy EU 63% (Niemcy 16%, UK 10%, Hiszpania 9%, Wlochy 9%, Belgia-Luksemburg 8%), US 8% (1999)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and/or colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgia, Czad, Irlandia, Cote d'Ivoire, Luksemburg, and Holandia; the official flag dla all French dependent areas
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $1.448 trillion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture:


70.6% (1999)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $24,400 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3.1% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 46 00 N, 2 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne largest West European nation
Ladowiska helikopterow 3 (2000 est.)
Autostrady total:
892,900 km

892,900 km (including 9,900 km of expressways)

0 km (1999)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
25.1% (1995)
Narkotyki transshipment point dla and consumer of South American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroin, and European synthetics
Import 5 billion kWh (1999)
Import $320 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals
Import - partnerzy EU 62% (Niemcy 16%, Belgia-Luksemburg 11%, Wlochy 9%, UK 8%), US 7% (2000 est.)
Niepodleglosc 486 (unified by Clovis)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 3.5% (2000 est.)
Przemysl machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 4.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 1.7% (2000 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, FZ, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Dostawcy internetu 62 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 16,300 sq km (1995 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (judges are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of the Judiciary); Konstytucjaal Council or Conseil Konstytucjanel (three members appointed by the president, three appointed by the president of the National Assembly, and three appointed by the president of the Senate); Council of State or Conseil d'Etat
Sila robocza 25 million (2000)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki services 71%, industry 25%, agriculture 4% (1997)
Granica total:
2,889 km

border countries:
Andora 56.6 km, Belgia 620 km, Niemcy 451 km, Wlochy 488 km, Luksemburg 73 km, Monako 4.4 km, Hiszpania 623 km, Szwajcaria 573 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

18% (1993 est.)
Jezyki French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
System prawny civil law system z indigenous concepts; review of administrative but not legislative acts
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (321 seats - 296 dla metropolitan Francja, 13 dla overseas departments and territories, and 12 dla French nationals abroad; members are indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve nine-year terms; elected by thirds every three years) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a single-member majoritarian system to serve five-year terms)

Senate - last held 27 wrzesien 1998 (next to be held wrzesien 2001); National Assembly - last held 25 maj-1 czerwiec 1997 (next to be held NA maj 2002)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPR 99, UDC 52, DL 47, PS 78, PCF 16, other 29; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PS 245, RPR 140, UDF 109, PCF 37, PRS 13, MEI 8, MDC 7, LDI-MPF 1, FN 1, various left 9, various right 7
Zywotnosc total population:
78.9 years

75.01 years

83.01 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


99% (1980 est.)
Lokalizacja Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgia and Hiszpania, southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Wlochy and Hiszpania
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary contiguous zone:
24 NM

continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM (does not apply to the Mediterranean)

territorial sea:
12 NM
Flota handlowa total:
46 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 942,333 GRT/1,304,754 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 3, cargo 4, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk 1, container 1, liquefied gas 3, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 17, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea passenger 3

includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Niemcy 1 (2000 est.)
Wojsko Army (includes Marines), Navy (includes Naval Air), Air Force (includes Air Defense), National Gendarmerie
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $39.831 billion (FY97)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.5% (FY97)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49:
14,573,199 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49:
12,127,793 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males:
390,064 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Bastille Day, 14 lipiec (1789)
Narodowosc noun:
Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)

Naturalne zagrozenia flooding; avalanches
Surowce naturalne coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, potash, timber, fish
Wspolczynnik migracji 0.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural gas 24,746 km
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Citizens Movement or MdC [Jean Pierre CHEVENEMENT]; French Communist Party or PCF [Robert HUE]; Independent Ecological Movement or MEI [Antoine WAECHTER]; Left Radical Party or PRG (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG) [Jean-Michel BAYLET]; Liberal Democracy or DL (originally Republican Party or PR) [Alain MADELIN]; Movement dla Francja or MPF [Philippe DEVILLIERS]; National Front or FN [Jean-Marie LE PEN]; Rally dla the Republic or RPR [Michelle ALLIOT-MARIE]; Socialist Party or PS [Francois HOLLANDE]; Union dla French Democracy or UDF (coalition of UDC, FD, RRRS, PPDF) [Francois BAYROU]; Union of the Center or UDC [leader NA]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Communist-controlled labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail) or CGT, nearly 2.4 million members (claimed); independent labor union or Force Ouvriere, 1 million members (est.); independent white-collar union or Confederation Generale des Cadres, 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais) or CNPF or Patronat; Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail) or CFDT, about 800,000 members (est.)
Ludnosc 59,551,227 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 0.37% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie Bordeaux, Boulogne, Cherbourg, Dijon, Dunkerque, La Pallice, Le Havre, Lyon, Marseille, Mullhouse, Nantes, Paris, Rouen, Saint Nazaire, Saint Malo, Strasbourg
Stacje radiowe AM 41, FM about 3,500 (this figure is an approximation and includes many repeaters), shortwave 2 (1998)
Radia 55.3 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total:
31,939 km (31,939 km are operated by French National Linie kolejowe (SNCF); 14,176 km of SNCF routes are electrified and 12,132 km are double- or multiple-tracked)

standard gauge:
31,840 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge:
99 km 1.000-m gauge (1998)
Religie Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North African workers) 3%, unaffiliated 4%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth:
1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.68 male(s)/female

total population:
0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment:
highly developed

extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive introduction of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 dla Ocean Indyjski and 3 dla Ocean Atlantycki), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region); HF radiotelephone communications z more than 20 countries
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 34.86 million (yearend 1998)
Telefony komorkowe 11.078 million (yearend 1998)
Stacje telewizyjne 584 (plus 9,676 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills w north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees w south, Alps w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.75 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.7% (2000 est.)
Drogi wodne 14,932 km (6,969 km heavily traveled)
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