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East Timor (2004)

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 East Timor
Administrative divisions 13 administrative districts; Aileu, Ainaro, Baucau, Bobonaro (Maliana), Cova-Lima (Suai), Dili, Ermera, Lautem (Los Palos), Liquica, Manatuto, Manufahi (Same), Oecussi (Ambeno), Viqueque
Age structure 0-14 years: 37.8% (male 196,007; female 189,584)

15-64 years: 59.2% (male 308,254; female 295,584)

65 years and over: 2.9% (male 14,663; female 15,160) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, rice, maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, soybeans, cabbage, mangoes, bananas, vanilla
Airports 8 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Area total: 15,007 sq km

land: NA sq km

water: NA sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Connecticut
Background The Portuguese began to trade with the island of Timor in the early 16th century and colonized it in mid-century. Skirmishing with the Dutch in the region eventually resulted in an 1859 treaty in which Portugal ceded the western portion of the island. Imperial Japan occupied East Timor during 1942-1945, but Portugal resumed colonial authority after the Japanese defeat in World War II. East Timor declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975 and was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces nine days later. It was incorporated into Indonesia in July 1976 as the province of East Timor. An unsuccessful campaign of pacification followed over the next two decades, during which an estimated 100,000 to 250,000 individuals lost their lives. On 30 August 1999, in a UN-supervised popular referendum, an overwhelming majority of the people of East Timor voted for independence from Indonesia. Between the referendum and the arrival of a multinational peacekeeping force in late September 1999, anti-independence Timorese militias - organized and supported by the Indonesian military - commenced a large-scale, scorched-earth campaign of retribution. The militias killed approximately 1,300 Timorese and forcibly pushed 300,000 people into West Timor as refugees. The majority of the country's infrastructure, including homes, irrigation systems, water supply systems, and schools, and nearly 100% of the country's electrical grid were destroyed. On 20 September 1999 the Australian-led peacekeeping troops of the International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) deployed to the country and brought the violence to an end. On 20 May 2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state.
Birth rate 27.46 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $36 million

expenditures: $97 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Capital Dili
Climate tropical; hot, humid; distinct rainy and dry seasons
Coastline 706 km
Constitution 22 March 2002 (based on the Portuguese model)
Country name conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste

conventional short form: East Timor

local long form: Republika Demokratika Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste [Portuguese]

local short form: Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Timor-Leste [Portuguese]

former: Portuguese Timor
Currency US dollar (USD)
Death rate 6.36 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external NA
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Grover Joseph REES

embassy: Avenida de Portugal, Praia dos Conqueiros, Dili

mailing address: Department of State, 8250 Dili Place, Washington, DC 20521-8250

telephone: (670) 332-4684

FAX: (670) 331-3206
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Luis GUTERRES

chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: 202 965-1515

FAX: 202 965-1517

consulate(s) general: New York (the ambassador resides in New York) (2004)
Disputes - international East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee continues to meet, survey, and delimit the land boundary, but several sections of the boundary especially around the Oekussi enclave remain unresolved; Indonesia and East Timor contest the sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Palau Batek/Fatu Sinai, which may delay decision on the northern maritime boundaries; numbers of East Timor refugees in Indonesia refuse repatriation; East Timor and Australia continue to disagree over the delimitation of a permanent maritime boundary and over the sharing of petroleum resources that fall outside the Joint Petroleum Development Area covered by the 2002 Timor Sea Treaty
Economic aid - recipient $2.2 billion (1999-2002 est.)
Economy - overview In late 1999, about 70% of the economic infrastructure of East Timor was laid waste by Indonesian troops and anti-independence militias, and 260,000 people fled westward. Over the next three years, however, a massive international program, manned by 5,000 peacekeepers (8,000 at peak) and 1,300 police officers, led to substantial reconstruction in both urban and rural areas. By mid-2002, all but about 50,000 of the refugees had returned. Growth was held back in 2003 by extensive drought and the gradual winding down of the international presence. The country faces great challenges in continuing the rebuilding of infrastructure, strengthening the infant civil administration, and generating jobs for young people entering the workforce. One promising long-term project is the planned development of oil and gas resources in nearby waters, but the government faces a substantial financing gap over the next several years before these revenues start flowing into state coffers.
Electricity - consumption NA kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production NA kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Timor Sea, Savu Sea, and Banda Sea 0 m

highest point: Foho Tatamailau 2,963 m
Environment - current issues widespread use of slash and burn agriculture has led to deforestation and soil erosion
Environment - international agreements NA
Ethnic groups Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian), Papuan, small Chinese minority
Exchange rates the US dollar is the legal tender
Executive branch chief of state: President Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO (since 20 May 2002); note - the president plays a largely symbolic role but is able to veto some legislation; he formerly used the name Jose Alexandre GUSMAO

head of government: Prime Minister Mari Bin Amude ALKATIRI (since 20 May 2002)

cabinet: Council of Ministers

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2007); after the first legislative elections, the leader of the majority party was appointed prime minister by the president, suggesting a precedent for the future

election results: Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO elected president; percent of vote - Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO 82.7%, Francisco Xavier do AMARAL 17.3%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $8 million (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities coffee, sandalwood, marble; note - the potential for oil and vanilla exports
Exports - partners NA
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description red, with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a slightly longer yellow arrowhead that extends to the center of the flag; there is a white star in the center of the black triangle
GDP purchasing power parity - $440 million (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 25.4%

