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Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) (2005)

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Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) 2005 year

 Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Administrative divisions none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Age structure 0-14 years: NA

15-64 years: NA

65 years and over: NA (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products fodder and vegetable crops; sheep, dairy products
Airports 5 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 3

under 914 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Area total: 12,173 sq km

land: 12,173 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 small islands
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Connecticut
Background Although first sighted by an English navigator in 1592, the first landing (English) did not occur until almost a century later in 1690, and the first settlement (French) was not established until 1764. The colony was turned over to Spain two years later and the islands have since been the subject of a territorial dispute, first between Britain and Spain, then between Britain and Argentina. The UK asserted its claim to the islands by establishing a naval garrison there in 1833. Argentina invaded the islands on 2 April 1982. The British responded with an expeditionary force that landed seven weeks later and after fierce fighting forced Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982.
Birth rate NA births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $66.2 million

expenditures: $67.9 million, including capital expenditures of $23.2 million (FY98/99 est.)
Capital Stanley
Climate cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; average annual rainfall is 24 inches in Stanley; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but does not accumulate
Coastline 1,288 km
Constitution 3 October 1985; amended 1997 and 1998
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Death rate NA deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $NA
Dependency status overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina
Diplomatic representation from the US none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Diplomatic representation in the US none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Disputes - international Argentina, which claims the islands in its constitution and briefly occupied the islands by force in 1982, agreed in 1995 to no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks
Economic aid - recipient $0 (1997 est.)
Economy - overview The economy was formerly based on agriculture, mainly sheep farming, but today fishing contributes the bulk of economic activity. In 1987 the government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license fees total more than $40 million per year, which goes to support the island's health, education, and welfare system. Squid accounts for 75% of the fish taken. Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops furnish winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. The islands are now self-financing except for defense. The British Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around the islands in 1993, and early seismic surveys suggest substantial reserves capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day; to date no exploitable site has been identified. An agreement between Argentina and the UK in 1995 seeks to defuse licensing and sovereignty conflicts that would dampen foreign interest in exploiting potential oil reserves. Tourism, especially eco-tourism, is increasing rapidly, with about 30,000 visitors in 2001. Another large source of income is interest paid on money the government has in the bank. The British military presence also provides a sizeable economic boost.
Electricity - consumption 17.72 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 19.06 million kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Usborne 705 m
Environment - current issues overfishing by unlicensed vessels is a problem; reindeer were introduced to the islands in 2001 for commercial reasons; this is the only commercial reindeer herd in the world unaffected by the Chornobyl disaster
Ethnic groups British
Exchange rates Falkland pounds per US dollar - 0.5462 (2004), 0.6125 (2003), 0.6672 (2002), 0.6947 (2001), 0.6609 (2000)

note: the Falkland pound is at par with the British pound
Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)

head of government: Governor Howard PEARCE (since 3 December 2002); Chief Executive Chris SIMPKINS (since NA March 2003); Financial Secretary Derek F. HOWATT (since NA)

cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative Council, two ex officio members (chief executive and the financial secretary), and the governor

elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch
Exports 0 kWh (2002)
Exports $82 million (2002)
Exports NA
Exports - commodities wool, hides, meat
Exports - partners Spain 77.4%, UK 9.4%, US 4.9% (2004)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising was once the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $25,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate NA%
Geographic coordinates 51 45 S, 59 00 W
Geography - note deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing season
Highways total: 440 km

paved: 50 km

unpaved: 390 km (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2002)
Imports $53 million (2002)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities fuel, food and drink, building materials, clothing
Imports - partners UK 63.2%, Spain 30.3%, France 3.6% (2004)
Independence none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries fish and wool processing; tourism
Infant mortality rate total: NA

male: NA

female: NA (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.6% (1998)
International organization participation ICFTU, UPU
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Supreme Court (chief justice is a nonresident); Magistrates Court (senior magistrate presides over civil and criminal divisions); Court of Summary Jurisdiction
Labor force 1,100 (est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding and fishing)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 100% (99% permanent pastures, 1% other) (2001)
Languages English
Legal system English common law
Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Council (10 seats - 2 ex officio, 8 elected by popular vote, members serve four-year terms); presided over by the governor

elections: last held 22 November 2001 (next to be held November 2005)

election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 8; note - 71% voter turnout
Life expectancy at birth total population: NA years

male: NA years

female: NA years (2005 est.)
Location Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of southern Argentina
Map references South America
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine none
Military - note defense is the responsibility of the UK
Military branches no regular military forces
Military expenditures - dollar figure NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA
National holiday Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
Nationality noun: Falkland Islander(s)

adjective: Falkland Island
Natural hazards strong winds persist throughout the year
Natural resources fish, squid, wildlife, calcified seaweed, sphagnum moss
Net migration rate NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Political parties and leaders none; all independents
Political pressure groups and leaders none
Population 2,967 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 2.44% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Stanley
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 7, shortwave 0 (1998)
Religions primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church, Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islands

international: country code - 500; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) with links through London to other countries
Telephones - main lines in use 2,400 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 0 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 2 (operated by the British Forces Broadcasting Service)

note: cable television is available in Stanley (2002)
Terrain rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains
Total fertility rate NA children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate full employment; labor shortage (2001)
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