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El Salvador (2004)

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 El Salvador
Administrative divisions 14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan
Age structure 0-14 years: 36.8% (male 1,237,262; female 1,185,750)

15-64 years: 58.1% (male 1,819,035; female 2,009,032)

65 years and over: 5.1% (male 150,221; female 186,241) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, sugar, corn, rice, beans, oilseed, cotton, sorghum; shrimp; beef, dairy products
Airports 73 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 4

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 69

914 to 1,523 m: 15

under 914 m: 54 (2004 est.)
Area total: 21,040 sq km

land: 20,720 sq km

water: 320 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Background El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms.
Birth rate 27.48 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.434 billion

expenditures: $2.625 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Capital San Salvador
Climate tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands
Coastline 307 km
Constitution 23 December 1983
Country name conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador

conventional short form: El Salvador

local long form: Republica de El Salvador

local short form: El Salvador
Currency US dollar (USD)
Death rate 5.93 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $6.575 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador H. Douglas BARCLAY

embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena Sur, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, San Salvador

mailing address: Unit 3116, APO AA 34023

telephone: [503] 278-4444

FAX: [503] 278-5522
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Rene Antonio LEON Rodriguez

chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671

FAX: [1] (202) 234-3834

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, and Washington, DC
Disputes - international in 1992, the ICJ ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras boundary, and the OAS is assisting with a technical resolution of undemarcated bolsones; in 2003, the ICJ rejected El Salvador's request to revise its decision on one part of the bolsones; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca with consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned by the ICJ, off Honduras in the Gulf de Fonseca
Economic aid - recipient total $252 million; $57 million from US (1995)
Economy - overview With the adoption of the US dollar as its currency, El Salvador has lost control over monetary policy and must concentrate on maintaining a disciplined fiscal policy. GDP per capita is roughly only half that of Brazil, Argentina, and Chile, and the distribution of income is highly unequal. The trade deficit has been offset by annual remittances of almost $2 billion from Salvadorans living abroad and external aid. The government is striving to open new export markets, encourage foreign investment, modernize the tax and healthcare systems, and stimulate the sluggish economy.
Electricity - consumption 3.777 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 44 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 353 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 3.729 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups mestizo 90%, Amerindian 1%, white 9%
Exchange rates the US dollar is the legal tender
Executive branch chief of state: President Elias Antonio SACA (since 1 June 2004); Vice President Ana Vilma DE ESCOBAR (since 1 June 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Elias Antonio SACA (since 1 June 2004); Vice President Ana Vilma DE ESCOBAR (since 1 June 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 21 March 2004 (next to be held NA March 2009)

election results: Elias Antonio SACA elected president; percent of vote - Elias Antonio SACA (ARENA) 57.7%, Schafik HANDAL (FMLN) 35.6%, Hector SILVA (CDU-PDC) 3.9%, other 2.8%
Exports 44 million kWh (2001)
Exports $3.162 billion (2003 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, shrimp, textiles, chemicals, electricity
Exports - partners US 67.8%, Guatemala 11.5%, Honduras 5.9% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band
GDP purchasing power parity - $30.99 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 9.4%

industry: 31.2%

services: 59.3% (2003)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,800 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.4% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 13 50 N, 88 55 W
Geography - note smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea
Heliports 1 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 10,029 km

paved: 1,986 km (including 327 km of expressways)

unpaved: 8,043 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.4%

highest 10%: 39.3% (2001)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for cocaine; small amounts of marijuana produced for local consumption; domestic cocaine abuse on the rise
Imports 353 million kWh (2001)
Imports $5.466 billion (2003 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity
Imports - partners US 50%, Guatemala 8.1%, Mexico 5.5% (2003)
Independence 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 1.6% (2003 est.)
Industries food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals
Infant mortality rate total: 25.93 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 28.79 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 22.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.1% (2003 est.)
Irrigated land 360 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly)
Labor force 2.62 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 30%, industry 15%, services 55% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 545 km

border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km
Land use arable land: 31.85%

permanent crops: 12.07%

other: 56.08% (2001)
Languages Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)
Legal system based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve three-year terms)

elections: last held 16 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FMLN 31, ARENA 28, PCN 15, PDC 5, CD 5
Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.92 years

male: 67.31 years

female: 74.7 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 10 and over can read and write

total population: 80.2%

male: 82.8%

female: 77.7% (2003 est.)
Location Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims territorial sea: 200 nm
Merchant marine none
Military branches Army, Navy (FNES), Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $157 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.1% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,571,299 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 995,672 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 69,993 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Nationality noun: Salvadoran(s)

adjective: Salvadoran
Natural hazards known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
Natural resources hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land
Net migration rate -3.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Political parties and leaders Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rodolfo PARKER]; United Democratic Center or CDU [Ruben ZAMORA, secretary general]; Democratic Party or PD [Jorge MELENDEZ]; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Medardo GONZALEZ]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Kirio Waldo SALGADO, president]; National Action Party or PAN [Gustavo Rogelio SALINAS, secretary general]; National Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ ZEPEDA, president]; National Republican Alliance or ARENA [Elias Antonio SACA]; Social Christian Union or USC (formed by the merger of Christian Social Renewal Party or PRSC and Unity Movement or MU) [Abraham RODRIGUEZ, president]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Juan MEDRANO]
Political pressure groups and leaders labor organizations - Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES; Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL; business organizations - National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI
Population 6,587,541 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 48% (1999 est.)
Population growth rate 1.78% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union, Puerto El Triunfo
Radio broadcast stations AM 61 (plus 24 repeaters), FM 30, shortwave 0 (1998)
Railways total: 283 km

narrow gauge: 283 km 0.914-m gauge

note: length of operational route reduced from 562 km to 283 km by disuse and lack of maintenance (2003)
Religions Roman Catholic 83%

note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout the country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system

international: country code - 503; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System
Telephones - main lines in use 752,600 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1,149,800 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 5 (1997)
Terrain mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Total fertility rate 3.2 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 6.5% - but the economy has much underemployment (2003 est.)
Waterways Rio Lempa partially navigable (2004)
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