industry: 17.2%

services: 57.4% (2001)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $500 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate -3% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 8 50 S, 125 55 E
Geography - note Timor comes from the Malay word for "East;" the island of Timor is part of the Malay Archipelago and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands
Heliports 1 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 3,800 km

paved: 428 km

unpaved: 3,372 km (1995)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Illicit drugs NA
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $237 million (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities mainly food (2001)
Imports - partners NA
Independence 28 November 1975 (date of proclamation of independence from Portugal); note - 20 May 2002 is the official date of international recognition of East Timor's independence from Indonesia
Industrial production growth rate 8.5%
Industries printing, soap manufacturing, handicrafts, woven cloth
Infant mortality rate total: 48.86 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 55.34 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 42.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 8% NA (2003 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AsDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICCt, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (observer), ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, MIGA, OPCW, PIF (observer), UN, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO
Irrigated land 1,065 sq km (est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice - constitution calls for one judge to be appointed by National Parliament and rest appointed by Superior Council for Judiciary; note - until Supreme Court is established, Court of Appeals is highest court
Labor force NA
Labor force - by occupation NA
Land boundaries total: 228 km

border countries: Indonesia 228 km
Land use arable land: 4.71%

permanent crops: 0.67%

other: 94.62% (2001)
Languages Tetum (official), Portuguese (official), Indonesian, English

note: there are about 16 indigenous languages; Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak are spoken by significant numbers of people
Legal system UN-drafted legal system based on Indonesian law remains in place but will be replaced by civil and penal codes based on Portuguese law (2004)
Legislative branch unicameral National Parliament (number of seats can vary, minimum requirement of 52 and a maximum of 65 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - for its first term of office, the National Parliament is comprised of 88 members on an exceptional basis

elections: (next to be held August 2006); direct elections for national parliament were never held; elected delegates to the national convention named themselves legislators instead of having elections; hence the exceptional numbers for this term of the national parliament.

election results: percent of vote by party - FRETILIN 57.37%, PD 8.72%, PSD 8.18%, ASDT 7.84%, UDT 2.36%, PNT 2.21%, KOTA 2.13%, PPT 2.01%, PDC 1.98%, PST 1.78%, independents/other 5.42%; seats by party - FRETILIN 55, PD 7, PSD 6, ASDT 6, PDC 2, UDT 2, KOTA 2, PNT 2, PPT 2, UDC/PDC 1, PST 1, PL 1, independent 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 65.56 years

male: 63.31 years

female: 67.92 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 58.6% (2002)
Location Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago; note - East Timor includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims territorial sea: NA nm

exclusive economic zone: NA nm

continental shelf: NA nm

exclusive fishing zone: NA nm

extended fishing zone: NA nm
Merchant marine none
Military branches East Timor Defense Force (Forcas de Defesa de Timor-L'este, FDTL): Army, Navy
Military expenditures - dollar figure $4.4 million (FY03)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA
Military manpower - availability NA (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service NA (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually NA (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 28 November (1975)
Nationality noun: Timorese

adjective: Timorese
Natural hazards floods and landslides are common; earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones
Natural resources gold, petroleum, natural gas, manganese, marble
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Political parties and leaders Associacao Social-Democrata Timorense or ASDT [Francisco Xavier do AMARAL]; Christian Democratic Party of Timor or PDC [Antonio XIMENES]; Christian Democratic Union of Timor or UDC [Vicente da Silva GUTERRES]; Democratic Party or PD [Fernando de ARAUJO]; Liberal Party or PL [leader NA]; Maubere Democratic Party or PDM [leader NA]; People's Party of Timor or PPT [Jacob XAVIER]; Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor or FRETILIN [Lu OLO]; Social Democrat Party of East Timor or PSD [Mario CARRASCALAO]; Socialist Party of Timor or PST [leader Avelino COELHO]; Sons of the Mountain Warriors (also known as Association of Timorese Heroes) or KOTA [Clementino dos Reis AMARAL]; Timor Democratic Union or UDT [Joao CARRASCALAO]; Timor Labor Party or PTT [Paulo Freitas DA SILVA]; Timorese Nationalist Party or PNT [Abilio ARAUJO]; Timorese Popular Democratic Association or APODETI [Frederico Almeida-Santos DA COSTA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Popular Council for the Defense of the Democratic Republic of East Timor or CPD-RDTL [leader Antonio-Aitahan MATAK] is largest political pressure group; it rejects current government and claims to be rightful government; Kolimau 2000 [leader Dr. Bruno MAGALHAES] is another opposition group; dissatisfied veterans of struggle against Indonesia, led by one-time government advisor Cornelio GAMA (also known as L-7), also play an important role in pressuring government
Population 1,019,252

note: other estimates range as low as 800,000 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 42% (2003 est.)
Population growth rate 2.11% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors NA
Radio broadcast stations AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
Religions Roman Catholic 90%, Muslim 4%, Protestant 3%, Hindu 0.5%, Buddhist, Animist (1992 est.)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 17 years of age; universal
Telephone system NA
Telephones - main lines in use NA
Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Television broadcast stations NA
Terrain mountainous
Total fertility rate 3.7 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 50% (including underemployment) (1992 est.)
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